The station Komsomolskaya Circle Line

The report’s author — Alexander "Russos" Popov

 

  • (C) Russos, 2011
  • (C) Russos, 2011

 

Station "Komsomolskaya" Circle Line is considered to be one of the most beautiful stations of the Moscow Metro. Furthermore, it is unique and meaningful decision.

With some reservations, we can say that its design is an evolution of the first colony of Moscow subway stations — Mayakovsky and paveletskoy Zamoskvoretskaya line.

Before we talk about the Komsomol, I want to briefly highlight the history of Moscow and St. Petersburg columned stations.
The first column of the station deep foundation in Moscow, the Soviet Union and in the world was Mayakovsky, opened September 11, 1938. It was a very bold Engineering Project. In general, despite the great architectural design, it was very difficult and time consuming to build.

Taking into account all of the erection of a column of the station, the engineers developed a more efficient design — Paveleckaia Zamoskvoretskaya line. But alas, the war began, and the course has brought about changes in the current view of the station. It was opened November 20, 1943 in a highly simplified form without the central hall, and only a part of the pylon (in fact — a small distribution Hall) near the exit to the city. The fact that all the metal complex column-purlins were captured by the Germans in Dnepropetrovsk.

It was only after the war, as a result of complicated reconstruction, which lasted for almost 10 years without a break of trains and passengers, it was converted into a dvuhzalnoy of colonies that we see now. The first phase of reconstruction was opened February 21, 1953, and finally completed all the work was only by April 1959! And in memory of the original project, we remained old site near the exit to the station.

The next column was Kursk station Circle Line, opened January 1, 1950. The project, which stands alone, proved to be very difficult and time consuming to build, and then the tower such stations are no longer built.

For the first stage of the Leningrad subway have developed two unique projects column station. The first is based on the experience of already built Mayakovsky and paveletskoy. On it was built two stations, "Institute of Technology" and "Baltic". The second project was constructed station "Kirov Plant". What is most interesting, the project will likely served as the basis for the development of the Moscow station column, and the St. Petersburg group eventually went their own way, developing your own style.

A common drawback of all these projects (except the "Kursk" and "Kirov Plant") is the presence in the roof struts in the middle of the hall way or another. The necessity of the device caused by the difference of the average thrust and lateral tunnels under the current size of their spans.

To solve this problem, a project was developed with the station increased average span arch. Here, thanks to the accepted ratio spans the middle and outer tunnels managed to achieve balance and refuse disposal upper spacers on average arch. For this project, you guessed it, was built station "Komsomolskaya" Circle Line.

The story of unique columned stations made on individual projects to be over. Painfully, they were expensive and time-consuming to build.

Stations have returned to the colony after almost 20 years, when it was designed and built by China Town. It was a breakthrough in the field of construction, but the project has successfully lived up to (for example, Dostoevsky and Tube stations are improved this kind). But it’s beyond the scope of this story. Can I somehow tell the story of the various structural types of stations, but for now let’s go back to the Komsomolskaya roundabout.

1. This column-station deep foundation, built on an individual project. The lining is made of cast iron station tubing and consists of two non-closed rings travel tunnels outer diameter of 9.5 m and a higher average set of circular shape with a diameter of 11.5 meters in the lower part of the middle tunnel provides a powerful reinforced concrete spacer plate thickness of 1 m, associated with the monolithic reinforced concrete foundations under columns.

Tunnels and Subways / Ed. Dr. tehn. Sciences, prof. VG Khrapova. — Moscow: Transport, 1989.

2. Width of the side platforms (from the edge of the platform and to the axis of the column) adopted 2.8 m, and the average span of the hall between the axes of columns — 11 m to give greater rigidity side arches and tunnels to facilitate their work under the influence of a possible excess thrust in each ring lining the side tunnels at the level of support tubing installed metal struts of the I-beam number 36.

Estuaries YA Subways. — Moscow: Transport, 1971.

3. The increase in the average span of the hall and the elimination of the upper struts able to significantly increase the volume and height of the middle of the hall, which positively affected the quality of the architectural ofrmleniya station.

Universal History of Art. Volume 6, Book Two. Art of the 20th century / edited by BV Weimarn and YD Kolpinsky. — Moscow: Art, 1966. ARTYX.RUHistory of Art.

4. Metalwork station consists of dvuhstenchatogo upper run, columns and shoes. Runs in the static ratio is the length of the beam with dual console consoles at half span, based on box-section columns in steps of 4.5 m along the length of the station. Weight of one section of the metal is 4.5 m long, 52.96 m, and the total weight of the entire station about 3,300 tons In the photo you can see the process of the development of the breed in the core of the middle of the hall. Given the volume, the station was mounted excavator. You can see the entire column-set run-out in all its glory. And to the left, in the background, is seen not disassembled side tunnel. In general, the process of construction is no different from stages of construction, "Mayakovsky".

From the archives of the Moscow subway construction.

5. Some of the average audience. In a side room tower is visible from above.

Photo by Stolyarenko journal Soviet Union. 1951 number 10. Thanks for the scan

don_serhio.

6. According to legend, the original design of the plant was a very thick pillars after finishing. It is said that the engineer was almost attacked with fists architect, well, I spent so much time on the development of the station to make the column as thin as possible, and you are all hidden in the lining.
As a result, the project architect rebuilt and is now facing the most pressed against the column.


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Photo by Stolyarenko journal Soviet Union. 1951 number 10. Thanks for the scan

don_serhio.

7. Assembling the mosaic panel in the workshop.

From the archives of the Moscow subway construction.

8. And now some of the old forms after the opening of the station.

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

9. Pay attention to the sign above the escalator.

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

10. This is rather a drawing than a photograph.

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

11. The slope without advertising.

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

12. Corridor without stupid dangling advertising footcloths!

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

13. The station does not spoil your view infosos!

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

14. And there is also no ads!

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

15.

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

16.

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

17.

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

18. Upstairs anteroom no police booth, advertising, and there’s nothing at all. And note the curls over the door!

Moscow Metro / Red. S. Iodlovich. — M.: Spark Revolution, 1953.

19. I have this station is very strange and contradictory emotions. I think it is a masterpiece in terms of design, but from an architectural point of view, it crushes. Although the taste and color, of course.

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20. Moscow’s first chetyrehlentochny escalator tunnel with a diameter 11.5 meters.

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21. Size affects the slope. If I am not mistaken, the same diameter used in the construction of transplants between stations "Prospekt Mira." Then reduce the distance between the cars and were able to accommodate 4 tape into the tunnel with a diameter 8.8 m

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22. Panels in the anteroom near the lower end of the area of the escalator.

23. The approach corridor of the escalators to the station with the idiotic advertising.

24. Dodgy organization salable under the station by. One large and two small sides.

25. Making the station on the theme of Russian people’s struggle for independence. The ceiling is decorated with eight stations mosaic panels of glazes and precious stones. Six of them depict Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov, the Soviet soldiers and officers at the walls of the Reichstag. Their author — artist P. Korin.

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26. But the design of the station censored after the debunking of Stalin’s personality cult. On this writes in detail at home

moscowhite"There is the amusing story. Initially, the last two mosaic panels "Presenting the Guards Banner"And" Victory Parade ", made a great artist Pavel Korin, were as follows: the first of them is depicted Stalin transmitting banner soldier (behind the Generalissimo are his closest associates: Molotov, Beria, Kaganovich), and the second — the same person from the party leadership lined up on the mausoleum at the foot of which are thrown Nazi banners. After Comrade Beria lost confidence, and slapped his comrade Malenkov kicks (real poem of the time, I was telling a friend, whose grandfather once worked in the NKVD), A. Korinskiy on a panel with him unceremoniously removed the glasses. Then came the turn of Molotov and other faithful falcons. In 1963, it was time to global change: instead of "delivery Guards Banner" appeared "Lenin’s Speech before the Red Guards who go to the front," and "Victory Parade" has turned into "Triumph of Victory." Corinne, who was assigned to prepare new sketches of panels, made this composition such that it became as much as possible fragments of the former "Parade". With all the pictures are gone Stalinist Politburo (the Mausoleum was empty now), and in the foreground there was an allegorical figure: The Motherland with a palm branch of peace and sickle-hammer.

Mosaics in some photos: time, two, three, four, five, six, seven and eight.

"As you know, mosaic composition Corina on Komsomolskaya tied in a single concept — they are the literal rendering of Stalin’s speech, delivered on November 7, 1941:" The war you are waging a war of liberation, a just war. Let inspires you in this war manly images of our great ancestors — Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov! Let overshadow you victorious banner of the great Lenin! ". For those proletarians who are not sticks in the art of metaphor, it Generalissimo was carved on a marble board that hung to the right of the stairs. Now from it were only plastered crooked hole. "

27. In the triangular curved frames, based on a set of base and rising to a quarter of its arc, depicted the military attributes — banners and weapons (shields, helmets, swords, arquebuses, muskets, swords). The authors of these images — SM Kazakov and A. Sergeev.

Two other ornaments: time and two.

28. In my view, the station was unlucky in that it is an area of three stations, although it is specifically built for large passenger. Now it has grown to 110 million people and the beauty of the station is just lost on this background.


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29. And only at night, when no one can see all of her splendor.


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30. Another station was chosen by pickpockets to the Circle Line. Almost openly they hang out in groups, gutting purses and feel impunity. Police stations have traditionally do not care for it.


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31. Depth of the station is about 37 meters.

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32. After the mass departure of night-distance trains in the morning after the station is finally beginning to empty. And at the entrance station is finally closed.

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33. A fragment of the lattice fence crossing.

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34. It remains a mystery destination niches around the ladder. In the right alcove hung a sign with a speech of Stalin. Now there’s just a commemorative plaque about the station. And on the left, which can be seen in the photo, there was nothing.

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35. Access to the Leningrad and Yaroslavl station. I believe that the vending of newspapers should be thrown out.

36. The same anteroom. Police box to the left of the door is unremarkable. It says that this is a mother and child. Where else in the metro we have it?

37. Here I use a regular trehnitochny slope.

38. Germovorota.

39. It is expected that by 2015, the station will be built another outlet in the city. But as long as no construction work is not conducted.

40. Transfer to the Komsomolskaya-radial and exit to the Kazan station.

41. Of course, because it removed the spacer in the central hall, the project won the station only.

42. Komsomolskaya was one of the last works Schusev, who died May 24, 1949, before the discovery of the station. The project was completed employees of his studio.

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43. For his work on the station, he was posthumously awarded the Stalin Prize of the second degree (1952).

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44. The ceiling is also decorated with yellow mosaic inlays and moldings. Mnogorozhkovymi massive hall lit chandeliers hanging between panels, platforms covered chandeliers smaller. Decorated with marble columns and capitals decorated with light-colored marble, as the walls of the station. The floor is paved with pink granite. In the end of the dead end of the hall is a bust of Lenin.


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45. Unfortunately, all this beauty is hidden in the afternoon for passengers — they just do not have time to look at it.


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46. But there are boring tunnels. No cameras Congresses and generally anything interesting.

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47. The typical form of tunnels with a diameter 5.6 m

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48. But it was time to shoot some panoramas in the tunnel.


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Other options from neutral to pluck the eyes: Option 1, Option 2, Option 3, Option 4, Option 5, Embodiment 6.

49. If you look at the photo that captures an interesting point. First, the tubing is used meter-wide, rather than 0.75 m Second, have not abandoned the wedge-shaped rings (this ring can be seen to the right of center) to turn the tunnel. Currently used for these purposes wedge gasket between the rings.


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50. Here wedge ring (left of center) shows very well. But such rings are labor intensive to manufacture and very soon hit upon the idea of wedge-shaped spacers.


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51. And for a snack a few scans for unusual panoramas.


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52. Everything for your brain stem.


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53.


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There, in the tunnels near Komsomolskaya I shot this video epic, nostalgic about the days when I used to climb to the subway is not always legal. :)

 

Today opened the "Alma-Ata". ‘m Preparing a post on it. Just finally opened a second exit from the "Marina groves." And, according to rumors, opened the registry office in the egg on the picturesque bridge. But what about the latter is not very sure.

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