The submarine BARS

The submarine "BARS"September 28, 1913 laid on the Baltic Shipyard in St. Petersburg. September 28, 1913 enrolled in the lists of ships of the Baltic Fleet. June 2, 1913 launched. July 25, 1915 the submarine was commissioned and joined the Division 1 Division of submarines of the Baltic Fleet. In 1915, at the Underwater boat found the device to accommodate 8 minutes on the deck on the sides along the cabin. Tests have shown that the device is not completely satisfactory, and the submarine mines were not stated. In 1916, the submarine torpedo external grid Drzewiecki were raised to the deck superstructure. In the spring of 1916 the submarine was prepared for battle. In 1917, based on the Revel. From 1916 to 1917, took part in the First World War: the search actions against enemy communications in the Baltic Sea, and providing cover for mine-action barrier and light forces raiding fleet, made 15 combat tours.

In May 1917, the submarine "Bars" was killed when the fifteenth-fighting campaign for an unknown reason, the position of the Baltic Sea. Estimated date of death — May 8, 1917 in Hefringa. Possible cause — the undermining of a mine (under German data). May 29, 1918 the submarine "Bars" is excluded from the list of ships of the Baltic Fleet.
In February 1993, the commander of the naval forces of Sweden, Vice Admiral Dick Beresson sent to the Russian ambassador in Stockholm letter. It admiral Beresson reported that Swedish minesweeper «Landsort» during a training exercise in the Baltic Sea at a depth of 127 meters from the point with coordinates: 58 ° 21,033 N and 19 ° 51,902 E in international waters, but in the economic zone of Sweden, found the submarine maybe one of the Russian and the next two torpedoes. No one on the boat did not go down, but the remote-controlled underwater robot shot a video which attached to a letter. "Some details of a video — reported to Admiral Beresson — demonstrate that, maybe it is — submarines" Bars "or" lioness ", according to data posted killed in May and June 1917 year. " According to the views of Admiral, more precise identification is not possible without the descent of man to the boat. The letter, dated February 24, 1993, was forwarded to Moscow, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and from there transferred to the General Staff of the Navy. Later it became clear that the Swedish video on kutsee time appeared in St. Petersburg, where he was viewed by experts at the underwater shipbuilding. Some of them are so appreciated the video: "Record low properties," muddy "and anything apart from the fact that it — underwater boat such as "Leopard", we can not say. " Apparently, in the view and considered the question of the ability to lift the boat. And, most likely, was resolved negatively, as in the response team of Swedish Navy Commander in Chief of the Russian Navy said only that "the plan to use the names of the dead members of the crew of the submarine" Lioness "for a memorial plaque to commemorate the Russian submariners." Needless to state that it is the intention had remained unfulfilled.

The first reaction in the press to the Swedes made the find was an article in the December issue of the "New Age" 1993 "Requiem for the" Leopard. "Its creator had in mind actually" Leopard. "Apart from him and" Lioness "in the Baltic area could have been killed and missing in October 1917, the "Cheetah". Creator proposed a "recognition by signs" the sunken boat, found a Swedish trawler, and "at least throw a wreath at the place of death and memorial service for the dead sailors." About Native Swedes response of the Russian Navy did not say The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which decided that the Navy did not find intriguing. And in March 1997, the 2nd European Department of the MFA proposed that the identification of the boat old Russian magazine travel and adventure "Around the World", which has extensive contacts with people working history Russian fleet and lead a special section "Historical wanted." Recognition Underwater the boat was not easy to hold. More-so, none have been found 1st human which have beheld this record. Do not beheld it, and the historical group of experts at the Navy who prepared the certificate for the reply of the Commander in Chief of the Navy. The fact that the sunken boat — "Lioness" (as reported to the Swedes), withdrawal, though exactly, from a mention in a letter to the Swedish admiral of the days of lying on the boat next to the 2-torpedoes.

According to the views of the memo, torpedoes could get to the bottom dropped out of the collapsed external devices Drzewiecki, who to his knowledge in 1917 there were only on one of the boats of the "Bars" — "Lioness". In the end, we found out that the information gleaned from the rarest Tipo publication "Tables parts of ships belonging to the composition of the Baltic and Black Sea fleets, fleets of the Arctic Ocean and the fleets that have emerged during the war," according to information collected from February 1916 to February 1917 year. Statistical Department of the Naval General Staff, Petrograd, 1917. But in this book the lifting devices Drzewiecki with boats of the "Bars" is silent. On all boats, including the most "Bars" and "Cheetah" Drzewiecki devices are in the mine arms. Vorachivayas to the Swedish movie, it must be said that, after searching, that could be the subject of detective novels, she was found in the house of a retired naval chief, and in April 1997 was, after all, is available for the "recognition by signs."

First, that it was possible to identify by viewing video footage — placing anchor and fairlead on the left side. On the Russian submarines since parking on the surface installed one anchor — this is said in the book of the former captain's body naval architects AN Shcheglova "Architecture submarines", Leningrad, 1929. At the same boat Baltic Shipbuilding and Mechanical Plant in St. Petersburg, he was placed on the left side, and on the boats Shipbuilding Plant Joint Stock Company "Noblessner" in Revel — on the right. Specifically, since the anchor was set to "Lioness", built on the "Noblessner" in 1916. It is perfectly clear to her picture, where on the left side of a remote read written Slavonic title. On a sunken boat on the port side of the anchor is placed Morello-Rizbeka, and therefore it can not be "Lioness". It remained to solve the problem: "Bars" is either "Cheetah"? But how to distinguish between a boat 1st project, built on a Baltic Shipyard and launched in one day, May 25, 1915?

We found out that the fall of 1915 at the "Barca" appeared one fundamental and most important, constructive perceptible difference. We are talking about installing it suggested the captain 1 rank Schreiber "means for dropping the minefields", both in the factory documents this device was called mining.

The device consists of two slightly concave iron platform, secured on both sides of the cabin (modern spetsy prefer more precise term constructive — fencing of the conning tower, but during the First World War, was said specifically about the cabin, indicating, as appropriate, on the casing surrounding the cockpit) . On the platform was located on four barrage mines that were dumped into the water by projecting over the side grids, cal
led crinolines. The unit mining perfectly seen in the photo, "Leopard", issued after repairs in the winter 1915 — 1916 period. It is indicated in the reply to an interrogation sheet Statistics Division of the Naval General Staff. Installation of the mining has caused the need to move the conning-tower ladder with regular place around the middle of cutting edge to its rear part. On the "Cheetah" mining unit has not been delivered, although there was such an intention in November 1915, when the boat was put in for repair. The above-mentioned response to the interrogation sheet, commander of the "Cheetah" as of March 1916 said: "minefields there." Conning-tower ladder remained on the regular place, which is well seen in the photo, "Cheetah", made after the repair of 1915-1916 years — a telegram to the end of the repair from Revel in Petrograd Rear Admiral Levitsky, who commanded a detachment of the Baltic Sea scuba diving, gave the May 5, 1916.

The video sunken boat perfectly clear that the conning-tower ladder is set specifically on the very edge of the aft cabin. Precisely because in the photo pop-up "Leopard", made in the summer of 1916. On some shots video shows the device itself and mining, or rather its individual parts: crinoline, tail mount, mount mine grid platform. So Makar, a boat with mining device can not be "Cheetah", as it should, it is — "Bars". There is still a meaningful difference between "Bars" from all the other boats of this type, is not manifested in the documents, but has revealed while viewing a photo of him and the other boats. We are talking about the bow gun "Leopard", whose shot with that signature is placed in the "Sea collection» № 2-3, 1918 year.

Under the project, the creator of which was recognized Russian shipbuilder IG Bubnov, submarines "Bars" had no artillery weapons. The main instrument was registered mine, which was presented by twelve torpedo tubes: 4-tube — at the bow and stern and eight external devices latticed structure SK Drzewiecki. But after the first campaign in 1915 armed submarines artillery was attributed to a number of "the most important of the preferred changes and innovations." As indicated above response to an interrogation sheet Statistical Section MGSH commander "Leopard", which since December 1915 has been lieutenant NN Ilinskiy, reported that as of March 1916 artillery weapons boats up two guns caliber 57 mm and one 37 mm cannon and machine gun. The same gun armament was to "Lioness" and "Cheetah", but further stated that the 57-mm guns have a length of 40 calibres.

Photos of these tools with the corresponding shoulder rest to traverse leave no doubt that it is — Gotchkisa weapons systems. The photo "Barca" bow gun looks differently than it is coarse, and guns on the other boats of this type. Barrel length — more than forty-caliber gun cabinet is a more powerful, there is no shoulder rest and a lens tube guidance.

Judging from the photos and drawings of the Russian Navy deck gun mounts, it is — as Gotchkisa gun, but a length of 50 calibres. This is confirmed by measurements of the relative lengths of the shafts at the photo pop-up "Leopard", where the bow and stern guns are actually located in the same plane. Specifically, this instrument is well seen on the sunken boat. And as such, was not on the other, that is, not on "Lioness" or the "Cheetah", this confirms that the Swedes on the day or look for the Baltic Sea a Russian submarine — "Bars".

In a letter to the Russian ambassador Swedish admiral believed that without lowering her man on the boat is a clear identification is not possible. And first, all efforts were focused on the fact that such a survey organized. But it turned out that in today's criteria is beyond the power of Russian Academy disposing manned submersible or Navy of the Russian Federation, available in the private search and rescue services are not only a means of underwater surveillance, and the recovery of sunken submarines. And then had to concentrate on the "identification by signs", surviving in the archival documents and old photos in museums and private collections.

You also need to see the last question: why "Bars", which is hosted by the German data was sunk off the coast of Sweden, near Cape Landsort and lightship Hefringe, was found in the 50 miles to the east? The answer to this can be followed: to own the latest, the fifteenth military campaign "Bars" under the command of Lieutenant N. St Elias came in the 1st division of submarines of the Baltic Sea May 6, 1917 from the Gange. Divisions in the "Wolf" (on a braid-pennant commander Captain 2nd Rank Dudkina VF), "Leopard", "Cheetah" and "Boar" followed by the interception of German military transports cargoes are transported from the ports of neutral Sweden. U-boats were ordered to leave by way of caravans from there go to Libau position and the position at the Fore — the northern tip of the island of Gotland and 13 May to arrive at the target dagergortsky — western tip of the island of Hiiumaa. Prescription and precisely follow the "Wild Boar" and "Cheetah", in the evening on May 13 returned to the Gange. It turned out that the "Wolf" has returned here May 10. May 9 at the boat tragedy engines, and at 18.30 on the same remaining intact "Wolf", without going to the latest position and began returning to base, where, and came to the following day or 21.15. "Bars" did not return to base. May fourteenth captain 2 rank Doudkin transferred to Revel, the headquarters of the submarine division of the Baltic Sea telegram with a report on a campaign of its own division. Among other, he said, "Wild Boar" 8 May at 18.40 and 9 May at 12.50 at the meridian and parallel Landsort Cape lighthouse Hsfringe beheld submarine at shallow depths. What is it all the same for the boat has not been reported, but as recommended in these days are in this place had to be in "Bars". After that, following the injunction, he had to go to the latest position. And just on May 10 "The Wolf", following the base and is at the point with coordinates 58 ° 36 'N and 20' 10 'E, met the boat going on S. "Perhaps," Leopard "- as has been said about this in the" Notes on the campaigns of Submarine Division of the Baltic Sea ", which were conducted flagship navigator Division Lieutenant Essen.

In "Monatshefte diving", published in July 1917 division headquarters, this was stated more precisely: "May 10 at 11 am. Day or "The Wolf", changing its position, met with "Bars", with "Bars" sank, taking "the Wolf" for enemy submarines. " It does not have to be surprised, because this time on submarines yet been found solving the problem of identification "a — a stranger." Recognizable Russian admiral, scientist, radio technician AI Berg, the last in 1917, Russian navigational officer on the British boat E-8, part together with seven other British boats in the division, recalled the "Complete detachment boats started from the time when she came out into the sea. Becoming, potential prey of others and their own, she lived long pass was a double challenge: not to catch the eye of any enemy, no other … To identify the body at the time there is no connection, the second decides the fate. The law of war is cruel and logical: the assault, have not yet managed to storm you. " Apparently, specifically meeting of the "Wolf" with "Bars", after which he was gone forever, and spawned rumors that the "Leopard" was mistakenly sunk her. The summary of the intelligence department of the operational staff of the commander of the Baltic Fleet in May 1917 in the &q
uot;loss" was said: "… about May 12 submarine" Bars "was killed by an unknown background in the area of the first (Libau) position. In the "List of ships lost in the war of 1914-1917", compiled in 1918, mobilization and economic department MGSH still existed, has been designated a different place of death "Leopard" — the Cape Landsort (the drama of fate wore a title and Swedish trawler, who found the "Leopard" on the days of the Baltic Sea). Specifically, this place is listed in the German data, published in the works on the history of naval war of 1914-1918.

Totally could be that the last battle "Leopard" looks like this: May 19, 1917 "Bars" on the way to Hefringe was found and attacked by German torpedo boat, thrown off the deep bomb. After it explodes in a battle to take minesweepers with 2 "dragons" — special deep trawls with reinforced their trotyl charges. Four minesweepers combing suspicious area until the two explosions were heard, and on the surface appeared to increase in the size of the oil slick. Then at this place were dropped depth charges. But the message of this battle causes hesitation: not whether by ordinary Germans in such a situation "chasing the ghost?" In-1's, pays its attention difference cited in various sources date the battle, of which more is considered a possible 28 (15) May. Although the "Leopard" at this time to position at the Swedish coast there could be: after the change of position, and 13 May, he had to return to the Gange. In-2-why is undeniable claims that sunk specifically "Leopard"? After all, why was not mentioned anywhere naming ships engaged in battle? All this suggests that the basis of the German messages are someone's stories, rather than a report of the incident fight showing the ships taking part, clear dates and guesses that the enemy boat, most likely, was the "Leopard", whose death Revel has informed the newspaper: May 28 (on an old style) in the Cathedral of St. Alexander Nevsky large crowds memorial service was held at the Mariners 'Barca'. But the most significant objection to the release of death "Barca" in the battle is that the video does not noticeably sunken boat damage, which probably could be at her death by exploding depth charges or "draconian" charges of TNT.

If you go back to the chronicle of a campaign of the 1st Division, you can see that on May 10 "Wolf" met a submarine, which in July 1917 has just considered the "Bars". And the location in which "Wolf" met the boat: 58 ° 36 'N and 20 ° 10' E — very close to those at a depth of 127 meters was found "Leopard": 58 ° 21,033 N ° 51,902 iCh9 Fuck and greeted underwater boat on the path to the south. All this gives good reason to imagine that the day on May 10 "Bars" went to his latest, Libau position. But he came to her, zatonuv at the point marked with coordinates, and hardly having time to give a "radio" on the basis of a meeting with the "Wolf.

Completely may be that "Bars", taking "the Wolf" for enemy submarine sank immediately to a place called the Gotland Basin where depths are making more than 100 meters. And it could be a dive emergency — the history of scuba diving knows not one case of emergency dive caught because of a malfunction last.

The submarine "Bars" the brakes failed on the working depth at most for this type of boat 50 meters and fell into the abyss of the Gotland Basin, which has become her grave.

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