Head of the Laboratory of Immunochemistry Institute of Virology RAMS Ivanovsky Edward Karamov spoke about the work of Russian scientists in the study of HIV / AIDS at the conference of the Russian-American scientific forum.
In recent years, the territory of Russia has sharply increased the number of people living with HIV / AIDS. If before 1995 the entire country was not more than 1000 cases of HIV infection, but now according to official data, there are more than 600,000 people infected, but experts estimate their number as high as 1.5 million. "In recent years we have exceeded the threshold of 1 percent of all adults infected population, — Professor Karamov. — The problem is compounded by the fact that the majority of HIV-infected people in Russia are infected with hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and have most of them — intravenous drug users ". In recent years, the main cause of death from AIDS — Tuberculosis. In recent years, changed the nature of the circulation of the different genetic subtypes of the virus. Now the main circulating subtype of the virus — a subtype A1. Other viruses are only minor components.
The first Russian strain of the human immunodeficiency virus was isolated in 1985 in the laboratory of the Institute of Virology immunochemistry Ivanovsky. To date, the molecular genetics of immunodeficiency viruses in Russia studied in great detail. Last year it was published 500-page monograph, which was first presented atlas immunodeficiency virus circulating in Russia and Eurasia. This year, Russian scientists were able to clone the functional envelope proteins of new virus isolates that were received from people who were in the period of acute infection. These clones are extremely important to make the vaccine. In Russia successfully completed Phase 1 clinical trials of the Russian vaccine against HIV / AIDS. It is a recombinant protein. This protein is conjugated with the original Russian polioksidoniem immunological adjuvant, which is widely used in the Russian antigrippoznoy vaccine "Grippol."
Tests of Russia’s HIV vaccine began in 2004, but were stopped because of the termination of funding the following year. Approved at the summit of the "Big Eight" in St. Petersburg Declaration was to contribute to the acceleration of vaccine development in Russia and Eastern Europe. To this end, the vaccine was approved by the Russian program for 2008-2010. Three of the Russian Center for Vaccine Development — Moscow, St. Petersburg and Novosibirsk — from the federal budget has been allocated 1 billion rubles. However, in 2011-2012, a similar program has not passed approval and funding for the second time has been stopped.
The candidate vaccine Russia has already passed clinical trials in human volunteers showed positive results, the vaccine has been included in all international vaktsinovye sheets. However, further work on a vaccine can not be continued until the restoration of funding.
Besides the work on a vaccine, developing very actively in the prevention of HIV / AIDS use Microbicides.
This new class of immune-drugs — gel and ointment formulations that interrupt the sexual transmission of not only the human immunodeficiency virus, but other pathogens of sexually transmitted infections. In Russia created several microbicide based on humic acids, plant polyphenols and nucleoside drugs. This is a completely new development — some have not even been patented.
Researchers of HIV / AIDS can not remain aloof from the nanorevolution. A large group of Russian scientists synthesized New nanobiomaterials — nanofilm, which possess antibacterial activity is shown in several bacterial species, and possess anti-HIV activity. Such films have great potential applications in medicine.
In collaboration with the Kurchatov center and the Physics Department of Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov Institute of Virology created packaging technology of a number of antiviral drugs in nanoparticles. As bio bins for delivery of drugs and vaccines used silicon nanoparticles. Laser irradiation finely porous silicon results in that the hydrophobic silica is hydrophilic and can be used in aqueous environments. It was found that silicon nanocrystals themselves have a high viruletsidnymi properties, that is, they are able to destroy viral particles — and not just the human immunodeficiency virus.
An important role in the analysis of complex interactions between viral infection and the immune system of the person playing the mathematical model. In Russia there are not many studies that predict the development of the epidemic, calculate the possible economic impact of the epidemic, and quite a few works that simulate biological systems. Therefore, special importance is the work of the country’s leading mathematician, professor Sergei Goncharov, who co-authored by Academician Valery CHERRY created multi-level mathematical model of the interactions between the different compartments of the human immune system and infectious agent.
The created model allows a different perspective on the pathogenesis of HIV infection and to provide for a detailed study of the human immune response.
In the framework of the Russian-American cooperation at the conference was announced new grant competition in the field of HIV research. The founders of the program were made by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the National Institute of Health, USA. The history of Russian-American cooperation in the field of biomedicine and of infectious diseases has to his credit many successful works: is the study of polio, the global vaccination against smallpox, influenza, oncogenic viruses. And now opens a new stage of cooperation — the work of scientists of the two countries to study the pandemic of HIV / AIDS.