The underground struggle against the Soviet Union after the second world war

End of the second world war era was a turning point for the life of the Russian emigration. In Eastern Europe and the North China held large-scale Russian secret services arrested. However, we can not say that "taking" of all, first arrested those who have already fled when Russian authorities, from the "old emigration" of those who had not been seen in the anti-Soviet actions that were not touched. Arrested those who collaborated with the Germans and the Japanese, prominent Whites, members of the anti-Soviet political organizations.

In Prague, was arrested management Labor Farmers' pariah (TAP), in its archives were discovered documents that speak about leaks top secret disk imaging of the Kremlin in the late 1930s. However, to find out which channels it was not possible — a favorite TAP A.L.Bem during questioning committed suicide by jumping from the window. There were hundreds of activists arrested over the People's Labor Union (NTS).

Part of emigration under the influence of victories of the Red Army, the success of the Soviet Union diplomatically changed their attitude to the Russian authorities. PNMilyukov (favorite of Cadets in Russian Empire) in 1943, before his death, wrote an article that had a huge impact on Russian minds. He noted the Russian government awards — the strengthening of statehood, the establishment of a strong army, the development of the national economy. Another cadet, MP II-IV State Duma, the last salting of the Provisional Government of the French Maklakov and sociologist Sorokin developed the theory of "convergence", thinking that the powers between the anti-Hitler coalition will inevitably happen convergence in the political, economic, social forms.

When in Paris after its liberation was opened Russian embassy, he was visited by Jobbers, the last minister of the Provisional Government Verderevsky, deputy chairman of the Russian Military Union (EMRO), Admiral Kidron, who said the subsequent: "The Soviet Alliance defeated, Our homeland is saved, and saved the whole world. Bimbo brand new statehood and the army were remarkably stable and strong, and I gratefully welcome them and their leaders. " Russian salting A.S.Bogomolov, with his turn, expressed the praise of Russian immigrants: "We could not wait for the Germans against the Russian emigration use, but it did not happen. Those who went to serve the Nazis, it was not comparable to much. In contrast, in countries emigration showed his sympathy for the Russian people. "

In honor of the Victory Moscow has made conciliatory moves to the Russian Immigration: Presidium of the Supreme Soviet declared the amnesty given the right to obtain Russian citizenship to those who had Russian citizenship before November 7, 1917. The same right to have people who have lost their Russian citizenship, and their kids. But the real return to the Soviet Union ventured a few, so in France expressed their willingness to receive Russian citizenship 11 thousand people, but left in the Soviet Union only two thousand majority, even after receiving citizenship, chose to remain abroad, there was the usual Wednesday, circle of friends, Well, it was distrust of the amnesty.

For those who remain abroad, missing the main core of their existence — the preservation of the "old Russia". War showed that the USSR is strong as ever, and is not going to fall apart. The theory of "convergence" is also not justified. In the end, the organization of emigrants were converted into clubs, their kids rapidly assimilated, becoming the French, the Yankees, the British, etc., having lost quite a Russian mind.

But in the course of the war spilled over the border of another wave of emigration — have remained in the West of the former prisoners, "ostarbeiters" Gone With The Germans refugees, nationalists, Vlasov, the fighters of different collaborationist units. A clear figure of this "wave" of the unknown, they say about about 100 thousand people. These people have been totally different mentality than the emigration of the "first wave". They did not live on hopes of a comeback, saving the "old Russia", they are, on the contrary, sought to become faster, "non-Russians" — the Canadians, the French, the Yankees, etc. Because the process of assimilation was much faster.

Their anti-Soviet organization is one hundred percent focused on the West, first in the United States. The question is not whether their activities cause harm to the Russian people and Russian statehood for themselves, they were never asked. Russian service "Voice of America" was headed defector, Russian diplomat and spy, who escaped to the West, Barmin, he was adopted and the Office of Strategic Services (the future of the CIA). Under the patronage of the United States and its NATO partners are different Russian national anti-Soviet organization. But the main activity was the information war against the Soviet Union were targeted massive radio station "Voice of America", the Air Force, "Freedom", "Free Europe". Began transferring samples of promotional materials in the USSR, Russian fighter garrisons located in Eastern Europe.

By 1948, it returned to its previous structure shattered NTS, strengthening the ranks at the expense of the "second wave" of emigration. Found the money for the publication of the newspaper "Echo", "news" magazines "Crop", "The Edge". The Alliance has changed its ideology in the West, so a "people's labor systems" have become aware of the Western democratic system. Then there was an open and a radio station — "Free Russia". To run on Russian fighter were made propaganda centers in Germany and Austria. Similar activities were in large ports, where Russian ships came. Since 1951 is Getting to the USSR, with the help of air balloons, millions of leaflets, newspapers, hundreds of thousands of magazines and brochures. Russian security forces answered a few activists NTS kidnapped in Berlin and Vienna, and was sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. Agents were introduced into the ranks of the organization, a couple of times blew the building that housed the radio station and "publishing" Seeding ". But the NTS were great patrons — attempted favorites frustrated, there were leaks disk imaging, agents exposed.

The underground struggle against the Soviet Union after the Second World War
They tried to throw the group in the USSR, with the Yankees and intelligence allies. Most of the groups have been caught, but some were able to settle down and start a clandestine activities. For underground chairman NTS V.D.Poremsky developed a "molecular theory". Recognized the impossibility of the creation of the Soviet Union in large groups underground, but you could do a lot of "molecules". They will not be linked to each other and zabugornom centers, because the failure of one "molecule" will not lead to the collapse of the entire network. The main ways of working "molecules" — "small" forms, promoting the midst of friends, acquaintances, relatives, distribution of literature. These "molecules" in the end had to eat into the body of the USSR. These "molecules" do not just abandoned activists, but survived in the USSR people who are listening to the radio "Free Russia", solved by "samopriema" to join the NTS.

The situation in the USSR

Conditions for anti-Soviet propa
ganda after the war were quite different — there were excellent movement of people, a lot of people were cut off from normal life, residence, an old circle of acquaintances, etc. Millions of people — a soldier, prisoners of war, "ostarbeiters" — met with Western life, their gaze on the life and way of life. But Marxism-Leninism as an ideology, had not the massive immune to external influences. Some of the intellectuals (especially creative) there hope for the weakening of the regime, indulgences, the rapprochement with the West. Almost all of this was due to the fact that the intelligentsia is almost done, "hothouse" conditions, in comparison with by ordinary people. They lived more nourishing, had various benefits, they appreciated guarded, they have had access to foreign films, books, being able to visit my country, in the end, many had the recollection of his own chosen people of exclusivity. They wanted to continue the "banquet" — zabugornyh "free."

But again had to "mobilize" the economy, the population (already the third time — first years of industrialization and collectivization, then the war) on swift recovery. In the end, in the second half of the 40s were disclosed opposition youth clubs and organizations in Leningrad, Moscow, Voronezh. Their eyes were similar to the positions of the defeated in the 20-30s of the opposition, they were for communism, but without the "Stalinism". Those who are generally denied the communist values, it was not enough.

Stalin said the campaign against "kowtowing to the West", have begun to tout the merits of intensive Russian science, culture and art. Work with the creative intelligentsia led personally AA Zhdanov, many believed his successor leader. Criticized glad works, including Zoschenko, Akhmatova. But no one was persecuted — want to make "warning" to return the discipline in the ranks came loose.

The Nationalists

Supported by Western intelligence agencies and nationalists — the war is over, but a couple of years was a "wild war" in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine. Washington does not officially support the Bandera movement as considered it "not democratic", placing this function to "junior partner" — the British.

West was profitable to maintain a "popular resistance" — the Soviet Union spent on combating significant manpower and resources in the western regions supported inconstancy, the Western media could talk about the "people's resistance" Russian regime. Only once in Czechoslovakia and Poland in the years 1947-1948 were installed communist regimes was to suppress the movement can be UPA gang who were hiding from the big raids on neighboring territories.

The underground struggle against the Soviet Union after the Second World War

Gulag

Specifically, in the period after the war, but not in the years 1937-1938 eminent headed for their own maximum Gulag system — its "population" have gained 2.5 million people. Grown at the expense of "the Vlasov", "Bandera" Baltic "forest brothers", various collaborators. And you need to know that most of the prisoners and the prison camps of the USSR was not "political", and ordinary criminals. A great war always leads to a surge in crime. The Soviet Union after the war quite successfully "cleansed" from the bandits, marauders, speculators, thieves, rapists, bullies, prostitutes. And very quickly and well — putting an end to the myth that "Mafia is immortal." Russian citizens can now walk the streets of cities at any time of the day without fear of being killed, robbed, raped.

In 1948, to highlight the more terrible element, made camp special regime "hard labor." But in the same year in all the camps dramatically softened conditions — are better fed, implemented safety measures technology to save labor. Prison labor, plus contingent labor prisoners Germans and the Japanese Hassle helped rebuild the country.

Subsequent acts of the West

Western intelligence agencies have worked on all fronts likely, shaking reddish empire — held an open anti-communism, neo-Trotskyism, nationalism, historical legends were born against the Russian-USSR. In 1948, the UN adopted the Declaration of Human Rights, the game began to "human rights."

Tried to influence through the use of Western standards — its apparent abundance, material wealth, comfort. Ultimately, this tool was actually the most effective — Russian people divorced for "sausage", which is not surprisingly, the ideology of Marxism-Leninism, under Stalin is replaced with the necessity, could not protect the consciousness of Russian people from this virus applets. It is in this period was adopted by the eminent memorandum 20/1 on the U.S. National Security Council August 18, 1948, which represented the request made by Secretary of Defense James Forrestal analytical paper on the long-term view of U.S. policy towards Russian Union (also called-up by Allen Dulles).

The underground struggle against the Soviet Union after the Second World War

Allen Welsh Dulles.

Sources:
Werth N. Russian history of the country. Moscow, 1994.
NTS. The idea of the thing. Moscow, 1999.
Pyholov IV U.S. intelligence agencies. St. Petersburg., 2002.
Semanov SN Stalin. Life lessons and activities. Moscow, 2002.
Shambarov V. anti-Soviet. M., 2011.
http://www.sakva.ru/Nick/NSC_20_1R.html

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