In the past month have started to work the first two satellite navigation system by European Union Galileo. This is another type of system GPS, competing with the unique American GPS and Russian GLONASS re-activated. The two satellites of the Galileo was launched in October of last Russian rocket Alliance, launched from the Baikonur EU in South America (French Guiana), located near the equator, which makes it easier to reach specific orbits. Two more satellites Galileo will be launched this year. This small number of satellites required to provide three-dimensional position of the disk imaging. The four satellites will be used to test the technology. As expected, all 30 Galileo satellites will start working by the end of this decade.
There is also a China with its own system of GPS. China has 10 of the 35 navigation satellites and Beidou ("Compass"). This is enough to provide the services of the GPS location of all of China. By the end of the decade all 35 satellites are in orbit, providing for access to the entire planet Beidou. Four years back, China decided to expand its original Beidou satellite navigation system 1, to cover the whole planetoid and compete with GPS, Galileo and GLONASS. China uses a network of early experience skoplenny Beidou 1 in the development of a global system "Beidou 2" for the next decade.
The success of the American GPS satellite navigation system has caused all of these events. But this case was even more difficult than expected. European Consortium continued to develop Galileo, despite rising costs and technical problems. Initially, Galileo was financed by private funds. But the cost exceeded the most optimistic estimates of future earnings, so that the current time is paid for Galileo Schen taxpayers, as well as GPS, and competing systems of Russia and China.
Galileo appeared as the Europeans did not like the dependence on the U.S. system, and since they do not believe that our home will be able to keep their system GLONASS viable. If Galileo will start to work fully, the European countries will pay for it, while everyone will be able to use it free of charge. Receivers capable of receiving double signal (GPS and Galileo) will cost not much more expensive (about 20 percent) than receivers of GPS. The presence of 2-specific signals of the receivers will be more reliable and accurate. In addition, judging from how to create Galileo, it will provide a significantly higher signal reliability in high latitudes and in built up areas.
Russian answer to GPS is system GLONASS, which was at full strength (24 satellites) soon after the end of the cool war (1995 year). But the cool end of the war meant the end GLONASS permanent financing. Keep the system in working order means the substitution of satellites every 5-7 years. By the end of 2002, only seven GLONASS satellites to function as before. Yet, the Russian economy has recovered and were funded by a series of launches in 2003, that the increment number of operational satellites to 12 by the end of 2007, the number was 18. By 2011, the Russian Federation has been in orbit 24 satellites GLONASS, and she plans to make the system fully functioning later this year so that it could be a real contender system GPS.
Funding comes from the GLONASS Russian Government, which does not depend upon the lusts of GPS, controlled by America. But the funds are allocated only by the highest oil prices. Most of the GLONASS receivers are essentially receivers that combine GPS and GLONASS. Over the next couple of years, the Russian Federation will have to invest billions of dollars in GLONASS, that system worked in full, and then waste even more funds for the maintenance of a satellite network.
Chinese Compass navigation network shall include a best features of GLONASS and Galileo, as planned improvements in the next generation of satellites GPS. In all of all of this no one had found a method to reset the network of navigation satellites. At least, not directly. There is a tremendous amount of thought, but no one has converted any of these thoughts in the funds. Moreover, there is a problem between the Beidou, Galileo and GLONASS about who will be the first to use certain frequencies. Because GPS entered service first, no one disputes the frequencies used by GPS.
But three other players with the same there are some prepyadstviya.