Tobolsk was founded in the summer of 1587 on the Irtysh River, the ancient most important ways from European Russia to Siberia. Put hail Tobolsk to Cape Trinity Governor Daniel CHulkov under Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich.
http://fotki.yandex.ru/users/lapshin-8975/view/454143/ In 1590, became the capital of Tobolsk in Siberia. Through Tobolsk not only Russia but the whole European world opened the way to the East, which sought the oceans ships Dutch, English, Portuguese. While every educated European of Russian knew that this Power is Moscow — the old capital, St. Petersburg — the capital of the new and Tobolsk — the capital of Siberia. Tobolsk through trade routes from the European part of Russia, China and Central Asia. Tobolsk is in itself an outstanding attraction. But the main attraction is — the Kremlin, the only one in Siberia. Eight wooden forts succeeded one another until finally Tobolsk has not found a stone wall. In 1683, the master of Ustyuzhna and Moscow began to build stone Cathedral of the Assumption, which was later renamed in Sofia. Construction was carried out on the site of the former wooden cathedral, which was located on a hill just above the Pryamskim vzvoz. Today it is the oldest stone building in the whole of Siberia!
Tobolsk Kremlin — the residence of the Metropolitans of Tobolsk and the symbol of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church in Siberia has become one of the main attractions of Tobolsk. Located on a high terrace with stately white stone Kremlin-sounding chord bell tower of St. Sophia yard Kremlin harmoniously placed in a two-level landscape. From Cape Trinity to the horizon with a nice perspective view of the mighty Irtysh, numerous oxbow lakes and meadows. Tobolsk Kremlin — the only stone citadel, built in Siberia.
The chapel in memory of the death of Alexander II.
http://fotki.yandex.ru/users/lapshin-8975/view/454069/ Plateau in this place called Tatars Alafeyskoy mountain, which means "indigenous Khan’s Land" (Chuvashia cape — part of the mountain). It has long been settled on Mount Alafeyskoy relatives, children, wives of rulers of Siberia. After winning Ermak Tartars went away, but after three years, when the Russian left Siberia, the plateau has to grow roots again Tatars. However, in 1587, came here from Tyumen polutysyachny Cossack detachment under the command of the head of Daniel written Chulkova, and soon in the south-western part of Alafeyskoy mountains, on a promontory, later called the Trinity, there was Russian redoubt. It was built under the direction of Chulkova and Ermakova Ataman Matvei MESHCHERYAKOV. Against this background of Tobolsk and over — the ancient capital of Russian Siberia. Originating in an excellent location, Tobolsk began to grow rapidly. The peculiar topography naturally led to the emergence of two parts — upper and lower. In the upper town on the Cape Trinity, there were fortified castle courtyard and Sophia, later combined into a single Kremlin — the first in Siberia. With the end of the XVII to the end of XIX century citadel was built and rebuilt in stone, constantly mutating and being updated. At the same time the upper and lower parts of the city were built churches and civic buildings. An important emphasis of the lower urban development of the city became the Sign Monastery. In both parts of the city have for one main longitudinal street, several radial, one way or another aimed at the Kremlin, and several cross. Classic redevelopment of Tobolsk in the second half of the XVIII century, much adjusting network of streets, nevertheless retained the overall system architectural landmarks. That is how the structure of Tobolsk.
Fires were not spared Tobolsk, for that matter, any other wooden Russian city. Repeatedly burned Tobolsk, and now, after the most devastating of all fires that occurred on May 29, 1677, followed by the (admittedly, almost a year later) an important decision Siberian order: "… and continue to do the stone city of Tobolsk and for urban stone building manuf unsubscribe where be a city. "
Moscow is strongly encouraged here, stone construction. In the 1683-1686 year, sent from Moscow and the Great Ustiuga with journeymen bricklayers Gerasim Sharypina and Gavrila Tyutin created stone St. Sophia Cathedral of the Dormition. Stone walls around the courtyard of St. Sophia began to build immediately after the construction of the cathedral and bell tower. Wall height of 4.3 meters and a length of 620 meters with nine towers (seven round and two square) were built in ten years. They have surrounded the Sofia court on the maximum perimeter, dangerously close to the brow of Cape Trinity.
The unique landscape and the genius of the architect Remezov, who managed to seamlessly fit into the natural environment architecture, Tobolsk made one of the most beautiful cities. "… Who wants to see something beautiful in nature, that travel to Tobolsk" — so wrote about Tobolsk in a historical anthology "Siberian bulletin."
Despite the fact that the yard was already in the XVIII., On the Baltic Sea Northern War was raging, Tobolsk Kremlin walls were not too thick. The small thickness due to the fact that in Siberia, stone architecture serfdom rather served as a symbolic statement of Russian Orthodoxy on the newly developed territory, for serious military attack was available from, and the fire and "thieves" is quite small protected wall thickness.
From downtown to the Kremlin is Sophia (aka Bazarnyi, Pryamskoy, Vending) vzvoz. Sophia vzvoz in its present form — is one hundred ninety eight steps of wooden stairs, as above, after the massive arches DMITRIEVSKY gate — cobblestone road, sandwiched brick retaining walls. Sukhoi Log, cleaving in two Cape Trinity, always, from the very founding of the city, was used to enter the mountain. The first hundred years vzvoz had no cover, and in rainy weather clay soils did climb on it very hard. In 1671 there was the first wooden staircase, and in the 1750s known Siberian military engineer Ensign Volotsk Dragoons Jacob Ukusnikov drafted a new wooden Sophia vzvoz "a very considerable distance." A few years built this chetyrehsotmetrovy vzvoz, and thirty years later had his upper slopes strengthen brick retaining walls.
It was very solid and monumental engineering structure: each wall stretches for 110 meters, the height of the highest part of 14.6 meters. It would seem simple structure — the walls, and go between them, as in a deep gorge (canyon in the heart of the city!), Cut off from the present, all in the power of stories.