October is the fourth day of the Space Forces of Russia, with the December 1, 2011 have joined the Forces Aerospace Defense. The holiday is marked by a decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated October 3, 2002.
First holiday was established by presidential decree on 10 December 1995 and called the Day of the Military Space Forces. Date of the celebration was timed to launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome the world’s first artificial satellite in 1957, opened the annals of outer space, including the military.
Fourth of October 1957 has been proclaimed XVIII International Astronautical Congress, held in September 1967 in Belgrade (the capital of Yugoslavia from 2003 — Serbia), as the beginning of the space age.
Date Day of the Space Forces confirmed the decree of the President of Russia on May 31, 2006 "On the establishment of professional holidays and memorial days in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation." According to the decree of the Space Forces Day received the status of a memorable day.
As a separate branch of the Armed Forces, Space Forces were formed in 2001 by decree of the President of Russia on the basis of associations and connections Strategic Missile Forces (SMF) as well as military units start and ballistic missile defense.
The first part of the establishment and start-up and control of space vehicles began to be created in the Soviet Union in 1955, with the decision on the construction of the landfill in Kazakhstan to test intercontinental ballistic missiles (now — Baikonur).
In 1957, in preparation for the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite was established command and measurement complex spacecraft control (now — the main test center for testing and control of space means the name Titov, GITSIU COP). In the same year in the town of Mirny Arkhangelsk region began construction of the landfill intended for launches of intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 — this Plesetsk cosmodrome.
Part of the start-up and control of space vehicles 4 October 1957 launched the first artificial Earth satellite "SS-1", and April 12, 1961 — Launch and flight control the world’s first manned spacecraft "Vostok" with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on board. In the future, all of the domestic and international space programs were carried out with the direct participation of military units start and control of spacecraft.
In 1960, for management of space activities in the Ministry of Defense of the USSR was established control of the Main Directorate of the third missile, which in 1964 was transformed into the Central Office space resources (TSUKOS) of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), and in 1970 — to the General Directorate of space means (GUKOS) USSR Ministry of Defense. In 1982, due to the increased volume of tasks GUKOS and its subordinate units were withdrawn from the Strategic Missile Forces and report directly to the Minister of Defense of the USSR — set up a department head space of the Ministry of Defence.
In August 1992 were created Military Space Forces of the Ministry of Defense, which included the Baikonur Cosmodrome Plesetsk and Baikonur 1994 Free, as well as chief test center for testing and control of space means, the Military Academy of Space Engineering and the 50th Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense.
In 1998, the Military Space Forces were included in the Strategic Missile Forces with the status of Space funds.
In 2001, due to the increasing role of space systems in the military and national security on the basis of Russian military units start and control of space vehicles and military units of ballistic missile defense have been created Space Forces.
From 2001 to 2011, the Space Forces conducted and to provide for more than 230 rocket launches, which launched into orbit more than 300 military spacecraft, double, socio-economic and scientific purposes. Among them, the devices of communication, navigation, cartography, remote sensing, telecommunications, scientific apparatus, etc.
Space control was carried out more than 900 warning of dangerous approaches of space objects with the international space station.
On the basis of military units and formations of the Space Forces, as well as the operational troops Strategic Command Aerospace Defense Air Force 1 December 2011 the troops were formed Aerospace Defense (ASD). The structure of ASD includes space command, the command of air and missile defense and spaceport "Plesetsk".
The head of the SAI is a former commander of the Space Forces Colonel General Oleg Ostapenko.
Troops aerospace defense — is a high-tech branch of service, carrying out of tasks of national defense and security in air and space. Objects Troops EKR located throughout Russia — from Kaliningrad to Kamchatka, and beyond. In the CIS countries — Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan objects deployed systems missile warning and space control.
According to First Deputy Defense Minister Alexander Sukhorukov, in 2012 the Ministry of Defence has placed on enterprises of the defense-industrial complex contracts for the development of Forces Aerospace Defense — in the amount of 36.4% of the state armament program for 2011-2020.