three long-term objectives
Scientists at the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS IMCES) engaged in an innovative project on waste into biogas.
"The goal was to supply a small autonomous territory in the Tomsk region near Lake Karasevo Kolpashevsky area rich sapropel deposits — deposits on the bottom of water bodies, consisting of the remains of plants, small fish and plankton, — says Dmitry Fomin, expert of the commercialization of scientific research IMCES SB RAS. — The problem was the remoteness of the area from centralized sources of energy. And working on solving this problem, we have developed a unique method of producing biogas from organic waste. "
In general, the raw material for biogas plants can be wastes of livestock, slaughterhouses, creameries, breweries, as well as a variety of plants, etc. Innovative Tomsk same technology — using selective microorganisms that reduce cycle biogas reaction tripled and the concentration of methane in the produced biogas rises to 85% in comparison with conventional 60%.
According to the researchers, the new technology solves three key objectives: energy production from renewable sources (hot topic in remote areas), to improve the environmental situation in the region, as well as substantial savings for farms on fines for environmental pollution and autonomous cheap energy.
Perhaps the most popular question — a question the effectiveness of waste into biogas. How much biogas can be obtained in this way? It all depends on the type of biomass processing. One tonne of plant can be 200 cubic meters bioagaz, ODP slaughter fat and waste — of 400-600 cubic meters slurry — 50 cubic meters (if waste cattle) and up to 100 cubic meters (in case of poultry waste).
"Construction of a biogas plant — quite expensive — says one of the founders of the project, the head of commercialization of research IMCES Russian Academy of Sciences Alexander gently. — The introduction of this technology in the construction of, say, a new selhozfermy, will cost 40 million rubles. So what’s the economy, you ask? It is easy to calculate. For example, a farm of thousands of head of cattle (and, in the Tomsk region of about two dozens of such businesses), per day produces 50 tons of manure. One ton of manure can be 50 cubic meters of biogas. Of 1 m3 of biogas produced 3 kW of electricity, or 5 kW of heat. And the overall economic benefit is that the economy is independent of the "external" energy suppliers. "
According to preliminary calculations of scientists, the transition of the company to biogas will be repaid in 5-6 years. This may not be so soon, but very effective. After all, farmers gain independence from suppliers of electricity and heat, significantly reduce the cost of their products, increase its competitiveness. This significantly reduce the payback period of such projects will be able to use biogas as a center full recycling of organic waste. For many enterprises of agriculture and food industry in recent years, recycling has become a significant cost item.
Innovative technology Tomic has already attracted the attention of foreign colleagues. So Tomsk method was favorably received an independent review conducted one of the largest research organizations in Europe Applied Research Institute-«Fraunhofer».
"Now we are talking about the future joint research, — says Dmitry Fomin. — They are very interested in our method. In Europe, biogas production — one of the popular destinations for renewable energy development. We are considering selling our existing European technology biogas systems. But Tomich, of course, we are much more interested in that such biogas plants have appeared here. While the biogas plant in Russia can be counted on the fingers, but I guess that in five years we will see the blossoming of biogas energy in our country. Even today, the biogas production in Russia is becoming one of the most attractive investment destinations for bioenergy development. After all, it represents the additional revenue from the sale of organic fertilizer and fees for a safe, environmentally friendly recycling of organic waste. "
Biogas systems — it is a capital-intensive technology. That is why it is advanced and promising area is not growing as fast as it could. For the introduction of biogas plants need specialists and investment. Basically, for the construction of facilities in this country are used development, technology, materials, and professionals from abroad. We still have a little experience in this area. But he is sure to appear when businesses realize all the benefits of such a move.
"This requires government support, assistance in obtaining financing for those who have decided to introduce advanced technology, — says Dmitry Fomin. — And in the light of the active work of the Tomsk region in the framework of resource and energy efficiency, it is hoped that this support will be implemented. "
In addition, there are other mechanisms for the implementation of biogas projects. For example, in the energy and environment services companies. They are building a biogas plant, long-term contracts with companies for disposal of organic waste and sell them energy at cheaper rates.
It was then that agricultural producers will not have to seek additional funds for the implementation of renewable energy sources. In this case, the environmental situation will improve. Today, scientists at the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems to begin a new phase of research of its unique method of production of biogas — testing facilities in the Siberian difficult weather conditions. By the fall, they plan to finish the installation of biogas equipment. The results of these studies will provide new data and will become a new impetus for the development of the project.
"Biogas technology — one of the many projects that we plan to develop in the Tomsk region. Currently, in collaboration with the International Finance Corporation, work is underway to assess the potential of all renewable energy in our region: wind, solar, geothermal, water and biomass (primarily wood processing wastes, agricultural systems and food production). As a result of this work will be evaluated in detail the volume of renewable resources, their use of technology are defined taking into account the economic performance of the construction and operation of power plants, calculated rates thus obtained energy. And the main task for us is to create a favorable investment climate for the implementation of these projects. First of all, important to develop a regulatory framework for the development and operation of renewable energy. In the end, we want to see the cost-effective projects that will provide the region with energy from its own resources and to reduce or stabilize the cost of electricity and heat in parts of the region ", — says deputy governor of the Tomsk region in Economics Andrei Antonov.