Tu-134 — 50 years in the sky

Currently, there is information that the Main Command of the Air Force decided to restore the entire existing fleet of training aircraft Tu-134UBL and Tu-134SH and appealed directly to the Minister of National Defense with a request for the required amount of cash. According to preliminary estimates, extending the life of almost 50 aircraft will need about 20 million rubles. Modification of the Tu-134UBL used for training military pilots, and the Tu-134SH for training navigators long-range aviation. 


Today, except for the Tu-134 are practically nothing to prepare, as a fallback in the form of the An-26 and An-24 does not have the sighting and navigation systems, which are equipped with long-range bombers. It was also built a number of machines for freight and passenger traffic officers of the armed forces, the so-called "staff", including those equipped with special communication (ASDs).


It is believed that the Tu-134 owes its appearance in the world directly to Nikita Khrushchev. In 1960, the then First Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU was the guest of honor at the launch in France of a new passenger jet Sud Aviación "Caravel". This airliner produced by the Soviet leader a serious impression, and on returning back to Moscow, Nikita Khrushchev ordered Tupolev to start work on the creation of the Soviet counterpart.

Jet aircraft Tu-134 is rightly recognized as one of the most successful projects in the field of domestic passenger aircraft. In the history of the domestic civil aviation as the aircraft came in as the most massive and popular Soviet airliner. Tu-134 (according to NATO codification Crusty-«Hard") — a Soviet short-haul passenger aircraft, which was created in the early 1960s in the OKB. Tupolev. The aircraft was produced commercially from 1965 to 1984 in Kharkov, on the same production association, the latter specimens were collected by aircraft in 1989. Its first flight airliner made July 29, 1963 — that is, exactly half a century ago.

Tu-134 is considered one of the most popular Soviet passenger aircraft, only 852 cars were produced of all modifications. In addition to the Soviet Union as the aircraft was exploiting a large number of socialist countries. Deliveries of the aircraft for export began in 1968. Tu-134 was the first Soviet airliner, which was the official international certification. In November 1968, this machine has been certified in Poland to meet English standards of airworthiness BCAR. This aircraft is actively exploited by other socialist countries — Bulgaria, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Vietnam, and many others.

On the basis of the Tu-134 were created by various flying laboratory, which were intended to test new models of space and aviation technology. On February 2012 the world’s operated for about 130 aircraft of this type, including more than 100 — in Russia. Very popular VIP-version of the aircraft, but widespread and military modifications. In his time on the basis of the Tu-134 were created by trainer aircraft to train pilots and navigators of the Tu-160 and Tu-22M3. Often these machines were used to maintain the skills of front-line pilots, in order to preserve the resource is much more expensive bombers.


At this time, in different countries of the world almost at the same time, work began on the creation of passenger jetliners, a distinctive feature of which was the placement of engines in the rear fuselage on special pylons. For such planes can be attributed American "Boeing 727" and the DC-9, British aircraft VC.10, DH 121 and VAS111, Dutch F28, as well as the Soviet Il-62 and Tu-134.

This scheme is primarily to improve the aerodynamics of the car (through the use of so-called "clean wing"), and to reduce the noise level in the cockpit and in the cabin, as well as significantly reduce the load on the gas jets running engines on the fuselage. Simultaneously weights airframe and as a result, decreased payload. At the same time reduced efficiency liner and complicate maintenance of the tail plane.

Initially, short-haul airliner Tu-134 was not designed as a new aircraft. In the Tupolev there was an idea of modernization of the existing Tu-124. In this machine was lengthened fuselage, engines were transferred to the tail section, and the tail was replaced by a T-shaped. This project has received the designation Tu-124A and was proposed as early as 1961. The first two prototypes of the Tu-124A were produced in 1963. In July of the same year for the first time this machine rose into the sky.


First TU-134

Flight testing and certification of aircraft began in the summer of 1963, and in 1965, the aircraft received the official designation of the Tu-134. At the same time, was finally stopped production of the Tu-124. Serial production of the new airliner Tu-134 began in 1966. The aircraft in mass production at the Kharkov Aviation Production Association for nearly 18 years (1966 to 1984).

Tu-134 was designed for short-haul lines with a relatively small number of passengers. Originally planned to be located in the passenger cabin 56 seats (50 seats in a two-class layout). However, from the first class on those airplanes that were intended for the lines within the Soviet Union, it was soon abandoned. For this reason, the number of locations could increase to 72.

In 1965, in Kharkov managed to collect nine pre-series aircraft designed specifically for flight tests. These aircraft were not the reverse, for this reason, mileage after landing was quite large. It is worth noting that the Tupolev airliner were going to install on the brake parachutes like the previous TU-104. But from this idea pretty quickly decided to abandon. At the same time, engines with thrust reverser, began to appear on the Tu-134 only in 1970. Over time, these engines were all released airplanes. Up to this point, the Tu-134 helped to brake a special plate mounted under the fuselage — a rather rare phenomenon for civil aviation.

The first production passenger airliner Tu-134 were transferred to the "Aeroflot" in 1966, and in September of the following year, a Tu-134 had made its first commercial flight from Moscow to Adler. And almost 3 years of new aircraft were used only on international routes, and in the summer of 1969, they started serving line inside the USSR, Moscow-Kiev and Moscow-Leningrad. Tu-134 actively marketed for export: in 1968 the first aircraft were handed over to the East German airline "Interflug", and a little later the Polish company LOT.

In 1970, we created a new modification of the aircraft — Tu-134A. The fuselage of the machine up to half a meter on the engines appeared reverse, brake flap was removed, the number of seats increased to 76. As a result of these measures the maximum range decreased from 3100 to 2770 km, and a maximum payload of liner — up to 2,100 km. On airplanes, which were intended for export, it was decided to abandon the navigator on board and mount the radar.

In 1980, the Soviet Union began to produce the aircraft in modification of the Tu-134B. This version of the aircraft from the navigator on board refused completely. In addition, seating capacity was increased to 96 seats. Take-off weight increased to 47 tons. At the same time, began design work on a version of the Tu-134D, which was to get the engine with increased thrust (8,400 kg), but work on the project had not been completed. Today, Tu-134 is gradually being phased out, as most of the machines are physically and morally outdated: last released copies of the Tu-134 had turned more than a quarter century.

Engines on the Tu-134 were installed in the rear fuselage. Serial models of aircraft equipped with bypass turbojet engines D-30 (SS-30) design Solovyov. This power unit is made by a two-shaft design, and consist of separation from the gearbox housing units, compressor, turbine, combustor, the output device and is equipped with a reverse. The engine is started with an air starter. Electronic ignition system, it consists of 2 candles surface discharge SP-06VP and the unit plugs SKNA-22-2A.

During the long years of operation of passenger aircraft Tu-134 has demonstrated its reliability and efficiency by meeting the requirements of the time. In terms of the reliability factor given airliner has proved almost trouble-free machine. The outstanding feature of the Tu-134 remains unsurpassed to date restrictions on the values of the side (20 m / s) and a counter (30 m / c) components of the wind at the time of take-off and landing. Under the Soviet Union, where most of the airfields had only one runway, it’s the quality of the Tu-134 has played a significant role in improving the regularity of flights.

After joining in 2002, in action in Chapter 3 of Annex 16 of ICAO, which toughened noise standards for aircraft operation of TU-134 in the EU has been banned, these days airliner used almost exclusively on domestic routes in Russia and some CIS countries.

The scheduled performance of the Tu-134B:

Dimensions: wingspan — 29 meters in length — 37, 1 m, height — 9.02 m
Wing Area — 127.3 square meters. m
Normal take-off weight of the aircraft — 47 600 kg., Maximum takeoff -49,000 lbs., Empty weight — 29000 kg.
Engine Type — 2 D-30 turbofan thrust — 2h66, 7 kN.
Maximum speed — 880 km / h
Range — 2020 km.
Ekpslutatsionny ceiling — 10,100 m
The required runway length — 2,550 m
Crew — 3 people.
The maximum number of seats — 96

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