The participants of the experiment on the synthesis of element 117 — Vladimir Utenkov and Yuri Hovhannisyan (left to right)
MOSCOW, June 3 — RIA Novosti. Two superheavy chemical element numbered 114 and 116, previously synthesized by Russian physicists, officially recognized by international experts, establishing priority of discovery and the names for the new elements of the periodic table.
As stated in the report of the joint working group of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in identifying priority in the discovery of new elements published on the website of IUPAC, the opening received official status after a joint working group for three years, analyzed the data.
The report acknowledges the discovery of new chemical elements and confirmed the priority in this process, the group of experts under the guidance of Academician Yuri Hovhannisyan of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, near Moscow, to synthesize these elements with the help of American colleagues Liveromorskoy National Laboratory.
Element under the number 114 was first synthesized in December 1998 by bombarding nuclei of calcium-48 target of plutonium-244 and 116 element — in July 2000 by bombarding nuclei of calcium-48 target of curium-248.
"This is the first stage, which recognizes the priority and recognized the fact of discovery, and then it is transferred to the nomenclature committee to give a name. And then the name is approved by the general Assembly of IUPAC, "- said the Hovhannisyan.
New items will be added to the periodic table when they receive the title, he explained.
"The Commission looks to the name was accepted in accordance with the tradition of call — in honor of the planets, after the place where the discovery was made, or in honor of the great scientists," — said the official.
Hovhannisyan said that now scientists from Dubna await treatment by the Commission on the IUPAC nomenclature, which should ask them for suggestions on the name of new elements. However, he declined to say what could be the suggestions Russian physicists.
"Let the first turn," — said the academician.
However, he did not rule out that one of the elements may be named in honor of the Soviet physicist Georgy Flerov, who led the work at JINR on the synthesis of new chemical elements.
JINR Vice-Director Michael Itkis in March, told reporters that Russian physicists’ element 114 would be named after Georgi Flerov — Flerov, and the second — Muscovy … in honor of the Moscow region. "
Georgy Flerov — Soviet nuclear physicist, an expert in the field of nuclear fission, the synthesis of new chemical elements, new types of radioactivity. Member of Soviet nuclear weapons. In 1940, together with Konstantin Petrzhak discovered a new type of radioactive transformations — the spontaneous fission of uranium. Thanks to the ideas Flerov at JINR obtained a whole series of chemical elements. The scientists named the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR.
In addition to the elements 114 and 116 in different time JINR were also synthesized by the chemical elements with atomic numbers 104, 113, 115, 117 and 118. In recognition of the outstanding contribution of the JINR in modern physics and chemistry of element 105 of the periodic table in 1997 by IUPAC given the name "Dubna".
Director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR Sergey Dmitriev told reporters in March that the scientists of the institute "intend soon begin experiments on the synthesis of element 119."
On Earth, the chemical elements heavier than uranium, which has the serial number 92 in the periodic table are not found because they are radioactive, and their nuclei are split up over four billion years of Earth’s history. All elements heavier than uranium are synthesized in special nuclear reactors and accelerators in the collision of nuclei of other elements. From the middle of the last century, nuclear physicists around the world are looking for the so-called "island of stability" of superheavy elements.
The nuclei of superheavy elements are very unstable and break up into smaller nuclei and particles in a matter of seconds. However, in the 50’s and 60’s of last century, physicists have developed a theory that the nuclei of some of superheavy elements may have a special configuration that allows them to be minutes, hours, days and months. Some scientists believe that superheavy elements can be stable even in the course of millions of years.