In recent years, the world is experiencing a real boom, caused by the appearance on the market of environmentally friendly products — food, cosmetics, construction and many others. By a hand and Ukrainian scientists: they took an amazing variety of plants, which in our country is still in the pen.
It’s about the good old hemp. [Cut]
In Ukraine, hemp grown for a long time, the ground for a large crop of this plant, we are excellent. Even 20 years ago, very few believed cannabis drug because there was so little of the psychoactive substance (tetrahydrocannabinol — THC), that even though you smoke it, even though you eat, no narcotic effect is not noticeable.
For example, cannabis varieties of Cannabis sativa kannabiola contains 1% and cultured at right psychoactive has virtually no effect, whereas in marijuana from 2 to 30% of this substance.
So why have destroyed tens of thousands of hectares of Ukraine for the plant and industrial production turned? Is it time to bring back the lost?
The contribution of Ukrainian breeders
In Ukraine, about hemp as a narcotic vengeance spoke after the restructuring. But it was regarded suspiciously and SSSR.Imenno Ukrainian scientist breeders to prevent drug abuse has been tasked to bring varieties of hemp seed, does not have narcotic properties.
Breeders of the Institute of Bast Crops (deaf Sumy region). Headed by Professor GI Senchenko in 70 years under the government worked hard to ensure that the level of THC in the new varieties did not exceed 0.1%.
Grow hemp distinguish between the content of cannabinoids, but varieties with a complete lack of them was not. Moreover, the smaller the sample contained in this material, the smaller the economic value it represented, and lose productivity breeders do not have the right. To be considered for selection of new material, it was necessary to cross different varieties and modifications of cannabis, promising in terms of productivity. Then the plants were collected with a minimum of kannabiola. For about twenty years, our scientists have created beznarkoticheskie and high-yielding varieties released for Poltava, Cherkasy, Sumy, Orel and Penza regions, Kabardino-Balkaria and North Ossetia. Glukhovskoy selection of unique varieties have gained worldwide recognition. Thanks to them, in 1998, Canada lifted its ban on the cultivation of hemp and hemp industry in our country, unfortunately, collapsed.
It is doubly sad that cannabis today is rapidly regains its former position, more and more business people in many countries are beginning to engage in its cultivation. "Out of hemp can produce more than 25,000 different products — from cellophane to dynamite", — reported the American magazine "Popular Mechanics" in 1938. And imagine how much you can make products today — with the development of modern technologies.
What is hemp good?
Due to the relatively short-term rate (120 days), this plant is considered to be an effective and economically viable crop.
On the quality of fibrous hemp is far ahead of the wood, and for the production of pulp from hemp fiber requires much less toxic chemicals (80-90%). Made from Hemp paper does not turn yellow and extremely strong and resistant.
Hemp seed at 25% -30% of the fat is suitable for use in cooking and as fuel. Hemp seed oil quality is close to the whales fat.
Cannabis Seeds — one of the richest natural source of protein that contains two acids that can cleanse the body of bad cholesterol and boost immunity. In addition to vitamins, minerals contained in them, zinc, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur. Of germinated seeds of ground plants get very useful hemp milk. Knowledgeable people say that food from hemp, freely sold in Canada and the United States (seeds that are good, like muesli with milk or in the form of tiles sweet, candy, etc.), extremely tasty, and they are essential for dietary those who care about their health. Recall that in Ukraine on fast days, in the days of purification, made from hemp seed milk, which ran the millet porridge.
Hemp fiber — a great alternative to traditional plastic. Plastic produced by the polymerization of hemp pulp, biodegradable and therefore do not pose a threat to the environment. Today, it produces a British company Hemp Plastics. Employees of this company is also engaged in the creation of "hemp starch" for the release of a fully degradable "plastic" film for garbage bags and wrapping materials.
It is known that a strong root system of plants prevents soil erosion, improving their properties. Hemp needs no chemical fertilizers, irrigation and low system is capable of producing excellent yields on the same site for decades without the use of herbicides and pesticides. For the year from one hectare can produce up to 10 tons of the crop.
Hemp is actively used in the automotive industry. So, for the past four years on the auto plants in Germany and Austria increased by 90% its use. We are talking about replacing fiberglass in composite materials with natural hemp fibers. These materials are used in the production of seats and interior linings trunk of the car.
Do not forget hemp and representatives of the recording industry. Not so long ago, Hemp Music Production released a hemp plastic CD. Interestingly, all the songs recorded on the Australian studio Cutting Edge Studios, performed a musical instrument made from a material called "hemp stone." Capsule disk is cast from hemp plastic, and paper insert with lyrics printed on hemp paper production company Living Tree Paper Company.
Hemp seed oil — an ideal base for the manufacture of cosmetics due to wetting properties and fatty acids contained in the product. These cosmetic products in Europe, the company sells Hemp Union. Hemp oil is also used in the manufacture of soaps, paints and varnishes.
Specialists are able to turn it into a product with properties similar to diesel fuel, and with the hype in the market of renewable energy is very promising.
At the time, the American Medical Association support the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes, but today, "medical marijuana" is only granted to a limited number of people. In the United States, Canada and Western Europe cannabinoid THC is used to relieve the side effects of chemotherapy for cancer, and to fight the syndrome of weight loss in AIDS. It is also known that cannabis may be effective in the treatment of glaucoma, phantom pain, and many other diseases.
Made from Hemp clothing is extremely robust and resistant to wear — is long. Several U.S. companies producing clothing, fabric which contains, as a rule, 50% hemp fibers. For a long time, this production was almost underground. U.S. laws prohibit even advertise products from hemp. Last year, however, these restrictions were lifted in triumph.
Many Chinese companies, such as Green China Group, represent a wide range of products — sports and casual wear, waterproof fabric, backpacks and bags, durable and comfortable shoes, and more. Hemp could easily compete with cotton, if it is not banned.
In the production of hemp seed oil produced byproduct — pressed seed hulls, comprising 30-50% protein. Realize it as animal feed. Aware of the beneficial properties of cannabis seeds and fishermen. They say that carp just loves hemp seeds.
So what is to blame for the grass?
It should be understood that the "grass" or "grass" in the jargon is called marijuana — cannabis smoked for narcotic effect. It is in our lands hemp growing everywhere, and no one even did not occur to her to score a cigarette. About cannabis composed songs ("Unadivsya zhuravel to Babin hemp"), proverbs (&qu
ot;Vilіz, yak s hemp"), in the dictionary V.Dal is, for example, such a mystery, "Sow a tithe, and grow from lutoshechku." The answer — "cannabis". Though Dahl did not explain what it is — "lutoshechko", it is believed that this is something huge. Industrial hemp varieties of grass, even not dare to call. They reach 3 meters in height — not skew bevel. And this is yet another confirmation of the high cost of this plant — one case in ten years to grow a tree, the other — in the three months to grow the same as ten years of a tree, a bush. And after all of that, and in another you can do and the paper and pulp, and the pulp per hectare, hemp sown, harvested 4 times more than the forest. This is how much you can save the forest!
"Crusade" on hemp began in SShA.Kompaniya American newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst Hears Paper Manufacturing (unit Kimberley Clark) had a huge area planted with forest and comes on to the market most of the paper products.
In 1937, industrialist DuPont patented manufacturing technology of plastic from oil and coal, and since then has started to produce oil from plastic, cellophane, celluloid, methanol, nylon. The same thing can be made from hemp and commercial cultivation of this plant threatened to undermine the business of Dupont, who started earning billions. Mogul decided to wipe it off the face of the earth.
One of the main investors in Dupont at the time was Andrew Mellon, who served as Secretary of the Treasury under President Lou Henry Hoover. His nephew, Gary J. Anslinger, was promoted to head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs.
Financial bigwigs announced hemp, threatening their well-being, a real war. It is the "yellow paper" Hearst in the late 20’s — early 30’s stopped noticing the difference between hemp and marijuana, and editorials colorfully depict how cannabis occur due to an accident, people lose their moral character and other terrible consequences of cultivation. But this is only to marijuana. That is, the task was to focus on varieties with high THC content, although there are about 600 different varieties of cannabis. Movies "Hemp madness" (1936), "Marijuana: Assassin of Youth" (1935) and "Marijuana: the devil’s seed" (1936) were propaganda clips, created by money industrialists. Advertise kept saying: "Buying hemp, you sposobstvuesh gang wars and potvorstvuesh Kill!"
After a massive brainwashing April 14, 1937 permanent budget committee of Congress received a bill criminalizing the production of cannabis. Remarkably, only the commission had the opportunity to put the bill to a vote without prior discussion congressmen. Its chairman, Robert Dugton was an ardent supporter of Dupont and ensured the smooth adoption of the law.
Unfortunately, the American Medical Association’s too late opposed this regulation: confusing propaganda industrialists doctors did not realize that the term "marijuana" means "hemp".
So in September 1937 one of the most useful plants of the planet was a "dangerous drug" and was outlawed, and promising sectors of the economy ruined …
Today, the world community adjusting their view, more is said about the benefits of cultivating this plant. In 1998, Canada decided to legalize the commercial cultivation of cannabis. The same processes occur in France and Britain.
Of particular interest is the technology of building homes hemp, tried and tested for centuries.
It turns out the house, constructed with the use of hemp requires less energy to build and require less fuel to heat than traditional ones. And last but not least, from this plant can be produced eco-friendly building material of a wide range of applications.
It is made of a variety of woody materials — fiberboard, roofing tiles, wall fiber boards, panels, insulation and bricks and fibers are used for the construction of the walls of pressed or erection of houses in a modified style of "clay with hay."
Constructed in France in the XVI century, hemp Bridge — evidence of rock strength and reliability of a material known as "hemp cement." There is evidence that the foundation of hemp cement is 7 times stronger than the foundation, made of normal. In addition, it is flexible, which means that hemp foundations of a more advantageous from the point of view of construction in seismic areas. This material is also resistant to rot, fire-retardant, waterproof and is not exposed to weathering.
Irish builder Henry O’D Thompson of Old Builders — a supporter of the use of cannabis by old stone walls for insulation, sound insulation and create the effect of "breathing" walls. Specialist in the reconstruction of buildings that once lived in Canada, says that while covering the walls with a mixture of lime and hemp house is a more "healthy" because stops the growth of toxic mold.
From "hemp cement" can be done pipes which also have greater flexibility and elasticity than products made from conventional materials.
Steve Allin, a pioneer in the use of hemp for construction purposes in Ireland and author of the book "Building with Hemp", released mixes on the basis of cannabis, which calls Hemphab. According to him, hemp plaster for interior work has texture "sticky muesli." It is possible to model, giving it a different shape, texture. In France, this plaster has received widespread partly because of its insulating qualities and suitability for use in the old stone buildings.
The project is the construction of social housing in Suffolk (England) — a great example of the superiority of cannabis over other building materials. Suffolk Housing Society built the first two hemp houses in England, and then conducted a study of their performance. In 2002godu construction research organization BRE issued a report about the reliability, as well as economic and environmental differences between two approaches to construction. The main conclusions are as follows: "in spite of reducing the negative impact on the ecology of hemp homes, reducing energy consumption for the building, less waste during construction and the fuel it takes to heat buildings, their construction cost about 10% more expensive than using traditional construction materials" . But for the environment is not a sin and overpay.
There are a few houses and hemp in North America. In the U.S., the reservation Lakota on the Pine Ridge built a communal house of hemp and raw brick as a model for future construction. Here we use hemp insulation and conducted an experiment to create a cement slab, reinforced with hemp fibers. University of Washington fiberboard made from hemp, which is lighter, twice as strong and three times more elastic wood. The material has excellent sound insulating properties.
Another demonstration hemp house, more ambitious in conception, is located in a rural area north of Toronto, Ontario. It is owned by Kelly Smith and Greg Herriot, the company founders Hempola — producer of hemp products. The walls of this remarkable octagonal building area of 4,500 square feet filled with hemp briquettes technology, similar to the construction with straw bales. Floor and ceiling beams are made of wood, impregnated with hemp oil.
In Ireland, the construction and hemp materials have been used for more than nine years in the construction of more than 120 different objects. Over 16 years in France built more than 250 cannabis buildings.
Also set up the paint on hemp-based, although the cost of hemp seed oil slows their mass production, and it will continue for as long as the policy does not allow the free cultivation of cannabis.
The time has come, and we understand that the cultivation and use of
industrial hemp in Ukraine will open the country’s great prospects for economic growth. We only need to study the international experience and come out of the captivity misconceptions those who still demonize this miracle plant.
Some facts about cannabis
From it comes the word "caulk". Previously, the gap in the houses, boats, ships and stopped hemp — strong spinning fiber from hemp.
The plant was cultivated in ancient China in 2800 BC. e., and the seeds are eaten as many as 8,000 years ago.
Until 1880 all American textbooks were printed on hemp and linen paper.
In the period from 1631 to the beginning of the nineteenth century served as a legal means of hemp U.S. taxes.
Refusal to grow it in America in XVII-XVIII century. amount to a violation of the law. For example, in Virginia, in the years 1763-1769. for it could be put behind bars.
Hemp is grown George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and other founding fathers SShA.Bolee of Jefferson smuggling grain hemp from China to France and then to America, as a note in your diary.
One of the first American pulp and paper mills, which processed hemp, owned by Benjamin Franklin.
According to some historians, the war broke out in 1812 because of this plant. Napoleon wanted to put an end to the export of Russian hemp in England.
For thousands of years, 90% of ship ropes and sails were made of hemp. Until 1820, when the cotton ginning technology, 82% of all textiles made from it.
First Bible, maps, flags, and a draft of the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were printed on hemp paper.
The first cultivated plant in many states was hemp. Prior to the beginning of the twentieth century. it was considered the most profitable crop in agriculture.
Rembrandt, Gainsborough, Van Gogh and other painters created their masterpieces on hemp canvas.
In 1916, the U.S. Government predicted that by 1940 th all the paper will be made from hemp, and the need to cut down the trees disappear. Developed serious plans to implement the program. Quality paints and varnishes produced from hemp seed oil until 1937 only in 1935, American paint company used 58,000 tons of plants.
The first model of the "Ford" was designed to work on hemp fuel, and the car itself contained a lot of accessories made from hemp, including plastic panels, the strength of which 10 times the strength of steel products. There are photos of Ford on the background of hemp fields, broken in his vast estate.