Interview with the director of "Tehinkom" Alexander Andreev
In the middle of October 2011 Our home on the French exhibition Milipol-2011 has shown several developments that can be applied to improve the tactical and technical characteristics of the personal body armor means. That is a modern body armor and that the developers are concerned, "Lente.ru" the director told the profile of "Tehinkom" Alexander Andreyev.
What is a modern body armor?
Alexander Andreev: Modern body armor are classified according to the degree of protection regardless of the type of hazard — if it brief. Read more — will be more complicated. Each country has adopted its own means of ordering body armor. We operate in the country GOST 50744-95 regulating the systematization broneodezhda. He anticipates the 6 main classes — from 1 to 6A. In Germany — the four classes, the American police — four classes, and so on. Various classes of common. You can make a comparison of different classes of a certain degree of approximation. For example, the South American 4th grade approximates our 6A. Accordingly, regardless of the threat of exposure — Energy bullets, bomb design — design and create a bullet-proof vest. Part of pistol bullets and a knife, for example, can protect the light flak jacket of a flexible package of ballistic fabric. From some rifle bullets and a large fragment of mines or shells are not enough and armor steel. We have to talk about the more advanced materials — a clay composites.
What explains such a large number of classes of protection specifically in Russia: 6 subclasses against, say, 4 in Germany?
First, the variety of means of destruction of small guns. In order to protect the rights and well at the same time it does not overload. For example, if a police officer makes the functions of law and order in a public institution, it would most likely not have to defend themselves against a rifle bullet. Statistics of criminal incidents indicates that it may be necessary to protect against a knife, traumatic guns, a Makarov pistol and TT. It is unlikely that he will need protection from armor-piercing sniper guns. Accordingly, for the police, guards or collector is appropriate body armor that protects you from all kinds of small tools. Should be observed between optimum mobility and protection. The highest level of protection will inevitably increase the weight of your equipment fighter, he is the least mobile and transformed into a target. Therefore it is necessary to strive to put on a much smaller man, but for all that take into account the possibility of danger. The more detailed ordering, the more precisely you can choose the desired protection, based on the criterion of its implementation. In fact over the regulations continue to work with spices, and classes can be even more.
If you look at the structure of consumption, — for the civil and military — which class of body armor protection more necessary?
For the civil — this is usually the 2nd class that ends the most severe of criminal environment in vserasprostranennogo tool — TT pistol of 7.62 mm. With all this body armor protects itself from the lead and soft point bullets huge number of pistols and revolvers. Does not apply to the spoken armor-piercing bullets, is issued at the present time, are able to make guns stern gun. But they have a comparable small spread in the criminal environment.
Military jackets are divided into two main groups. Combined arms — to protect against automatic guns of 5,45-7,62 mm. It grades 3-5. Assault — for units located in a particular fire contact with the enemy, applying the whole arsenal of weapons: grenades, mines, rifle cartridges with bullets over-penetration and armor-piercing incendiary bullets, including — the famous B-32. The latter is known from the time of stateliness Russian war. Assault vests provide protection from 5A to 6A class inclusive. Such vests possess the highest degree of protection of important concepts and usually have always been heavy, but modern armor materials can reduce the weight of the vest itself to the level of combined arms, in which the currently still used armor panels of armor steel.
What materials are used in bullet-proof vests?
Usually, the base material for military, civilian and police body armor — ballistic fabric based on aramid fibers. Overseas — this South American Kevlar and Twaron Europe. In Russia — is a series of aramid fibers, which in chemistry is very different from American and European. By the way, they were presented at Milipol-2011 Russian producer "Kamenskvolokno." The differences in the properties of the Russian and aramid fibers zabugornyh the subject of many publications, discusses the pros and cons. I can only agree with the views of the majority of professionals in the potential of our fiber to this day has not implemented one hundred percent. Add a curious fact, acquired not only in the "TEHINKOMe" (an abbreviation Technologies, Engineering Composites — note Andreeva). At the "protective properties / weight" of the structure of the Russian aramid fibers are superior zabugornye aramid fiber. A number of structures, especially composite, do not give way on this indicator of ultrahigh-molecular structures cellophane (UHMWPE), despite the fact that the physical density of the last one and a half times less. UHMWPE — very exciting stuff. The fibers possess superior strength, catching up with aramid and ballistic products from it — body armor, helmets and armor panels — are able to swim in the water and do not lose at all this ballistic parameters, which unfortunately is common to all aramid.
But there is a failure. This material is for military body armor is not applicable. The fact is that whatever it was high molecular weight, it is still cellophane. He limiting operating temperature can not exceed 90 degrees Celsius. In the military criteria, when there is the possibility of a particular contact with fire or hot objects when operating conditions formidable (vest and used as bedding, and as an additional means of protection in transport), cellophane, especially in the form of non-woven unidirectional Myagenko structures do not provide operational survivability . But as a tool for police body armor UHMWPE fit. The police all the same does not work in the field of languid criteria are not in the trenches, and the fire is not dried. I do not mean the military units of the Russian Interior Ministry troops.
Protivopistoletnaya and Ballistic protection — this is the maximum that can be achieved myagenkoy structure of the tissue. To protect the important principle of long-barreled guns of bullets in bullet-proof vests to use armor panels. There are several circumstances. In 1-x, long-barreled shot gun — sharp striking element. With its exposure to high concentration of energy in a small area, high energy pulse. Myagenkie fabric bags reasonable thickness, these will not retain. In recent history, after a long break since the medieval armor, armor plates were made of steel. In the First and the Second World War, such plates are used extensively. Later began to use light alloys. For example, during the wa
r in Afghanistan has been bulletproof vests, in which some elements are made of aluminum armor, some of titanium. Since the 80's began to use a clay material that from the standpoint of weight and degree of protection superior to metals. But the use of ceramics can only be coupled with composites of ballistic fibers. With all of this needs to be solved a lot of material science problems associated with low survival of armor plates and not always of the highest realization of the complex parameters of ceramics. With clay armor panels must be handled carefully.
In our conditions, I believe we have taken the maximum, to make such a panel is resistant to any operational damage: Damage hit on armored vehicles, body armor dropped on a concrete floor — not creepy. To its credit, the Ministry of Defence, the highest survivability of a clay puzzle armor plates identified as early as the 1990s, as a priority, because until then a clay armor panels very lost on this indicator iron. With this approach, the army has a robust development — armor panels of the family "Granite-4." Armor panels tested more than a decade of operating in hot spots in the body armor 6B13 and confirmed the importance of the highest survivability. The subsequent generation of armor plates "Granit-6", owning more than the highest bulletproof, prior and superior survivability, providing protection against 6 hits with a probability close to 100 percent, and 10 hits with a probability of 80 percent. They are delivered to the troops in a new body armor assault 6B43 from the current year. These are the main materials that are currently in production and is in the series.
And what about the promising developments?
There is a trend away from rigid and awkward to use armor panels and highly improved ergonomics of body armor, creating a flexible, bulletproof structure. An example of such work is developed in the USA body armor Dragon Skin. He served as a bullet-proof vest top class, but with all this is also flexible. Pentagon conducted comparative tests, and Dragon Skin could not stand them in comparison with serial armor plates ESAPI.
A lot is written about the so-called "watery" vests. The information was based on the real-life physical phenomenon. There are water so called STF-STC-or liquid suspensions which represent the nanoparticles hard materials, for example, quartz, dispersed in a low volatile liquids, for example, ethylene glycol. If you exceed a certain threshold velocity suspension increases its viscosity, and at extreme speeds the flow becomes quasi-solid. This effect is possible to develop flexible odezhki with certain protective qualities. But such odezhka will only protect against blunt, splinter, bullet, much less long-barreled guns, will not be detained such a barrier. For example, knee pads and elbow pads with the "watery" armor have the right to exist and has to provide fall protection. In other words, a person walks, knee pads do not interfere with the movement of the legs, then he abruptly fell to one knee, and the knee does not hurt to hit as knee at impact ran into a tough situation and the energy distributed over a larger surface. But if the fall had on Stitching wire, knee-pad does not work, puncture provided. We izderzhali 2005 to study "watery" reservation, realized physics of the process, conducted full-scale tests, and we have our own worldview. "Watery" ballistic protection at the current level of development of material comes out. Publications about England, Novosibirsk, Israel — faster we want.
And if we talk about zabronevoy protection?
Zabronevaya protection involves scattering of stroke, which is considered to be blunt. In other words, if a sharp blow, it's a break, a break where there is neither of which zabronevoy protection of speech does not go. Problem zabronevoy protection — dissipate the energy of a blunt blow to the very large area and dampen the impact of stroke on the body, particularly in areas relevant principal organs of the chest and where the close proximity of bone tissue. Incidentally, the above STF-fluid could be used for this purpose, but by its own weight, they can not withstand konkurentnst materials such as polyurethane foam and polyethylene foam. The thickness of such protection in the Russian body armor achieves 25 mm. In the U.S. only at this time started to introduce damping layers. Until nedavneshnego time zabronevaya protection vests did not apply, and in this there is no military vests so far. It is believed that the protection of zabronevoy blunt trauma increases the completeness of the equipped fighter, and this has a negative impact on its mobility and the fulfillment of combat tasks.
In addition, the development of the provision of medical care in a combat environment in the U.S. Army is built on the principle that such protection is necessary that the person did not die in the first 15 minutes after injury, during which he is guaranteed to get expert medical help. But, as history shows, the military situation is not always possible to provide assistance for even a few hours after the injury. Because our doctors dictate strict requirements — that zabronevaya injury does not exceed the second degree concussion. And this is — bruising and minor internal hemorrhage, in which the average person can be completely restored within 10 days.
All Russian-arms body armor, including 6B23, 6B23-1, 6B13 and 6B43, do not allow the injury above the second level.
Is there a rigid standards for the design, manufacture and delivery of batches of protection?
Naturally. Especially in the military. There is a system of standards — GOST. The development cycle is regulated passes. First step — tactical and technical requirements or the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation Ministry of Internal Affairs, the second — conceptual design, the third — the technical design, the fourth — preparatory tests for the enterprise developer, 5th — preparatory tests under the supervision of the military office at range of the customer, and later state tests. All tests are carried out in the framework of programs on the basis of the tactical and technical specifications, in which lists all of the impacts that are required to protect, and all related types of tests prescribed by the guests — wear resistance, chemical resistance, sredostoykost, performance characteristics (the full range of movements and actions, common to all types of military specialties).
Test runs after the municipal meeting of the Interagency Commission, which reviews all test results and documentation. After reviewing all of the documents is decided to take advice on the supply of products. Such an order signed by the minister of defense, after that statement is to create products. With civilian products easier — to achieve its consumer product designed to certify the established order to conform to the safety features of IEC 50744-95.
Is there any warranty for the duration of storage protection?
Such guarantees are. For each type of product developer establishes the warranty period. For body armor combined arms are covered for an average of 5 years, including warehousing.
In other words, taking into account the terms of the guarantee, the Ministry of Defence to create purchase of bullet-proof vests in equal intervals of time?
Yes. Such purchases should be yearly, since the security of military personnel protective equipment is far from desired. Consumption of body armor in the military is not only because it is based on shelf life. They wear and everyday use, from time to time
faster than expected. Some of them can be repaired. For example, maintenance work can do alone fighter — sew a sling or cover patch. This allowed. Average repair — complete replacement cover — made or factory-, or special maintenance units of the Armed Forces.
And how long ago the Ministry of Defence were ordering body armor at your company?
Purchases body armor conducted once a year, while this year they are the greatest in the last decade — 10 of thousands. At the Yankees, for comparison, the yearly purchases — hundreds of thousands of units. We annually deliver its development — assault vests 6B13. Starting this year, producing new high-level body armor — 6B43. Their share in this year of about 2.5 percent of the total volume ordered body armor.
Which means companies are new developments? From government grants or out of the profit?
As with all research and production enterprise, we are in the development of its profits. The new product comes out every five to ten years. Its occurrence is preceded by systematic work on the concept of finding a new product based on an analysis of its own and foreign experience and the possible prospects of implementation. Underway materials science, ballistic studies compositions and structures. Accumulated potential role in competitive contests on product development for a specific tactical and technical requirements of the customer.
As for the customer — the Ministry of Defence. It pays to developmental work on the winner of the competition of low cost, as it defeated because he proclaimed it as much as other applicants. The question is, why? The answer is simple. To sell later developed and adopted for the supply of products to earn profits, invest it in the development and subsequent development. This is the only plausible way of being industry research, which has never received a grant.
MIA competition does not pay directly before the state tests. "Tehinkom" participated in this contest, which was held this year. All work, including tests on programmke customer's enterprise-applicants conducted at their own expense. And the results let the customer without the help of others. The result of the contest is not clear so far none of the participants are discussing.
It turns out that the competition — it's the only way to provide the Ministry of any new developments?
In principle, this approach, which is used by municipal agencies of many countries. But the difference is that the aspect of choice in the countries with a developed culture of competition is not only the cost of development. The competent committee, which includes representatives of the scientific elite — the professionals in the major fields of science, concludes research intensity of development, its real novelty and provides the customer, let's military, more unbiased information necessary to decide the winner.
Can you tell us about our promising "equipping the future"?
Development work to create equipment will begin this year, and in 2013 it should be adopted by the supply. This will be the second generation of equipment, without super-robots and other types of mind-blowing equipment and weapons. It contains both the instrument and the armor protection, livelihoods, clothes. It is a new machine, new means of targeting, brand new digital communications system. Each fighter will develop a system of intelligence, determination and data commander.
In 2009, it was reported that the Ministry of Defence is in talks with France on the purchase of a limited batch of equipment "soldier of the future" FELIN. It has something to do with the prospects of Russian equipment?
Purchase of multiple sets of equipment in France discussions are in the leadership of the Ministry of Defense in order to make a comparison with the developments of Russian equipment, is adopting its own armies advanced countries. But the difficulty of matching is that all the components of the various sets were created for different tactical and technical assignments. And if the original requirements were different, how can you tell which is better, without giving themselves to the general aspect of the TTP? Means, the answer can only be — the product conforms to our requirements or not. The U.S. has a huge logistical ability to experiment, including in the field of equipment. But it is not exactly that we can apply their technical solutions to our terms of production and operation. For example, the Americans — the only ones in the world who continue to use a carbide ceramics in combined body armor. The Soviet Union launched the first of its introduction in the 1980s.
Overhead due to lack of raw materials and on the territory of Russia we had to find a way of substitution. And they understood that expensive carbide ceramics — not a good protection against high-speed anti-armor munitions. The way in which we are forced to go, led to positive results. Our armor panels have cost three times less than South American, South American counterparts excel on bulletproof and vitality. It is on the aspects of the Defense Ministry. Americans just four years back started to read that there is a possibility of re-defeat in the vest. From our point of view — if slow-moving fighter, for example wounded, he becomes the target of a comfortable, your ability to defeat in this case is high. If maintained machine gun or automatic rifle fire, the possibility of multiple hits in man is also very high. South American body armor first hit was incubated with a guarantee, and the second and third — as lucky. And our body armor — 6B13 and 6B43 — must withstand 6 hits.
One time strolling rumors that the Ministry of Defense, except FELIN, and plans to receive flak jackets abroad. In your opinion, what is the reason?
These hearings, as I understand, is not unfounded. Hosted expression of the Chief of General Staff Nikolai Makarov, the Ministry of Defence that he showed in Germany dvuhkilogrammovy Myagenko vest that holds the bullets of 7.62 mm from the AKM. My world as a spice that has been brought before the information is incomplete or unreliable. Specifically, in order to refute this information in the last few months, "TSNIITOCHMASH" underwent comparative tests of advanced foreign equipment and our parts. Tests passed by programmke Defense Ministry. Home — Representatives of the High Command of the Armed Forces. Russian flak jackets and helmets were shot along with South American. Hopefully, the results of the tests to talk sense Makarova and he will see the positive aspects of Russian developments.
There is some disorder in the current system, which you are not satisfied?
I am concerned about the fate of the branch of science, to put it simply — the developers. I'm going back to the above: brand new development — the result of long-term operation of the enterprise sector. It conducts a development out of the profit that can be paid on the sale of series production. But the law 94-FZ puts mine developers — by purchasing auction is some "bold" and assigns the value of the company is much the smallest. Naturally, selects the job, but in the end does not produce a product. Itself is affected, of course, but with all this military department is a loss and does not receive the order. The Department of Defense has several such examples nedavneshnih. 94-FZ Rosoboronpostavki can not use any other aspects when choosing a leader among eligible entries, not including the price. The funds allocated by the Ministry of Defence on the development work, in principle, can not recoup the costs of the developer, to the scientific and industrial-material basis for the creation of a new product for many years before setting R & D, as these funds are also allocated on a competitive basis according to the principle of "who ask for less, "not" who is better able. " That's what I told about the insecurity in
the procurement system, which can not disturb the developers.
Are there any plans to change the situation somehow?
Yes. Accumulated throughout the country a lot of claims to 94-second law. Somewhere read that some prepared a bill that would, perhaps, be called the 95th law or somehow different, which is to take early next year is unlikely to be in time, and will run 94-second law with some additions.
The last question. How do you assess the prospects of Russian industry, engaged in the development and production of the means of protection? Does the future of the industry?
On the sectoral science and its associated creation I have spoken. I might add that a permanent order in the amount of this year — this is the way to ensure an adequate systematic army this kind of equipment. I stress, constant and timely. This year it is normal in size, but very late. For some businesses, well-proven, are required to make annual volume of less than six months, with the risk of losing reputation because of the delay in delivery due to reasons beyond the control of them.
As for gear and equipment produced by sewing technology, there is a huge production resources, only Russian base materials — special fibers, fabrics, special fittings — no, and it is unlikely she will be without foreign assistance. Russian light industry canceled …
As for personal body armor, in Russia there is a definite resource base, requiring the development and growing, there are a number of industrial companies, technology-filled, fully sufficient for the formation of a competitive environment, as well as it should, there is a process improvement, there is a prospect of the industry with no lag from world leaders . Unless, of course, will not cancel itself Branch …
Thanks for the answers worthy of attention.
Thank you for your attention to our dilemmas.