Underwater mine-layers, such as Ruff

Minelaying undertaken by Black Sea submarine "Crab" in the campaigns of 1915-1916 years, substantiated luck solving the problem of hidden of mine fields. 1st Global has shown high efficiency of mines that were supplied with mine layers. In this regard, Russian MGSH (Marine General Staff) and the Department of diving the GAM (General Directorate of Shipbuilding) have paid increased attention to the development of those. jobs for underwater mine-layers. Come on stream new ships of this class could only two — three years. Taking into account the desire of submarine officers of the Baltic Fleet as soon as possible to get at least one underwater mine minelayer, GAM in August 1916 suggested that the Baltic Shipyard to create a project under construction submarine refit "Trout" in the suppressor.

According to the terms of reference department diving GAM, "apparatus for ejecting mines" had to be very approximate to mine choreographer minelayer "Crab". Apparatus should be provided automatic setting min intervals with 30.5 meters underwater speed of 4 knots up to the maximum speed submarine. All mine device designed for use by the existing standard min "submarine" with zero buoyancy. Data was armed with underwater mines mine minelayer "Crab".

Underwater mine-layers, such as "Ruff"

On the project conversion submarine "Trout" worked: marine engineer Lieutenant Ruberovsky KI, head of the. the Division of diving Baltic plant, ship's engineer lieutenant Tokmakov EM, Vladimir Vasilyev, the constructor. During the works used the design drawings of the submarine "Crab" and drawings of the ship, submarine crew had at the Black Sea Fleet and the plant ONZiV (Society of St. Nicholas factories and shipyards). In October 1916 — the final step — Ruberovsky KI and his colleagues have been investigating the submarine "Crab" in Sevastopol, and to consult with the drawings in Petrograd came conductor of the underwater mine minelayer Tantsura Simon. The project was considered the commander of the submarine world "Crab" Lieutenant Parutskogo MV, which is recommended to add a pointer opening covers, increment thickness of the lower slide straps mine system, and enhance the reliability of mines spetsprisposobleny type "PL".

The initial design of the submarine refit "Trout" at the end of October 1916 and the department approved MGSH diving GAM. With all this "to save the stability and best protivosetevoy protection" have decided to turn away from the lattice of mine vehicles Drzewiecki, having placed in the nose two spare Whitehead mines, and mounting the front wheel-house caliber 57 mm cannon. General Directorate of shipbuilding October 26, 1916 issued the Baltic factory outfit for the conversion of the submarine's "Trout" in the suppressor. May 1, 1917 was established for a period of readiness.
By this time, apart from the Baltic plant development projects such as doing ONZiV and Revel plant "Noblessner." Verbovanie factory "Noblessner" can explain the petition of Vice Admiral, Commander of the Baltic Fleet, AI Nepenin on the completion of the submarine "tour", which was being built at the plant, minelayer. The project is converting the "Tour" at the "Noblessner" performed in September and October 1916 under the supervision of, and perhaps under the common control of captain ship engineer Yurkevich VI (Forthcoming in — chief designer of the French liner "Normandie"). But the plant "Noblessner" November 5, 1916 from the implementation of the order refused, because he could not guarantee his performance in the spring of 1917.

Bulls captain first class BA, Head of diving plant project "Noblessner" did not approve of, as it proposed to implement a completely new unit director min. Believing it impracticable without the introduction of comprehensive tests (as it was made on a submarine "Crab"), Bulls BA pointed out the advantages of the proposed options Baltic factory.
Worldview Department of diving has become crucial in order for the second mine layer of the Baltic Fleet, which insisted Vice-Admiral Alexander Nepenin

Baltic Shipyard 11.11.1916 was issued outfit for the conversion according to the approved design of the submarine's "Trout" another submarine — "Ruff" — with the same term of readiness. Minelayer project, drawn up in October-December 1916 ONViZ, was not implemented due to the failure of the Black Sea submarine refitting submarines are under construction such as "Bars" ("Swan") in mine-layers. The brigade commander submarine captain first class Klochkovsky VE with all this, explained that the Black Sea Fleet submarines lack of ordinary type, and for setting mines quite a submarine "Crab". In autumn 1915 the submarine "Ruff" and "Trout", first construct a factory "Noblessner" transferred to the Baltic Shipyard. Hull of the submarine "Ruff" by this time gathered about 60 percent, and the slipways of the submarine's "Trout" not held "because of the remoteness of the deadlines." During the transfer order in Petrograd factory "Noblessner" by rail was delivered 80 tons of processed steel for the submarine "Ruff" and 94.5 tons — for the submarine "Trout." On the Baltic plant builder of submarines assigned naval architect Yan'kova PA 01/01/1916 he was able to bring the total willingness submarine "Trout" to 14.36 percent (the beginning of construction 09.11.1915) and the submarine "Ruff" (beginning of construction 10.11.1915) — up to 20.4 percent of total availability.

Corps both submarines were completed in October 1916, for placing the "apparatus for setting mines" require severe alterations in the aft. This event and the technical difficulties of the mine devices and low supply discipline contractors have made the inevitable failure of deadlines readiness.

The strikes were first detained in 1917 the building for about a month. To fill that gap did not seem likely "due to temporary withdrawal sverhshabashnyh works, 8-hour working day or, decrease administration and masters." As a result, the submarine "Ruff" Launched in the summer, but the fall could bring in Revel to the tests.

Leave her underwater boat "Trout", which at the time of construction temporarily removed parts for the repair of the submarine "Gepard", the water was launched in November, and winter remains of the wall of the plant. In November and December 1917, tests were conducted underwater mine layer "Ruff" a commission under the chairmanship of Levitsky PP on an abbreviated program there. Division headquarters submarines based on the results of tests requested the Military Division of enrollment Tsetrobalta submarine "Ruff" in the list of the fleet to 12/28/1917.

Fundamentally differ underwater mine layer "Ruff" on the layout — the submarine "Bars" — is the type of diesel engines and the main part of the mine arms. The aft superstructure of light (140-218 frames) in a staggered in two rows of 42 mines were located "PL". Mines "PL" moved on rails through the worm shaft, which spun electric motor speed is varied in the range from 600 to 1000 r / min depending on the speed of the submarine. So Makar, ensured setting min interval 30.5 meters in the range of s
peeds of the submarine from 4 to 12 knots. To move and how to fix min drive rolls served anchors and guides the machine. The total weight of the "apparatus for ejecting min" (without the weight of the rails and superstructure) was 2.5 tons.

Underwater mine-layers, such as "Ruff"

The initial project, which was approved for another Underwater boat "Trout", foresaw the installation of a pair of feed and a pair of bow torpedo tubes for Whitehead min caliber of 457 mm with 2 spare torpedoes placed in the nose. Mines "PL" are taken into overdrive, and therefore when "the preponderance of the stern" surfaced submarine was a trim 40. "Threat of loss of longitudinal stability while diving served as a prerequisite for refusal to feed the torpedo tubes, and change the volume of the brain ballast tanks. also declined to spare Whitehead torpedoes. surface displacement of the submarine "Ruff" in reality was 655 tons, underwater — 750 tons. Armament also changed: one 57-mm cannon changed the weapon caliber 75 mm (rate — 10 rds. per min., elevation angle of 20 °.), set the machine gun and anti-aircraft gun caliber of 37 mm. To improve "protivosetevoy protection" enclosure screws and rudders were made streamlined, and the body — no protruding parts, a smooth one.

The principal improvement of the submarine "Ruff" in comparison with "Bars" was a device of the lower shearing flap precluding the possibility of death in the submarine sinking cabin, also the transfer of control to the control room. In the central office were transferred control periscopes, vertical wheel, purging and venting decked and medium tanks. In order to increment the volume of the central station was reduced height of the surge tank. On the underwater mine-layers "Ruff" and "Trout" Set Master 420-horsepower diesel engines of the American form of "New London". In tests the speed of the submarine "Ruff" on the surface was 10.75 knots. The supplies of fuel is 32 tons provide a cruising range of 1,000 miles at full speed, and the economic progress of 1400 miles. Submarine "Ruff" was not involved in the fighting. She's in February 1918, along with other submarines division made the transition to Helsinki from Revel, and in April 1918 took part in the march ice ships of the Baltic Fleet. In autumn 1918 the submarine "Ruff" to put the long-term storage at the port.

Submarine "Trout" and failed to put into operation. First, in 1918 its completion was stopped at 90 percent readiness. The submarine at that time were able to establish the battery pack and electric motors galley control actuators. Draft estimates of the Maritime Office, which singled out 425 thousand rubles for the completion of submarines "Yaz" and "Trout" in the July-December 1918, remained on paper.

Based on the expected by the summer of 1919 the operational situation in the Baltic Sea, Altvater VM, Commander of Naval Forces of the Republic, ordered in December 1918 to issue an urgent order to repair the submarine "Ruff" and the completion of the submarine's "Trout". In the port of Kronstadt was 80 minutes "PL" (of which 38 — put a second submarine), 56 anchors and 237 cases of such mines, which were delivered earlier with "G.A.Lessnera." Conducted in 1918 by a team of submarine "Ruff" educational setting mines proved unreliable separation from anchors min. Defect had hoped to remove the spring of next year, but the state of the industry is not allowed to perform scheduled. In 1919, the current squad of the Baltic Sea was left without a submarine mine-layers.

Submarine "Ruff" in October 1919, was transferred to the Lake Ladoga, and then she returned to the Baltic Sea in July 1921, becoming a member of the Second Division of the submarine brigade of the Baltic Fleet. Unfinished submarine "Trout" in the autumn of the same year examined spec. committee chaired by naval architect Shershova AP It was decided to finish the suppressor on the Baltic plant to navigation in 1922. To save the submarine corps in the winter of 1921-1922 was recommended to look around and clean up the bottom of rust and mud, paint and coat it with oil. To avoid tearing the lines recommended by the commission to "fill the hole underwater manure to heat the fireside."

In the absence of some devices Submarine "Trout" until 1925 remained on the list of "ships, destined to completion." During the preparation of the shipbuilding programs from the latest (1926) from a legacy submarine abandoned altogether, since 1929, her body was used as a training tool for upgrades rescue vessel "Commune", then it was pulled down to the metal.

Underwater mine-layers, such as "Ruff"

Submarine "Ruff" in 1922-1924 was repaired. December 31, 1922 wavetraps given a new title of "Work" (tail number 9) was in the brigade of submarines of the Baltic Fleet. Submarines "№ 9" and "№ 4" ("Leopard", the upcoming "Red Army") May 21, 1931 under the command of the commander of the submarine "Work" Tsarevskogo NA (Aka — the battalion commander) came out in the western part of the Gulf of Finland in the educational campaign to work out a joint above-water swimming. In the area of the lighthouse Erensgrund NIGHT MODE May 22 Underwater boat "№ 4" in stormy weather while turning on a course of 200 degrees broke the rules of maneuvering, striking stem to stern of the submarine "№ 9". "№ 9" with a huge trim went for 3-5 minutes under water.

Maybe after the collision commander Underwater Boats Tsarevskii NA expected to keep the ship afloat by pumping the incoming water. Watch the entire top came down, closing the conning-tower hatch, but to cope with a hole did not work — and the commander of all 45 sailors were killed.

The Commission recognized the perpetrators of the disaster Timanova IV, Officer of the submarine "№ 4" (he was appointed to the submarine for a day or three before the release), the commander of the submarine Atavina AD (Appointed on 02.17.1931), commissar Tolkacheva VN All three were arrested and convicted. People's Commissar Kliment Voroshilov arrived in Kronstadt sailors scolded for low discipline. Fever is caused by the tragedy served as a prerequisite for the next passage of personnel shuffling and combat crew training "from scratch", without leaving the dock. With all of this Revolutionary Military Council said: "response personnel to the death of a submarine number 9 … healthy", which was reflected in the growth of the party ranks, enthusiasm and raising funds for the construction of the modern submarine.

According to the views of Admiral VN Platonov, who at the time served in the brigade of submarines, the main causes of the tragedy were "obsolete" minelayer, dilapidated housing and equipment, lack of transverse bulkheads, and a low level of training of sailors. Immediately after the disaster began the search for the dead, but she was at a depth of 80 meters, which is not allowed to immediately achieve results.

EPRON July 21, 1933 with the rescue ship "Commune" (formerly "Volkh
ov") raised the sunken submarine minelayer, then he was put on the scrap heap.

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