Who decided to go to Tot’ma standing on the bank of a fast Sukhona — the largest river in the Vologda region, is to be patient. The road to this northern town neblizkaya, but in this lies the beauty: being at a considerable distance from both capitals, Tot’ma was able not only to invent his own architectural style, but also to equip more than twenty expeditions to the Pacific Ocean — is more than the company of Moscow, Vologda and Veliky merchants together. But first things first.
To see what Tot’ma lives today, originally worth to visit the central area of the town. It was centered around the most interesting, not only for tourists, but also, perhaps, to the locals. Already in the early morning totemtsy flood area — here starts the grocery and clothing market, open the doors and numerous butcher shops. For us, the guests of the city, on one of the adjacent streets built tourist board showing the main attractions. However, using it is not necessarily much more interesting to work around the central part of the city as a whole, to walk on every street. It’s so great not to follow the map to a point on it, but on their own and to some extent unexpected to discover the rich architectural history of the city.
Houses on the central square of the city
However, being in the center, you will hardly be able to resist the temptation of following his step not choose the way to the two temples that if the ships moored to the market square. Prerequisites for the emergence of these unusual shape of churches associated with the distant past, when in the XVI century, was born in the vicinity of a center of salt production. That’s when it became clear that Tot’ma not get lost in the northern forests, and will only grow and prosper.
View from the central square in the temples
It is said that in those days in the salt production could not put together a single state. By the way, the process of extraction of salt is generally one of the first species of the mining industry in Russia. At the head of salt production industries were Tot’ma Stroganov merchants that by the middle of the XVI century were able to concentrate in their hands almost all Varnitsa North. Competition Stroganov, shells later Ermak in Siberia, were only monasteries that Ivan the Terrible had been exempted from paying tax on the "white gold". Its monastery was in Tot’ma. It was founded by a very enterprising Sumorin monk Theodosius, who quickly realized what benefits can be derived from the monastery of duty-free salt production.
By the way, the salt was not the only source of income for Tot’ma. Hunting and sale of furs were no less important. Even on the official emblem of the city depicts a black fox on a gold background — an indicator of the importance of furs for the local economy. Moreover, with the opening of trade routes with England and Holland through Arkhangelsk in the second half of the XVI century Tot’ma became an important river port. There appeared Kremlin, built stalls and barns.
View of a bridge over the Tot’ma Sukhona
A curious thing about visiting Tot’ma rulers of Russia, is given in the book "Solvychegodsk, Great Ustiug Tot’ma" *. Tsar Peter I, Tot’ma visited several times en route to Arkhangelsk, once decided to familiarize themselves with the work at the salt works. Wanting to make heavy-duty work, he pulled the bucket with brine, for which he demanded the issue of an installed card. Characteristically, it was later Peter was destined to contribute to the economic well-being Tot’ma. Founding of St. Petersburg, the first Emperor of the Russian Empire forever changed the direction of trade between Russia and the West. However, the effects of these "innovations" are not immediately reflected in the city and in the XVIII, when Tot’ma reached its peak, in the arena of action out local merchants, mariners. Perhaps it is with these people and associated with the most glorious pages of the history of Totma.
Street, stretching from the city center
Now we can only wonder how the small town of Vologda could play a very significant role in the development of the territories of the Pacific. However, it would be wrong to think that local merchants outfitting their ships just for the sake of Discovery. In many ways, their interest was in valuable furs, which, passing the Tot’ma, told participants Kamchatka expeditions led by Bering. Thus, combining business with pleasure, Totemskoe merchants were kitted out 20 expeditions to the shores of America.
Posters of the city still draw by hand
Their way was difficult and thorny, and held at least a year. First, sailors traveled to Irkutsk, and then walked along the Siberian rivers to Okhotsk. Only in the Okhotsk they bought or built a ship rounded the peninsula of Kamchatka and walked to the neighbor Aleutian Islands. Away from home, in the depths of the sea, merchants vows: if we stay alive — for the return construct a temple in his hometown. So sailboats, in the hours of prayer for salvation, becomes the temple, and later appearing in the home churches became "sailboats". The last words does not constitute a reservation, because if you look at the local church, in the guise of their ship’s silhouette is clearly seen.
Houses in Tot’ma mostly wood
Perhaps the most impressive proof of the above words, is the Entry into Jerusalem temple, to which we have gone from the central square. The temple was built at the end of XVIII century at the expense of merchants brothers Panov, who at one time were awarded medals by Catherine II of the expedition aboard the "St. Julian "for" syskaniya new lands and to drive people in Gdań
sk … (Russian) citizenship. "
Entry into Jerusalem Church is actively restored (1774-1794)
The founders of the great fur empire, the brothers Panov not stingy, and in the construction of the temple seems to have put his heart and soul. High tending to all the forces building up primarily affects the elegant décor of its walls. They are decorated with the so-called cartouches — relief pattern in the form of a shield or reduce the elements of which protrudes from the plane of the wall. It is a carved stone ornament and become the main symbol of the Totemsky Baroque.
The most impressive temple Vhodoierusalimskaya produces, if you look at it from the side, the part of the hotel "Breaking Dawn." From this point of the temple appears to us in this "ship", a formidable, if a wind sail inflated and ready to withstand any storm. Pay attention to the cartridges — they are especially luxurious between the lower and middle windows.
View of the Entry into Jerusalem Temple from the hotel "Breaking Dawn"
With the creation of the end of XVIII century parastatal Russian-American trading company that monopolized the fur trade in the Pacific Islands, the epoch of private expeditions. However, during this period Tot’ma was still too early to write off. In 1790, the Totem tradesman Ivan Kuskov went to the sacred shores of the New World, but not only for the purpose of production of furs, and with a desire to establish a Russian settlements there. Among other pioneers, Kuskov landed 80 kilometers north of the modern San Francisco … It is worth noting that by the time this land has already been bought by Russian from local Indian tribe kasaya-help for three blankets, three pairs of pants, two axes, three hoes and some threads of beads.
Later it was founded Russia’s "capital" — New Archangel (now Sitka), and after some time a bit higher Slavyanka River (modern Rushen River) was laid wooden fortress Fort Ross. It was Ivan Kuskov became the first ruler of fortification.
View of the Church of the Nativity of Christ (1746-1793)
At the fortress had been built the first windmill in California, shipyard, laid the first orchard and vineyard. Russian successfully raised cattle, wool sent for export, making furniture, doors, frames, roof tiles of the redwoods, carts, wheels, barrels, vehicles, processed leather, treated with iron and copper.
Cuzco was the ruler of the fort by 1821. Upon completion of service in the fortress, he returned to his homeland, where he settled in a quiet house near Sukhona. Great totmich was buried in the monastery of Holy Sumorin (the grave, unfortunately, did not survive). By the way, now Fort Ross, who in 1841 was sold to businessman John Sutter from Mexico for 42,000 silver rubles (of whom he had owed more than half), beautifully restored and protected. The castle is a museum, which annually attracts more than 150,000 visitors.
Church of the Nativity
If the center of Tot’ma go towards a summer scene, past the monument to the Russian explorers and further down the street, you will inevitably leave the shore Sukhona. The street that runs along the river embankment is called Kuskova. The house itself is great totmicha turned into a museum, and here erected a monument to him. Totmichi remember and honor their history. As an example, the city is actively engaged in the restoration of Peter’s craft traditions of the school.
At the beginning of XX century for apprenticeship of orphans and poor children, it has created on the means native Tot’ma — merchant Nicholas I. Tokarev. The school building was built on what was then the latest technology with plumbing and electric lights — it is alive, and now stands on the bank of the Sukhona, three-story, red brick building.
Tot’ma center. Summer scene, and a monument to explorers
Schooling was free and was four years into it to make educated boys aged 12 to 14 years, preference was given to natives Tot’ma and county, among them — orphans. According to the charter school, its primary goal was to "communication students with knowledge and skills that can develop a cottage industry in the region is well executed toys that could meet the current requirements." In addition, the students produced a variety of items household goods — from furniture to sinks and toilets.
Day pupils started at 6.30 am. After breakfast from 7 to 10 hours of lessons went from 10 to 10.50 has been a change in the tea, and from 13 to 14.30 — lunch and rest, from 17 to 17.30 — "pauzhin" (snack) in 19 hours — dinner. They were given free supplies for painting and drawing, seasonal clothing is purchased. In the first year of training children to attend Russian language classes, studied arithmetic, as well as carpentry, basket, sheet metal, house painting. And in the fourth year of training, graduates of the school performed the most difficult orders — chair, rocking chair, sofa, couch, booth for swimming, a gazebo, a screen, a table made of bamboo or reed with intricate patterns.
Kuskova embankment. View of the Church of the Assumption
No wonder that soon the fame of Totma school beyond the limits of Russia. In 1905 at the International Exhibition in Liege (Belgium), the school was awarded the "Grand Prix". Totemskie toys became known in Berlin, Paris and the Netherlands. Were especially popular woodwork series "From the fairy world": a hut on chicken legs, Ivan the Fool, and carved boxes and boxes.
The intricate, original toys got a response in 1912 in the capital’s magazine "Niva". The author was surprised, said: "… as students, especially female students — kids who did not have before school any idea of drawing and painting — quickly learn both." Of particular interest, in his opinion, were chess pieces depicting ancient warriors, intricate folding houses with a forest of fir trees, all kinds of animals, figurines, nutcrackers for nuts, elegant boxes, candelabras, chandeliers — this is a far from complete list of all items that are so Peter’s famous school.
Unfortunately, after the death of the main patron of the school — the merchant Tokarev — institution’s financial position worsened. Since 1918, local archives can be found private letter to the school principal Vologda pro
vincial Department of Education to provide students with the requests of clothing and products. But the main thing — gradually lost its primary school "flavor" — making hands artisans Totma toys. After the decision of the People’s Commissariat of Education, according to which all schools should have been designed to meet the vital needs of the country, in the toy business school finally died.
Trinity Church in the Green settlement
Extant examples of Peter’s products trade school are currently in Totemskiy museum and make up one of his best displays. Many household items (buffets, cabinets for dishes, carved medicine cabinet, chairs) are preserved and the residents Tot’ma.
My visit to Tot’ma fell on Saturday. Near the summer scene in downtown strolling young mothers with strollers, kids on bikes riding. My attempt to visit one of the cafes was not a success — they were used as wedding receptions. Life went on as usual. Already in the evening, when the city was plunged into the twilight, and green birch and linden thickens in anticipation of the night, I went to the hotel. Under the feet of wooden sidewalks creaking floorboards and behind the sails were white churches that seem to have absorbed the light of the setting sun, and so did not want to give it up.
PS To reach a Tot’ma from Moscow is most convenient by car. According to the M-8 to Vologda, on the same highway in the direction of Arkhangelsk to the post of DPS in Chekshino, further to the right along the new road to the Great Ustug (new since earlier in Tot’ma could get only one way — on the passenger steamer on Sukhona. Only in the mid-eighties was built road). If you use public transportation, you will need to buy a train ticket to Vologda, and then purchase a ticket for the bus to Tot’ma. Distance from Moscow to Tot’ma about 700 kilometers.