The journal "Review of the Army and Navy» № 1/2012
The present level of development of armored vehicles largely determines the combat potential of the Land Forces of the country. Infantry fighting vehicles are the most widespread type of technology the Army. The constant renewal of combat vehicles is through the development of new and modernization of existing armored vehicles.
The life cycle of armored vehicles long enough and is 30-40 years. In many countries of the world passes modernization of the main fleet of combat vehicles. In the U.S., re-produced infantry fighting vehicles «Bradley» M2A2 M2A3 to the level.
Russian infantry fighting vehicle BMP-2 — the main combat vehicle of land forces of many countries in the world — was put into service in 1980, and surpassed most foreign analogues in its combat characteristics. Currently, the BMP-2 bronezaschischennosti and driving performance is basically consistent with modern requirements.
Analysis of the status and trends of weapons and fire control systems shows that there is a backlog of complex weapons BMP-2 from the current level, and on several fronts:
• Non-automated fire control system (FCS) of BMP-2 (no on-board calculator, modern sights, machine maintenance) does not allows accurate shooting and limits the effective range of the 30-mm cannon 1100-1400 m big mistakes when firing on the move due to insufficient within line of sight stabilization, implemented strictly related to weapons of sight BPK-2-42.
• Shooting guided weapons on the move and afloat impossible because of the wireline ATGM "Competition".
• ATGM "Competition" has a low rate of fire because of the need to reload the launcher. In the process of reloading there are big waste of time and there is a danger of fire or shrapnel charging small arms and cannon armament.
• Shooting at night can only be automatic cannon and machine gun at a distance of not more than 800 m
• Shooting a 30mm automatic cannon shells with flat trajectory can not hit zalegshuyu and sheltered in trenches and ditches manpower.
• Shooting on means of air attack, carried out by the aspect sight 1P3-3 is essentially limited to the creation of the psychological effect: the probability of hitting the type of aerial target does not exceed two decimal places.
Firepower combat vehicle weapon system is defined, and the highest increase combat effectiveness is achieved when it is improved. BMP-2 has great development potential weapon system. The task of increasing the firepower of existing BMPs to ensure their superiority over all existing samples solved in OAO "Instrument Design Bureau".
And re-done on the basis of standard BMP-2 turret with an automatic gun 2A42 (while keeping the body and the internal layout of the tower) in the short term. In constructive terms, this is as follows:
• accommodation at the two sides of the tower armored launchers, anti-tank "Kornet-E," each in two ready to launch missiles with autonomous electromechanical actuators pointing vertically;
• Installation of a 30 mm grenade launcher with an independent drive of the gun store and supply up to 300 grenades;
• Set in place a sight BOD-2 combined with the Gunner’s independent line of sight stabilization system, which includes sighting optical, thermal and laser rangefinder channels, as well as a guided missile guidance channel;
• installation of on-board digital calculator with the sensor system;
• Installation teleteplovizionnogo machine maintenance;
• Installation of Panoramic sight from the commander of an independent line of sight stabilization system, which includes a television channel and a laser rangefinder.
Mass optional installation of weapons and equipment does not exceed 500 kg, of which about 260 kg accounted for more ammunition: ATGM and 30mm grenades.
It should be noted implemented the principle of modularity of the proposed crew compartment. In conditions of severe restrictions on funds allocated for upgrading the customer may, at its discretion, choose level kit, a partial or full set. Optionally installable aiming equipment and armament (Panoramic sight commander, the second launcher ATRA, a grenade launcher) are located on the seats specially provided for bronekolpake and connect with MSA cable let down to the appropriate connectors in the armor cap.
The upgraded BMP-2 with a new fighting compartment B05YA01 has a number of advantages over the standard BMP-2
• The introduction of vsesutochnoy MSA provides accurate shooting all types of ammunition, including a newly developed, guided and unguided weapons, according to mobile and fixed targets, the defeat of the whole range of purposes from a place on the move and afloat, day and night, including automatic gun at ranges up to 4000 m, ATGM "Kornet-E" — up to 5500 meters and automatic grenade launcher — up to 2100 m
• Increased armor-piercing anti-tank "Kornet-E" to 1000-1200 mm allows to provide reliable engagement of current and future tanks fitted with explosive reactive armor ("Leclerc", "Abrams", "Leopard"). In addition, high-explosive fragmentation warhead missiles destroying fortifications and pillboxes of concrete. Hitting targets outside the reach of effective retaliatory fire of the enemy guarantee victory upgraded BMP-2 in a battle with tanks and infantry fighting vehicles.
• Accommodation for two stabilized launchers upgraded BMP-2 four ready to launch guided missiles greatly increases during rapid firing anti-tank. This eliminates the need to reload antitank missile during the battle, which increases the survival rate of charging and fighting vehicle as a whole, because it does not stop for reloading missile systems, becoming a good target on the battlefield.
• Use teleteplovizionnogo automatic target tracking can increase the accuracy of target tracking compared with the "manual" mode from three to six times. A person is excluded from the loop guidance shooting results become independent of the psychophysical condition of the gunner, which is especially important in stressful combat conditions. Accurate tracking of the target is technically warranted characteristics, thus reducing the requirements for the level of training gunners and shorten their learning. Automatic tracking of targets attached to a new quality of MSA, providing the implementation of the principle of "fire and forget" when firing a guided missile. This significantly reduces the cost of the rocket over the missile, equipped with homing, which performs the function of automatic accompaniment.
• The possibility of firing anti-tank "Cornet" in excess of the line of sight virtually eliminates detection of enemy missiles.
• The laser control system with anti-tank missiles teleorientirovaniem in the laser beam ensures high immunity to all kinds of organized noise as the source of interference can not be located in the rear of the BMP and have the same message frames.
• To overcome the active protection system goals and the guaranteed destruction of critical targets provided volley firing two ATGM "Kornet-E" a single laser beam.
• A significant increase in the accuracy shooting automatic guns and grenade launchers all types of ammunition is provided by consideration of the most important factors of fire: the target range (measured by a laser range finder or manually entered), the speed and direction of the war machine and the target, wind speed, air temperature and pressure, charge temperature, the initial velocity of the projectile deviation from the nominal value, the elevation goal, pitch and roll angles, angl
es of departure of the projectile. In doing this, automatic generation plants on fire by the introduction of digital firing circuit board calculator.
• Effective range 30-mm automatic cannon shells increases from 1100-1400 m and 1800-2000 m
• Significantly increases the efficiency of anti-aircraft fire BMP-2 is a danger when firing automatic gun on standard air targets such as "helicopter", "attack aircraft" increases by more than an order of magnitude and approaches the probability of destruction of specialized anti-aircraft missile and gun systems near abroad at much lower fuel ammunition. Thus successfully implemented the principle of universalization of BMPs by giving anti-aircraft characteristics, with no additional costs.
• Effectively affected manpower at ranges up to 2100 m, including the terrain and in the trenches through the use of low-ballistic weapons (automatic grenade launcher AG-30M) with new GPA-30 grenades.
• Opportunities military commander of the machine is enhanced by the installation of television Panoramic sight with technical vision, and for the first time on the BMP. Command has a circular field of view across the horizon in a vertical direction angle is increased to 60 °, the maximum angular velocity increases from the line of sight 5-6 to 20 degrees per second. This allows you to increase the flow of detected targets in fighting machine 2.5 times more accurate targeting gunner to 10 times, completely duplicate this effort and to carry out in an automatic mode, firing at air targets.
Modernization of the BMP-2 corresponds to the requirements of the prospective infantry fighting vehicles, the next 20-30 years, and modernized combat vehicle BMP-2 can successfully be used until 2030-2040 years.
After modernization of BMP-2 is systemic in nature and leads not only to improve individual technical characteristics of the complex weapons, but allowed to create a machine with radically new military characteristics, successfully competing in the market of weapons from foreign counterparts.
Because of the significantly smaller masses and dimensions of combat units, mounted on combat vehicles such as BMD, armored personnel carriers, armored vehicles form the basis of Airborne, NE and the Interior Ministry, as well as foreign military machine of this type (shown in photo), it is proposed to upgrade them on a reduced version. Of "PCU" developed a single crew compartment at the base and using elements B05YA01. Retrofitting can be performed during routine overhaul military vehicles.
Calculations to assess the effectiveness of the upgraded and standard BMP-2 in a battle as the autonomous actions, and supported by tanks have shown that with equal probability level of combat missions required number of machines can be reduced by about 3.8 times.
The upgraded BMP-2 on the combat power reaches the level that exceeds the level of the best modern infantry fighting vehicles: «Bradley» (USA), «Marder» (Germany). Technical solutions embodied in the creation of the crew compartment B05YA01 allow BMP-2 to surpass the combat potential of the American infantry fighting vehicle «Bradley» M2A2 2.4 and its latest upgrade M2A3 — 1.87 times at a fraction of the cost of retrofitting.
A new set of weapons is part of the crew compartment B05YA01, which is part of the BMP-2 has passed all tests of the program agreed with the Ministry of Defense, with positive results. At present JSC "PCU" is made mass production of the upgraded crew compartment BMP-2.
Mainstay of the light combat aircraft by weight category in the Army of certain foreign states are infantry fighting vehicles BMP-2, the production of which is carried out by local factories.
Currently, military branch B05YA01 commercially launched in 2008 and comes from foreign customers.
Thus, the advantage of infantry fighting vehicles BMP-2, equipped with fighting compartment B05YA01, is a high firepower and proven technology works for modernization of BMP-2. At the same time re-fighting vehicle can be conducted not only on production but also on the maintenance of armored factories.