Victory and defeat the Livonian War

The history of the Livonian War (1558-1583), despite a lot of attention to this war, remains one of the major problems of Russian history. In many ways, this is due to the attention to the figure of Ivan the Terrible. Taking into account the fact that a number of researchers refers to the person of the emperor Ivan sharply negatively, this attitude carries over to his foreign policy. Livonian War, it was a gamble, useless Russian state, which only undermined the strength of Russia and has become one of the prerequisites of the Time of Troubles first 17th century.

Some researchers believe is completely true that a more promising direction of expansion of the Russian country in this period was the southern one. Thus, even Kostomarov noted that "the time has shown all the imprudence of behavior Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich against the Crimea." Moscow did not enjoy the last moment of the weakening of Bakhchisarai, allowing him to bounce back and crushing the enemy, after the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan. GV Vernadsky emphasized that the war against the Crimean Tatars was "truly national task" and, despite the complexity of the conquest of the Crimea, compared with Kazan and Astrakhan Khanate, it was completely doable. Prevented the implementation of the tasks of the Livonian War, the campaign, which initially was listed as an easy task to defeat lost their military power of the Livonian Order. "The real problem faced by the ruler Ivan IV, — wrote Jora Vernadsky — was not a choice between war only with the Crimea and the march to Livonia, and the choice between war only with the Crimea and the war on two fronts, both in the Crimea, and with Livonia. Ivan IV chose the latter. The results have been devastating. " The historian has suggested that initially aimed to Livonia Russian Army intended to fight the Crimean Khanate. That's why, she stood at the head of the Mongolian servicemen "princes" — Shah Ali Kaybula and Tokhtamysh (metropolitan pretender to the throne of the Crimea), the troops were staffed to a large extent from Kasimov and Kazan Tatars. Only at the last moment the army turned to the north-west.

Completely possible that the metropolitan government was confident of the short duration of the campaign against Livonia. Having achieved a huge foreign policy success — having conquered Kazan and Astrakhan, the Russian government decided to subject himself to the Livonian Order and firmly on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Livonian being an ally Svidrigajlo Olgerdovich 1 September 1435 suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Vilkomire (Master Kerskorf, landmarshal and most of the Livonian knights were killed), after which an agreement was signed for the development of the Livonian Confederation. December 4, 1435 in Riga archbishop entered Confederation, the bishops of Courland, Dorpat, Ezel-viksky and Revel, and the Livonian Order, its vassals and the town of Riga, Reval and Dorpat. This is somewhat lax public education was strongly influenced by its neighbors, including the Russian country.

The moment chosen for the start of military action against Livonia, seemed completely successful. Alternately and an old enemies of Russia, which opposed the strengthening of its position on the shores of the Baltic, could not be of the Livonian Confederation of critical military assistance. Swedish kingdom, was defeated in the war with the Russian state — Russian-Swedish war of 1554-1557 years. This war has revealed the undisputed Russian army an advantage, though, and did not lead to huge results. Lord of Gustav I, after the unsuccessful attempt to capture the fortress Walnut Kivinebba and defeat at the siege of Vyborg, Russian troops, hastened to conclude a truce. March 25, 1557 was signed on 2nd Novgorod truce for 40 years, confirmed the territorial status quo and tradition diplomatically relations through Novgorod governor. Sweden needs a peaceful respite.

Government of Lithuania and Poland were counting on the fact that the Livonian Knights themselves will be able to resist Russian. In addition, the merger of Lithuania and Poland in the unity government, has not yet been completed, which weakened them. Intervention in the war Livonia and Russia, gave all the benefits of Sweden, Poland competitor in the region. Bakhchisaraj frightened past victories of Moscow, was not going to start a large-scale war, took a wait-limited ordinary small raids.

But the decisive success of Russian troops in the war with Livonia, called Resisters Moscow. To replace the faltering troops of the Order moved troops Sweden and Lithuania, and then Poland. The war has reached a new level when the Russian government began to resist a powerful coalition. At the same time we must keep in mind that the full information we possess only. Metropolitan government, starting a war intended, it would end in a short term, Livonians terrified strength of the Russian army will go to negotiations. This is read as all the old conflicts with Livonia. It was believed that the reason for the war with a coalition of powerful European countries do not have. Identical local conflicts, border values were in the tens of Europe.

Casus belli

The reason for the war with Livonia was the fact of non-payment of Livonians ancient "Yuryevskaya tribute" — monetary compensation deposited in the Baltic Germans for the right to settle in the lands along the river Western Dvina and owned by the Prince of Polotsk. Later, these payments turned into a very significant tribute for the German knights occupied the Russian city of St. George (Dorpat). Livonia recognized the validity of this compensation agreements in 1474, 1509 and 1550.

In 1554 at the talks in Moscow, representatives of the Order — Bokgorst Johann Otto von Grothuzen, and the Bishop of Dorpat — Waldemar Wrangell, Diederik Carpet, It is reasonable to agree with the Russian side. Russia was represented by Alex Adashev and Ivan Viskovatov. Livonia has undertaken to pay tribute to Sir Russian arrears for three years by the three brands' with each head. " But to collect as much a significant amount — 60 thousand marks Livonians did not have time (or rather especially not in a hurry). Were unfulfilled, and other requirements of the Russian government — recovery in Riga, Reval and Dorpat Russian neighborhoods ("all") and Orthodox churches in them, ensuring free trade for Russian "guests" and the rejection of alliance with Sweden and Lithuania. Livonians directly violated one of Fri agreement with Moscow, concluding in September 1554 an alliance with the majestic Duchy of Lithuania, which was directed against Russia. Learning of this, the Russian government sent a Master of Johann Wilhelm von Furstenberg letter with a declaration of war. In 1557, in the town of Posvol agreement was concluded between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish kingdom, which set the vassalage of the Order of Poland.

But immediately a full-scale military actions are not started. Ivan has pinned his hopes to achieve their goals through diplomatic. Right up to June 1558 in Moscow under negotiation. Yet, violations of the Livonians agreements in 1554, gave the Russian government an excuse to increase pressure on the Order. It was decided to carry out military action to intimidate Livonians, to make them more compliant. The main purpose of the first campaign of the Russian army, which took place in winter 1558, it was the desire to achieve voluntary refusal Livonians from Narva (Rugodiva). To do this on the border with the Livonian Confederation was transferred already mobilized, ready for war with the Crimean Khanate, Cavalry Army.

The outbreak of war. The war against the Livonian Confederation

First campaign. Winter campaign in 1558. In January 1558 the Moscow cavalry regiments led by Kasimov "king" Shah-Ali and Prince Misha Glinski invaded Livonia and
simply passed the eastern region. During the winter campaign of 40-thousand. Russian-Tatar army reached the shore of the Baltic Sea, ravaged many districts Livonian towns and castles. Problem on the mastery of the Livonian fortifications was not put. The raid was a blatant demonstration of the power of the Russian country, designed to have a psychological impact on the medal of power. Russian military leaders during this trip twice, on the orders of the emperor Ivan, the Livonian Master sent letters about sending ambassadors for the resumption of the negotiating process. Moscow did not want to lead a major war in the north-west, it was pretty run the agreements already reached.

Livonia power, terrified invasion accelerated the collection of tribute, agreed to the temporary suspension of hostilities. In Moscow, the diplomats were targeted and during the languid negotiations, it was agreed to transfer the RF Narva.

Second campaign. However, the ceasefire did not last long. Livonia supporters of the war with Russia broke the world. In March 1558 the Narva bailiff Ernst von Shnellenberg ordered to fire on Russian Ivangorod fortress, this triggered a new invasion of Russian troops in Livonia. Now blow was more massive and Russian troops seized the castles and palaces. The Russian army was strengthened by the forces of Governor Daniel and Alexis Basmanova Adasheva, artillery, including heavy for the destruction of fortresses.

For spring — summer 1558 Russian regiments captured 20 fortresses, including voluntary surrender, and included in the citizenship of the Russian Tsar. In April 1558 was besieged Narva. Durable enough combat actions in the town confined to the artillery skirmish. Everything changed on May 11, Narva large fire broke out (can be caused by Russian artillery fire), a significant part of the Livonian garrison was aimed to combat the fire, at this time, the Russian fighters broke down the gates and seized the lower city, many Germans were killed. Livonia guns were aimed at the upper castle began shelling. Besieged, realizing that their situation is hopeless, surrendered on condition of free exit out of town. Trophies of the Russian army were 230 large and small guns and a huge number of arquebuses. The remaining inhabitants of the town have taken the oath of allegiance to the Russian sir.

Narva is the first large Livonian fortress, which Russian troops took the Livonian War. Having mastered the fortress, Moscow received a good seaport, which was made possible through the direct sales business with the countries of Western Europe. In addition, in Narva and work began on the creation of the Russian fleet — was built by the shipyard to what worked masters of Holmogor and Vologda. In the harbor of Narva then based a squadron of 17 ships under the command of German, Danish citizen Carsten Rohde, adopted by the Russian service. It was a professional captain with a very exciting destiny in more detail in the article IN: first Russian fleet — Pirates Crucible king. Ivan sent to the city of Novgorod bishop consecrated with the task of Narva and begin construction of Orthodox churches. Narva remained Russian until 1581 (it captured the Swedish army).

A few weeks to keep the defense is small but mighty fortress Neuhaus. Several hundred soldiers and farmers led by the knight background Padenormom reflected pressure forces under the governor Peter Shumsky. June 30, 1558 she graduated from the destruction of the Russian artillery outer fortifications, and the Germans retreated to the upper lock. After that, the people refused to continue foolish resistance and surrendered. Shumsky, a symbol of their courage, has permitted them to leave with honor.

After the capture of Neuhaus, Shuya besieged Dorpat. His defending garrison of two thousand German mercenaries ("Overseas Germans") and the local residents under the supervision of Bishop Herman Weiland. For shelling the town of Russian troops erected the highest shaft, raising it to the level of the walls, which allowed the fire all Dorpat. A few days there was a powerful bombardment of the town was destroyed several fortifications, many houses. July 15 royal governor Shumsky suggested Weiland surrender. While he was thinking, the bombing lasted. In the siege of Dorpat Russian artillery for the first time applied the incendiary projectiles — "ognistye coolies." Having lost all hope of outside help, the townspeople decided to start negotiations with the Russian. Peter Shumsky promised not to destroy the Dorpat to the ground and keep control of the former urban dwellers. July 18, 1558 the city surrendered.

In Dorpat, in one of the recesses of the Russian warriors found 80 thousand thalers, which was more than the entire debt to the Russian Livonia. As a result, the inhabitants of Dorpat, because of the greed of some urban residents, have lost more than they have sought Russian sir. Having found sufficient to have not only a tribute to JuR'EVSKIJj, and on recruitment of troops for the protection of Livonia. In addition, the favorites were seized 552 large and small guns.

The capture of Narva Ivan the Terrible. BA Chorikov, 1836.

Trying to Livonia counteroffensive. During the summer campaign 1558 Russian advance guard reached Revel and Riga, ruining their neighborhood. After such a successful campaign Russian troops withdrew from Livonia, leaving the captured towns and castles small garrisons. Decided to use this new and powerful Master of the Livonian deputy, last provincial commander Fellini Gothard (Gotthard) Kettler. Deputy Masters gathered 19 thousand. army: 2 thousand cavalry, knights 7 thousand, 10 thousand militiamen.

Kettler wanted to recapture the lost eastern lands, first in the bishopric of Dorpat. Livonia troops advanced towards the fortress Ringen (Ryngola), defended by a garrison of only 40 "sons of knights" and 50 archers under the control of governors, Rusin Ignatieff. The Russian had a heroic resistance fighters, fighting off a hostile army head for 5 weeks (according to other sources — 6 weeks). They reflected two common assault.

Garrison tried to help out Ringo sent to the aid of two-thousand. detachment under the governor Misha Repnina. Russian fighters were able to beat the best Livonians outpost was captured 230 people, along with their commander Johannes Kettler (brother of Commander). But then Repnina detachment was attacked by the main forces of the Livonian army and defeated. This problem has not shaken the courage of the defenders, they continued to defend.

The Germans were able to capture Ryngolu exclusively during the third assault, which lasted for three day or, after the defenders of finished powder. The soldiers who perish in a fierce battle, Livonians finished off. Ketrel Ringenom lost a fifth of troops — about two thousand people and izderzhal the siege of six weeks. After that offensive outburst of the Livonian troops extinguished. Livonians at the end of October 1558 were only able to organize a raid on porubezhnye place of Pskov. Livonia troops ravaged the St. Nicholas monastery near Sebezh and suburbs of the city Reddish. Then he retreated to the Livonian branch Riga and Wenden.

Winter campaign of 1558-1559 years. Livonia coming and destruction of places of Pskov has caused great anger among the Russian emperor. Efforts were made to fight back. Within two months of the troops under the Seeds Mikulinskaya and Peter Morozov went to Livonia. They are within a month devastated southern Livonia.

January 17, 1559 came the decisive battle at the town of Tirzene. A large detachment under the Livonian Frederick Felkerzama (Felkenzam) collided with advanced regiment led by commander Vasily Silver. In stubborn fight Livonians were broken. Felkerzam and
400 of his men were killed, others were captured or fled. This victory gave into the hands of the Russian army large areas. Russian troops have made freely raid the lands of the Livonian Confederation, going "on both sides of the Dvina", capturing 11 towns and castles. The Russian came to Riga, stood there day or three. Then he went to the border with Prussia and exclusively in February with a big booty and meaningful Polona returned to Russian territory. In addition, on Dyunamyunskom raid was burned Riga fleet.

The armistice in 1559

After such a successful campaign, the Russian government gave the Livonian Confederation truce (third in a row) from March to November 1559. Moscow was convinced that the situation in the newly-towns strong and mediated by the Danes went to a truce. In addition, on a diplomatic Moscow exerted strong pressure, worried about the successes of Russian, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Denmark. Thus, the Lithuanian ambassadors bezotstupno sought by Tsar Ivan IV to end the war in Livonia, threatening, in the unlikely event that take the side of the Livonian Confederation. Soon with a request to end the war gave the Swedish and Danish ambassadors. Russian successes violated the balance of power in Europe, the Baltic Sea, affected the political and economic interests of a number of states. Polish ruler Sigismund II Augustus even complained about the Russian British Queen Elizabeth I: «Moscow sir every day increases its power purchase products that are brought to Narva, for here than the rest, bring an instrument, hitherto unknown to him … come to the military spices, means that it takes money to win all … ". There were supporters of the armistice in Moscow. Courtier Alex Adashev expressed interests of the party, which insisted on the continuation of the struggle in the south, against the Crimea.

To be continued …

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