In Yakutia, the soon to be launched into operation last stretch of the Amur-Yakutsk Mainline (AYAM). The general contractor for the construction of 800-kilometer railroad that linked the republic with BAM and the Trans-Siberian Railway, is JSC "Inzhtransstroy", part of a building holding "Transstroi." Currently, the road builders are preparing for delivery to the customer. Prior to the full input line is a few months — the work to be completed by the end of 2013.
The long road to the North
Plot Tommot — Lower Bestyakh length 436 km — is the last of all the Amur-Yakutsk highway, which became the largest and most complex project in the field of railway construction in Russia for the last 30 years. On the scale it can be compared only to that of the Baikal-Amur Mainline, so it is not surprising that AYAM also called "small BAM."
The history of the Amur-Yakutsk highway has its origins in the distant 1975. The first kilometers were laid for the development of the Neryungri coal mine. And in 1985, the Council of Ministers decided to continue the construction of the railway to the capital of Yakutia. She was supposed to come to Yakutsk in 1994, but the economic and political turmoil in the country ruined those plans. The project became more active in 1996. Found the means and opportunity. "Transstroi" turned its manufacturing units on the route of the future of the railway.
After eight long years, with interruptions in funding and numerous stops road work made it to the station Tommot were laid 376 km of rails. On this site have erected 159 bridges, 187 culverts paved, built a station Aldan. Plot Berkakit — Tommot was introduced temporary operation in 2004, the same year opened passenger traffic.
In 2005, the project was continued — the new title of "Berkakit — Tommot — Yakutsk" and a new contract that allowed the "Transstroy" to build another 368 km of railway track. Road to Yakutsk entered the Federal Target Program "Modernization of transport system of Russia (2002-2010).", The participants of the investment agreement for the project began Roszheldor, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and JSC "Russian Railways". In just three years, was built 85 bridges, 100 m long and 2 large bridge over the river Aldan and Amgu, built 263 man-made structures, as well as 8 stations and sidings.
In 2008, "Transstroi" started the final phase of construction — project start-up complex Tommot — Lower Best, who now entered the final stage. According to the plans at the end of this year, the new line length of 436 km to go train.
Point — do not stop
All this huge range of activities, including the construction of pritrassovyh road construction plants, industrial buildings, sidings and power supply facilities, beginning in 1996 served "Transstroi." Taking on the responsibility for the project, the company has done everything to work did not stop under any circumstances. Moreover, as estimated by experts, laying Berkakit — Tommot — Yakutsk conducted the highest rate. The average speed was 123 km per year, comparable only with the accelerated pace of BAM. (For comparison: speed railway construction in Sochi — 12 km per year, branches Naryn — Lugokan — 57 km.)
Also noteworthy is the fact that, despite the scale of the project, the cost of construction of the railway in Yakutia is less than that of other modern projects that are realized in the regions with a less difficult environmental and geotechnical conditions. Thus, the price kilometer railway contract "TransStroy" is about 110 million rubles, and in other projects — 200-250 million
For example, on the Sochi — Krasnaya Polyana construction of the railway, 48 km lasted 4 years, from 2009 and 2013. This trail also passes in difficult geological conditions — in the highlands, but its construction cost is seven times more expensive AYAM.
Both the first and the second indicates that "Transstroi" has the highest level of competence of the construction of railways in extreme conditions. Unique is also the experience of the organization of work in remote areas. Construction was carried out even in the harsh winter, and after frosts in Yakutia are often over 50 degrees.
Amur-Yakutsk road is unique in many ways. For example, it is routed in areas with permafrost. "On the whole route many so-called ice complexes — wedges — says General Director of" Inzhtransstroy "Ali Shirin Alyshov. — Part of an experimental way. In the process of design and construction has been written many scientific papers and theses, the main theme of which — save permafrost. In all areas where permafrost is particularly close to the surface, we have assembled a special installation for maintaining low temperatures bottom of the road around to building structures is thawed soil. " The designers and builders faced many difficult engineering problems, but all they managed.
New life in the land of permafrost
Built "Transstroy" railroad will give a new impetus to the development of Yakutia both socially and economically. After entering AYAM into operation it will come out of the seasonal traffic isolation — the largest in the south of the republic territory of Russia will be a year-round relationship with the federal transportation network. Railway Tommot — Lower Bestyakh will organize all-season supply of goods and ensure the smooth passenger traffic.
Yakutia — one of the richest regions in terms of natural resources. Only in the area of the passage of the railroad natural resources are estimated at about $ 200 billion route will enable the development of new fields. A total of AYAM provide or facilitate access to more than 1.5 million of deposits of various minerals, including iron ore on the Taiga station and only in the Far East deposits of phosphate fertilizers (patrol Seligdar). Launched by the movement of the line will have to learn a few deposits, including coal (Denisovsky patrols and Chulmakan).
The railway also has enormous social and demographic significance. Still under construction, it has connected 20 towns and cities in South and Central Yakutia. Along the route are growing towns, businesses are built, the road provides jobs for local people, people gain stability and confidence in the future.
Then — at Magadan
Meanwhile, experts say, the effect of the road would have been even greater if it was extended to the north.
In its current form line can not be considered complete. Goods will be delivered to the Lower Bestyaha, and then transporting them again will depend on the short-and small Yakut summer navigation period. Due to the absence of the railway north of the country can not develop, companies simply will not come back.
According to residents of Yakutia and the republican authorities, the Amur-Yakutsk highway should not end in the Lower Bestyahe. It should be brought to Yakutsk and further to the north-east. It would be reasonable to lay on her plot to Magadan — the richest region, which, unfortunately, also has good transport links, which does not allow use of its potential.
Of course, all the projects of the future, but the idea put forward in 1904 — to connect the two continents by rail: Eurasia and North America — today fascinates many. It would be a super project worthy of a great country.
Careers in art. Qurnah. Vskryshka gold deposits
Sure enough roving stations, 31 pc. at 809 km, an average of 26 km stage. Max, by the way, 79 km (Kyurgelyah — Hanierdah). For single-track is a very, very small.
The main problem with the last section, to Yakutsk — the road runs along the right bank of the Lena, and Yakutsk — on the left. Need a bridge. And the conditions are there for the bridge unacceptable. Even in the Soviet Union did not come out victorious.
The road to the Lower Bestyaha already stretched to 2011m, but when will the branch until the Yakutsk?
Thus, bridge on the left bank building
The Federal Road Agency (Road Service) has announced an open tender for the concession agreement for the construction and operation of a road bridge over the River Lena in the Yakutsk region, the ministry said.
It is assumed that the costs of the state budget for the construction of the project will amount to no more than 40.25 billion rubles. in prices in 2013 is also planned to raise more than 17 billion rubles. private investment in all phases of the project. The total cost of the construction of the new bridge is 46.7 billion rubles. Cost in 2013
As part of the construction of the road bridge is planned to build a road bridge, road approaches to it stretching over 21 km to the tracks and junctions "Umnas" and "Lena". "According to the future of the concession agreement for the investor’s own and borrowed funds will carry out the design and construction of a road bridge, its approaches, as well as all the necessary engineering and technical infrastructure," — said in a statement.
The state, in turn, compensates for the costs of the concessionaire to build and operate. In addition, in accordance with the decree of the Government of the concession agreement for the construction of the road junction of 2 April 2013 the Government of the Republic of Yakutia will provide removal and donation of state property necessary for the construction of the road bridge over land, "free from the rights of third parties’ . As the message Rosavtodor as potential participants in the project are considered including the Russian Direct Investment Fund, Gazprombank, Sberbank, VTB and others.
As reported, in April of this year, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree on holding the concession tender for the construction and operation of the bridge across the Lena River in Yakutsk.
By the way one of the few bridges across the river Lena is in Ust-Kut
There have been proposals to build a tunnel under the Lena, the employee of the company, which participated in the road show. By the volume of expenditure, they are comparable with the construction of the bridge, and some technical risks — lower, but the government of Yakutia this idea was abandoned, he continues: "You can not disturb the representatives of the underworld."