2022: On Mars forever

30.03.2013

In January 2016 the Earth will come off the spacecraft with the details of the first on board the Mars base. And in 2022 aboard the same ship set foot first immigrants, ready to leave their home planet forever.

Hitherto little-known company from the Netherlands Mars One calls on citizens to vote for the conquest of Mars. If successful Dutch entrepreneurs promise in 2016 to lay the first stone of the future colony on Mars, and in 2023 to settle in her first emigrants.

It is a question of emigration, for the return of the colonists to their home planet so far not provided any existing technology or project budget. Costs is estimated at $ 6 billion, and to collect a large portion of this amount is planned with the help of television broadcasts of all phases of the project as from the Earth and from Mars.

While it is difficult to understand what exactly is the Mars One: whether the most ambitious venture in the private space of history, whether the unprecedented audacity PR next reality show. List the main characters only thickens the fog. Bas Lansdorp Director General — Chartered Engineer and the creator of Ampyx Power, promoting technology conversion of wind energy into electrical energy by means of gaining altitude and dive-glider. Bass is an expert in the venture, but his early projects is far less ambitious than the relocation of mankind on Mars. However, he has already secured the support of the largest aerospace companies in the world.
 


Guarantor of the scientific soundness of plans Mars One-Nobel laureate Gerard 't Hooft, who made a significant contribution to the theory of electroweak interactions. His approval and participation is the best evidence of the seriousness of the Dutch. But the third hero of our play primarily interested in the fact that the project looked a winner on the television screen. We are talking about Paul Roemer, one of the founders and the first producer insanely successful reality show "Big Brother" (the Russian equivalent — "Behind the Glass") coming from September 1999 until now. On the other hand, who, if not Remer, can be trusted collection of TV money for a good cause.

Make sure that the seriousness or frivolity plans Mars One we can in just three years — the first unmanned mission to Mars is scheduled for the first 201 b. And while we can carefully assess the chances of a step-by-step program analyzed the conquest of the Red Planet.

2013 astronaut candidate SET AND CONSTRUCTION SIMULATOR ON EARTH Mars base to go to Mars in 2023 will be only four astronauts. A smaller group will not be able to cope with the minimum goals for survival on the Red Planet, most will not pull the rocket Falcon Heavy. Recall that the development of the most severe of modern missiles (monsters like "Energy" and the Saturn V long out of production) company SpaceX is in the final stages, the first carrier demozapusk scheduled for the end of the year. And the letter of intent between SpaceX and Mars One has already been signed.


First will be scored six groups, then the number will rise to ten. The minimum age of the candidate -18 years old, and preference will be given to the young: in fact at the time of the first run it will have 28. Of course, the candidates must be healthy mentally and physically, intellectually developed, resourceful, teachable.

But the special requirements for training and even knowledge of English do not show organizers. It is assumed that in the ten years of preparation, the astronauts will have all the necessary skills,
Each group will have at least two qualified flight engineer and two medical generalist. At least one member of the crew must have advanced knowledge of the Martian geology. Another one will get an exotic specialty exobiology — a specialist in extraterrestrial life. The training will be conducted under the TV cameras in a replica of a future Martian colony, which will be built in an area with extreme climatic conditions, presumably in the Arctic Circle. Viewers will be able to watch the training mission for installation and repair of equipment, the use of space suits and rovers.

The main requirement for candidates — psychological compatibility with bandmates. Four brave, ready to leave for ever from their native planet and close to the 2022 panel of experts will select the six teams again, technically ready for the journey. Guess how it will select the best four of the characters that will go down in history? Of course, the popular audience vote. Obviously, to inflame the passions of the show will not be equal. But what has actually Mars?

January 2016 SEND TO MARS 2.5 t spare parts and provisions. LANDING IN THE FUTURE BASES scheduled for October 2016, with the first sending to Mars will go spare solar panels, set all kinds of spare parts and food. The cargo will not contain a complex, delicate and expensive equipment, such as a rover or life support equipment, so the price of a possible error for the first time will be minimal. Also, the first ship should bring to areostatsionarnuyu (Ares — Mars) orbit specially developed by the time a communication satellite, which will provide coverage of Mars show on Earth.



 

As a cargo ship and part of the lander to be used already proved its efficiency SpaceX Dragon. Nearest SpaceX plans fit well into the concept of Mars One. The company is currently finalizing a seven-seat manned spacecraft DragonRider. Participate in the development of recognized experts in the field of life-support systems Paragon Space Development. Piloted by "Dragon" is designed to work on the ISS for 210 days or more, so it is quite Martian journey on the shoulder. DragonRider first launch is scheduled for 2015.

Moreover, SpaceX is working with NASA on the Mars lander to a low-budget research mission. In 2018 device called the Red Dragon must drill on Mars meter hole to get to the water ice.
 
The catch is that, for the needs of the Mars One ordinary "Dragon" 3.7 meters in diameter is too small. The Dutch are planning to use a special five-meter Dragon, the development of which is still known only by hearsay. A large ship can be called the cornerstone of the entire mission. After all, the accommodation modules and the modules life support and transport for large rovers would be nothing else than the lander Dragon with certain modifications.

However, in case a large 2016 "Dragon" is not yet ready, Mars One has a "plan B": to send to Mars conventional 3.7-meter Dragon and hope that by the year 2018 arrives his big brother.
Recall that the planetary paths of Earth and Mars form a Jan. 5-year cycle, in which the distance between the planets is constantly changing. Favorable conditions for the flight to the Red Planet, or the so-called Windows startup, formed approximately every 26 months.

2018 ARRIVAL MARS0H0DA, SEARCH AND TRAINING SITE SUITABLE FOR FUTURE COLONY With scientific rovers, now-surfing of the Red Planet, Mars One machine combines a name. Close the unit will be electric all terrain tractor capable of performing the functions tractor, excavator, research laboratories and high-precision manipulator simultaneously.

The first thing that must be done rover — to find a suitable site for the construction of the base. To solve this problem it will almost independently. After all, depending on the relative position of the planets when a radio signal between Earth and Mars varies between 3 and 20 minutes. Multiply this number by 2, and you will realize that the rover should be more autonomous robot than a radio-controlled car.
For colony habitable critical presence of water ice in the soil in the vicinity of the base. Therefore, the rover will not only look for a flat area, but also constantly take samples of rock. By the way, the availability of adequate supplies of ice on Mars — still only a guess. Partly to clarify the issue could rover Curiosity.

Subsequently, as the arrival of new modules to the planet Mars rover will have to search for them and haul to the base. It also removes them from the protective sheath deploys solar panels, grid connect and air ducts. After the construction of the base and the arrival of the first colonists machine will develop and drive up to the base of the Martian soil for construction, water extraction, and from it — oxygen and hydrogen.

Sending power equipment to Mars, so the more advanced — a task with which mankind hitherto not necessary to face. This forces once again to doubt that the existing technology is indeed enough for the realization of plans for Mars One.

2021 ARRIVAL OF SIX AND CONSTRUCTION lander Mars base

It is estimated that within one window, you can make three to six successful launches of ships to Mars. The creators of Mars One plans to use six chances out of six, and send to the planet six landers. Among them will be two life-support module, two residential modules, one truck with an additional portion of spare parts and provisions, and another rover.

Support for the establishment of life-support units promised by Paragon Space Development, participated in the design of equipment for the International Space Station and the station "Mir". Intrigues there are few — all technologies have long practiced and used.

Life-support module will produce water by evaporation and subsequent condensation of water ice present in the Martian soil. The rover will be able to load into the module up to 60 kg of rock at a time. Part of the water to be used for the production of oxygen. One life-support module can collect 1,500 liters of water and 1 20 kg of oxygen for 500 days.

On Earth, we breathe not only oxygen — air contains about 80% nitrogen and inert gases. Life-support module will produce nitrogen and argon for breath from the Martian atmosphere. Upon arrival, astronauts also have to take him to treat liquid waste management and disposal of carbon dioxide.
At the heart of a residential unit will also lay the spacecraft is equipped airlock to exit astronauts to the surface of the planet. However, the ship itself will be located "wet zone" — a shower and a kitchen. To live to be astronauts in inflatable indoor deployed after landing. The viability of this concept proved spacecraft Genesis I and Genesis II (until unmanned) were placed in orbit by Bigelow Airspace. This company does not have a list of contractors Mars One. Dutch intend to use the technology of flexible fabrics that were used for space suits and landing pads operating rovers.

The second rover will arrive earlier to build all six modules in a line to connect them corridors and air ducts, to deploy solar panels and electric power grid. By 2022, all of the life support system should be run, and it is expected that the first guests of the Red Planet in residential modules will be waiting for fresh air and clean water.

2022 START

To send first delegation outpost on Mars in Earth orbit will be built big spaceship on the scale comparable to the ISS. It will consist of a lander, two boosters and a large residential module in which astronauts will sleep, exercise and rest for a nearly six-month journey to the Red Planet.

In 2023 heroes set foot on Martian soil — and immediately taken for a deal. They will need to finish all of the fine work on the assembly base, run the system for the production of food, to equip inflatable housing units. After a few weeks to arrive for another five cargo modules with spare parts and provisions (and again six times out of six).

In the future, every startup screen (approximately every two years) to Mars will arrive the new colonists: each time the four brave and five cargo modules. Martians will miss souped once: they must not only establish your life, but also to work out and implement the technology of building homes directly from the local soil.
 


The task of development of Martian materials is much more important than it seems at first glance. The magnetic field of the planet is extremely unstable, the magnetic poles do not coincide with the physical. Lack of sustained magnetic field and tenuous atmosphere makes the planet's surface is practically defenseless against radiation. Today the technology capable of for a long time to protect astronauts from the deadly radiation does not exist. Underground dwellings could help to escape from the danger.

Wagering

The main intrigue of the project Mars One is considered to be financing. Will it be possible with the help of TV coverage to collect cherished $ 6 billion — an issue that is on the surface, and that it focuses the attention of the media.
Presumably, in this case, money is not the main problem. If all will develop successfully, the project can be tightened and corporate sponsors, and even the state. These days there are a lot of powerful people to whom space exploration gradually moving out of the scope of financial interests in the sphere of personal ambition. This and SpaceX founder Elon T-shirts, and Virgin Galactic founder Richard Branson, and the first space tourist Dennis Tito, who, by the way, is going to send a married couple in a non-stop expedition to Mars in 2018.

Tighten the technology, alas, is not so simple. To date, there is no five-meter Dragon, no freight rover, no proven radiation protection (for Martian homes, and just for long interplanetary flights), or even reliable data on the number of ice in the soil. In this case, the creators of the project seriously counting on six consecutive successful launches and impeccably precise landing at least 14 modules. Miracles, as we know, does not happen.

On the other hand, so would like to become a fairy tale come true. It has turned to an idea of the human possibilities and miracles. In the days of the space race superpower could not afford room for error. Today, private space explorers can lay in your project any level of risk — it's their money and their lives. Fingers crossed for them and wait for ten years.

"Popular Mechanics" in March 2013

 

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