History is not always fair. We are accustomed to offer up the ancient Greek culture, Roman is a secondary role. Roman poetry was not as elevated as the Greek, the philosophy of the Greeks set the tone of the ancient world. Learn from the Greeks to be the norm for the nobility of ancient Rome.
If you want to explain to you the geometry, the best thing would be to turn to the Greek, but if you need to build a floating bridge, sewer system or build a weapon that shoots flaming balls of tar and gravel to a distance of 274 meters, then you should take to help Roman. Inventions of Rome and to this day are in the world today.
Brilliant architectural, organizational and technical feats Romans distinguish them, as well as the Greeks, among ancient peoples. Despite the fact that their math skills were rudimentary, they constructed a model, experimenting, and built so tightly as possible at the time. As a result, their work, we can contemplate and to this day: they extend from the bridge Limuru (Limyra) in Turkey to Hadrian's Wall (Hadrian's Wall) in Scotland. The following are the most significant achievements of the ancient Romans.
1. Pontoon bridges
Roman engineering technology is often referred to as synonymous with military technology. The world-famous roads were not built for everyday use simple villagers, they were built to quickly get to the legions of destination as quickly and went from there. Developed by the Romans pontoon bridges built mainly during wartime, served the same purpose, and were the brainchild of Julius Caesar. In 55 BC he built a pontoon bridge, the length of which was about 400 meters to cross the river Rhine, the German tribes that traditionally regarded as their defense against the Roman invasion.
Caesar's bridge over the Rhine was extremely clever construction. Construction of a bridge across the river, while not disturbing the flow of the river, this is a very complex undertaking, especially in a military environment, where day and night construction site must be protected, and the engineers have to work very quickly and efficiently. Engineers have jacks on the bottom of the river at an angle against the current, thus giving additional strength to the bridge. Have also been installed protective piles, which eliminated the potential threat that could float down the river. As a result, all piles have been gathered together at their tops and built wooden bridge. In total, the construction took only ten days, while only used timber. Thus, the local tribes quickly spread information about the comprehensive authority of Rome if Caesar wanted to cross the Rhine, he did it.
Perhaps the same apocryphal story accompanies and Caligula pontoon bridge built across the sea between Baja and Puzuoli (Baiae and Puzzuoli), a length of about 4 km. Presumably, Caligula built that bridge when I heard from one prophet, that he has about the same chance to become the emperor, as well as the opportunity to cross the Gulf of Baja on the horse. Caligula took this as a challenge, and he built this very bridge.
2. Segmental arch
As with almost all of these feats of engineering, the Romans did not take part in the invention arch, but they sure have perfected it. Arches and arched bridges existed for almost two thousand years, when the Romans took over them. Roman engineers realized that the arch is not to be continuous, i.e. they do not need to cover a predetermined interval "at one time". Instead traverse space for one jump, they can be divided into several smaller parts. Thus there and segmental arches.
The new form of the arch were two distinct advantages. First, the potential space of the bridge span can be increased exponentially. Secondly, since their production require less material segmental arch bridges are more pliable water passes underneath. Rather than force the water to flow through one small hole, the water under the bridge segmented flowed freely, thereby reducing the risk of flooding and the wear rate of the supports.
3. Water power
Vitruvius, the godfather of Roman engineering, describes several techniques by which the Romans used water. By combining the Greek technologies, such as gear and flaps water wheel, the Romans were able to develop their advanced sawmills, flour mills and turbines.
Wheel-shifter, another Roman invention, rotated by the action of the current, rather than falling water, which made it possible to create floating water wheels used to grind grain. This is very useful during the siege of Rome in 537 BC when General Belisarius solved the problem of the siege, cutting off the food supply through the construction of a floating mills on the Tiber, which thus provides people with bread.
Strange, but archaeological evidence suggests that the Romans have all the necessary knowledge to create a different kind of water devices, but they are rarely used them, preferring instead a cheap and widely available slave labor. However, their water mill was one of the largest industrial complexes in the ancient world before the Industrial Revolution. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels, which was milled flour for the neighboring communities.
Along with roads, aqueducts have become another engineering marvel Romans. The meaning of the aqueducts that they are very long, in fact, very long.
One of the problems with water supply of the city is that when a city grows to a certain size, you can not start from any point to get access to clean water. Although Rome is located on the Tiber river was very dirty other Roman engineering achievement, sanitation.
To solve this problem, the Roman engineers built aqueducts — a network of underground pipes, above ground water lines and bridges, designed with a view to supply water to the city and surrounding area.
As well as roads, Roman aqueducts were a very complex system. Although the first aqueduct, built around 300 BC, was the extent of only 11 kilometers, by the end of the third century BC in Rome there were 11 aqueducts, with a total length of 250 miles.
5. Heated Floors
Effective control of the temperature level — this is one of the most complex engineering problems that people are dealing with, but the Romans were able to solve it, or at least almost solved.
Using the idea, which is still used in the technology of underfloor heating, hypocaust was a set of hollow clay columns that were under the floor, through which the hot air and steam are pumped separately located from the furnace to the other rooms.
Unlike other, less advanced methods of heating, hypocaust neatly solves two problems that have always been associated with the heating systems of the ancient world — the smoke and fire. The fire was the only source of heat, however, from time to time, the building caught fire, and the resulting smoke in an enclosed space, often played a fatal role.
However, because the system hypocaust floor was raised, the hot air from the furnace never came into contact with the bathroom.
Instead of "is" in the room, warm air passes through the walls of the hollow tile. At the exit of the building, clay tiles absorb the warm air, resulting in the room was warm.
Vast reservoirs of the Roman Empire is one of the most bizarre creations Romans, as they were not originally built to serve the sewage systems. Cloaca Maxima (or Biggest Drain, if translated literally) was originally built to drain some of the water of local wetlands. Construction of the "cesspool" began in 600 BC and later hundreds of years to add more and more waterways. Since regularly continued to dig canals, it is difficult to say exactly when the cloaca Maxima ceased to be a drainage ditch and became proper sanitation. Originally a very primitive system, Cloaca Maxima has spread like a weed, stretching its roots deeper and deeper into the city as it grows.
Unfortunately, the Cloaca Maxima had an exit directly into the Tiber river so quickly filled with human waste. However, the Romans did not have to use the water for drinking or Tiber River basin. It is worth noting that they even had a special goddess who followed the work of the system — Kloakina.
Perhaps the most important achievement of the Roman sewer system was the fact that it was hidden from human eyes, did not give any to spread disease, infections, unpleasant odors and sights. Any civilization can dig a ditch in order to celebrate the natural needs, however, to build and maintain such a grand sewer system, it was necessary that there are serious engineering minds. The system was so complicated in a device that Pliny the Elder declared it a grand human construction than the building of the pyramids.
It is impossible, talking about the achievements of Roman engineering, not to speak of the roads, which were so well built that many of them are still quite suitable for use even today. Compare our current asphalt highway with the ancient Roman roads is like comparing a cheap watch with Swiss. They were strong, durable and built to serve the centuries.
Top Roman roads were built in several stages. To start working tore pit about three feet deep on the ground, where it was planned to build a road. Further, wide and heavy stone blocks were mounted on the bottom of the trench, the remaining space is covered with a layer of dirt and gravel. Finally, the top layer has been paved with slabs of bulges in the center so that the water can drain off. In general, the Roman roads were extremely resistant to the effects of time.
In a typical Roman fashion empire engineers insisted on the creation and use of straight roads, that is, they cut through any obstacles, rather than bypassing them. If the path was a forest, they punched him if there was a mountain, they were building a tunnel through it if the swamp, they dried it. The disadvantage of this type of road construction, of course, was a huge amount of human resources required for the job, but the labor force (in the form of thousands of slaves) — this was what the ancient Romans possessed in abundance. By the year 200 BC Roman Empire had approximately 85295 kilometers highways.
As for innovation in the field of construction, the liquid stone, which is lighter and stronger than conventional stone — is the greatest creation of the Romans. Today, concrete is an integral part of our daily lives, so it's easy to forget how revolutionary was once his invention.
Roman concrete was a mixture of crushed stone, lime, sand, volcanic ash, and pozzolan. It can be poured into any shape for the construction of a building, he was also very strong. Although initially it was used by the Roman architect for a powerful reason for the altars, from the 2nd century BC Romans began experimenting with concrete in order to build self-contained form. Their most famous concrete structure, the Pantheon, still the largest unreinforced concrete structure in the world, worth more than two thousand years.
As mentioned earlier, this was a significant improvement in the old Etruscan and Greek rectangular architectural styles, which required location on the perimeter of any building columns and heavy walls. Moreover, concrete as a building material was cheap and fireproof. He was also quite flexible, as was able to survive the numerous earthquakes that every now and then visited the volcanic Italian peninsula.
As with many technologies, the Roman siege weapon was originally developed by the Greeks, and later refined by the Romans. Ballista is essentially a giant crossbow that could shoot during the siege of large stones was constructed fallen into the hands of the Romans Greek weapons.
Using the tendons of animals, ballista worked like a spring in a giant mousetrap, so they could throw projectiles at a distance of 457 meters. Since the weapon was easy and precise, equip it with spears and arrows, and thus it was used as anti-personnel. Ballista is also used for the siege of small buildings.
The Romans invented their own "siege engines" called wild asses because of the powerful impact caused by wild ass. Though their work, they also used the tendons of animals, "wild ass" were much more powerful mini-catapults that shoot fireballs and whole buckets of large stones. At the same time, they were less accurate than the ballista but more powerful, making them the perfect weapon to undermine the walls and arson during sieges.
The interior of the modern world we take for granted, however, is not worth the hassle. Our huge archways, large atriums, glass walls, ceilings, and much more — all this would have been unthinkable in the ancient world.
Before the Romans perfected the dome buildings, even the best architects of those times had to suffer for a long time with the creation of the stone roofs. Even the greatest architectural achievements that were created before the emergence of Roman architecture, such as, for example, the Parthenon and the Pyramids, looked more impressive on the outside than inside. Inside, they were dark, and were a limited space.
Roman domes, on the contrary, were spacious, open, and create a real sense of interior space. For the first time in history. Based on the understanding that the principles of the arch can be rotated in three dimensions in order to create a form that has a strong supporting force, but "acts" over a larger area, the technology became available kupolostroeniya mainly due to the concrete.
See also: Discoverer of Antarctica, Black sarcophagus.