Anti-Semitism in Europe from the Middle Ages to modern times


1189. A wave of anti-Jewish pogroms that followed shortly after the coronation of Richard the Lionheart

1275. Publication of King Edward I of the Jewish statute forbidding Jews to engage in usury

1290. Authorized by Edward I complete expulsion of the Jews. On the island of Jews were not allowed to rise to power of Oliver Cromwell, who canceled the decree of expulsion in 1652.


1391. Anti-Jewish pogrom in Seville, during which according to various estimates killed up to 5,000 people.

1492. The royal couple Catholic Spain Ferdinand II and Isabella I sign Algambrsky decree that all Jews in Spain for four months should take Christianity or leave the country. The result — more than 250,000 exiles. Effect of the decree was reversed by the constitution, adopted in 1876, only


From 1007 to 1394 the monarchs and bishops of France periodically issue decrees that led to the massacres and persecutions of the Jews. And in 1394 "for the sins before the holy faith" King Charles VI finally expelled all Jews from French soil.

They returned there only after four centuries. In 1789, with the beginning of the French Revolution, which proclaimed the equality and brotherhood of all classes and creeds.


Since the Middle Ages in Europe, Christians were forbidden usury, all credit transactions (loan money to the growth and the security) were Jews. For this they had the status of kammerknehtov (servants of the imperial treasury) and received from the German monarchs some protection. However, this did not save the Jews from the cruel massacres and destructions that have erupted over the XII-XIII centuries than a dozen times on the initiative and the secular and religious leaders.

The situation has deteriorated in the XIV century, which the Jews called the century of martyrdom. In particular, since 1340 to 1350 have been destroyed more than 300 Jewish communities, many of whose members had been physically destroyed, and the remainder left Germany.

In the XV century, the Jews were allowed to return, but their rights were violated in many ways for several centuries (there was a short period of time since 1812, when captured by the French during the Napoleonic Wars of the Jews equaled land rights with the rest of the population before the restoration in 1815).


As a comment — one German anecdote.

Bus rides with Jewish tourists to visit the concentration camp in Germany. The bus breaks down, do not wait for help from anyone, and the driver decides to go to the standing nearby farmhouse. Seeing on the threshold of the host, a typical burgher, the driver said: "We carry Jews to the concentration camp, but we, unfortunately, the bus broke down, you would not be able to help us?"
The German said: "I'd love to, but in my house there is only a microwave."



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