Unfortunately, skin scars are the inevitable consequence of any open injury or surgery. They remain for a lifetime, often creating a significant cosmetic and functional defects. Disfiguring scars, scars that limit even small movements can cause serious problems in patients, both in business and in personal life. People, by chance, faced with this problem, you should know that the quality of most scars can be improved to some extent.
The mechanism of formation of scars
Wound healing — is a complex biological process, which lasts about a year and completes the formation of a mature scar. One year later, the scar tissue will continue to change, but very slowly and unobtrusively.
In physiological terms, there are several parts of the formation of scar: tissue damage -> damaged cells secrete biologically active substances -> biologically active substances trigger an inflammatory response and attracted to the place of injured cells that produce collagen (Fibroblasts) -> begins the synthesis of new collagen -> produced "young" tripe (red, swollen, towering above the skin) -> 3 weeks after the injury dissipate excess collagen is formed normal scar (pale, flat). If we consider the normal scar tissue under a microscope, it is seen as orderly arranged collagen fibers — they are stacked compact and elongated parallel to the surface of the skin.
In some cases, the normal scarring process is broken. The reasons for this are numerous: burn, festering wounds, the lack of an adequate comparison gaping edges, high tension surrounding the wound of the skin, especially the immune system, genetic predisposition, etc.
Report as typically occurs in step synthesis and collagen resorption of surplus. Instead of the usual flat or concave shaped scar protruding from the skin scar, and in rarer cases — keloid rumen.
From a practical point of view it is important to follow the anatomical, visible changes in tissue healing. For the doctor and the patient are two relevant characteristics of the scar — the strength and appearance. The developed
Stage of healing
Stage I— Inflammation and epithelialization (
Stage II— The formation of the "young" tripe (
Stage III— The formation of the "mature" scar (
Stage IV— The final transformation of the scar (
Types of scars
Normotroficheskie — are the result of normal connective tissue response to injury. This is a light-colored flat scars with normal or reduced sensitivity and close to normal tissues elasticity. These scars are optimal.
- Atrophic scars — result from a reduced response of connective tissue to injury. Collagen is produced is not enough. Atrophic scars are below the level of the surrounding skin (sink). When a small width do not differ from normotroficheskih.
- Hypertrophic scars are the result of excess connective tissue response to injury against the adverse conditions of healing (inflammation, scar stretching). Fibroblasts with increased activity of an excess amount of collagen is synthesized, it does not dissipate the excess to the fullest. Externally hypertrophic rumen are protruding above the skin surface lightly compacted strand (in the form of rope), the width of which may vary. Dimensions correspond to the preceding injury scar the skin. Hypertrophic scars are able to smooth out through
1-15 years after injury, but not always completely.
- Keloids develop as a consequence of distorted tissue response to injury. Usually, keloids are formed on the background of reduced levels of total and tissue immunity. Keloids are an elastic consistency, uneven, slightly wrinkled surface, significantly above the surface of the skin. Sometimes the kind remind warts. Keloids are constantly growing — then fast, then slow, their growth can be accompanied by itching, burning and pain. As a result of the ongoing increase of the volume of the visible part of the scar can be several times higher than the volume of its intradermal part. Keloids are not capable of spontaneous regression. A typical example is the keloid scars formed after piercing the earlobe to wear jewelry.
Source: Medical center "Paracelsus 2001"