In 1940, there were anti-aircraft Mk1 and Mk2-based light tank MkVI. They were armed with 4-7.92-mm or 7.62-mm machine guns or else with 2 15-mm machine guns. In 1942, the British had already "anti-aircraft tank"" Crusader AA "with a double crimp 20-mm machine in the tower. 6-8 of these machines were attached to each tank regiment.
We have in the 30 years were studied ZSU, armed with 76.2 mm anti-aircraft gun on the basis of the T-26. But then of prototypes did not get, and our tanks were not mobile air defense systems. Only after 1943 Reddish South American Army began to receive machine gun and gun ZSU M16 and M19 on the basis of half-track armored personnel carriers. A ZSU bezotstupno required, nor is it to be armored vehicles, ie, protected even from bullets and shrapnel and owning the same maneuverability as the tanks. The available settings Quadruple guns "Max" on the basis of truck for this purpose were not good. ZSU ought to elect the base of the tank, better light, that would speed up and reduce the cost of their creation.
Good body armor is not required — in fact to assault enemy positions under fire anti-tank guns to go to them there was no need.
In 1942, our industry has produced in bolshennom amount of light tanks T-60 and T-70. Here's something on their base, and it was decided to make a machine gun ZSU, armed with double crimp 12.7 mm DShK. ANC has shown itself as an effective means of defense, which holds the highest rate of fire and a reach of sufficient height. DShK with the same success could be used against ground targets and light-armored armored personnel carriers. Necessary requirements have been the possibility of doing a radial firing and a large angle of elevation. Guns supposed to be installed in lightly armored turret, open at the top for the conduct of anti-aircraft fire and a clear view of the situation of air gunner.
These works were engaged in 1942, the factory GAS (g sourness) relating to the People's Commissariat of Medium Machine Building, and number 37 (Sverdlovsk), referring to the People's Commissariat of the tank industry.
Order of the number of the 0107s September 16, 1942 GABTU and GAC Red Army made the commission under the chairmanship of Colonel Nenarokova and ordered it as soon as possible to conduct tests of prototypes presented ZSU. The commission also included the chief designer of NaCSA GAZ and plant number 37 NA Astrov from GAZ — Jobbers from NKTP — IV Savin. On the tests, which took place during the second half of September NIIBT range in Kubinka were three reference. GAZ presented on the basis of the unique serial light tank T-70 ZSU then obtain the informal title of T-90 (that is, all the same zenith tank!). He wore a specially designed welded octagonal tower with no roof installed Spark 12.7mm machine guns DSHKT. The turret was used staff from the T-70. The plant number 37 presented the car, named T-70 (zen.). It Spark DSHKT installed in a converted standard turret of the T-70 on the regular fixtures of the T-40 in a special mask, armor protection. At the T-90 machine guns were located to the right of the longitudinal axis of the tower on the machine in a special mask, armor protection.
Anti-aircraft tank T-90
At the T-70 (zen.) machine guns were symmetrically to the longitudinal axis of the tower. The plant number 37 car and introduced the T-60 (zen.) with a reworked standard tower. In all cases, the power of machine guns shops: Ammo T-90 480 (16 stores), T-70 (zen.) — 360 rounds of ammunition. On both machines installed TMFP telescopic sight for firing at ground targets in the range of elevation angles -6 °, +25 ° (T-90) and -7 °, +25 ° (T-70 Zen.) Also collimator sight to -8T helicopters to fire at air targets in the range of elevation angles +20 °, +85 °. The height of the band Fire — 1605 (T-90) and 1642 (T-70 zen.) mm. Traverse the T-90 gunner produced with his left hand (6 ° per handwheel revolution). Vertical aiming — with his right hand lifting mechanism (10 ° per revolution). At T-70 (zen.) — traverse right hand (3 ° per revolution) regular rotary mechanism of the T-70, a vertical — free, with his left hand. At T-60 (zen.) vertical and horizontal crosstalk-free. T-60 (zen.) because of incorrect installation collimator sight for the tests was not allowed. It has not been set, even the engine. It was noted that in the cramped turret, firing machine guns in the ground press down arrow to the turret (vertical and horizontal guidance — free). Combat weight it could amount to 6.5 tonnes Then talk about it will not.
Tower T-70 (zen.) had a roof, a modified recess and welded mask width of 35 mm. The gas piston guns with the tube had been booked. The trigger mechanism for machine guns -90 had left pedal for the left and right for the right machine guns. At T-70 (zen.) — staff from T-70, that is coupled to the pedal two machine guns. T-90 is equipped with a closed gilzoulavlivatelem with reflection sleeves and focus them on the flexible hose in a box on the floor of the tower. At T-70 (zen.) gilzootrazhatel used, but gilzoprovoda and gilzoulavlivatelya not available.
Unaffected place machine guns T-90 and T-70 (zen.) on the forehead was 22.6 and 9.75, in the stern — 21.8 and 14.8 on the left side and -19.5 14.35, on the right board — 27.3 and 12.5 m, respectively.
On machines based on the T-70 driver had a periscope observation device with an overview of 90 ° horizontally. Commander, which was located in the tower, was watching through the telescopic sight, and the T-90 and the top of the tower walls.
Engine — serial, but provided for the installation and forced up to 85 liters. s. (At 3600 rev / min) motors. Two-plate dry clutch. Multiple disc friction clutches are dry. Manual gearbox — four forward speeds, one — backwards.
Tests were carried out only shooting. Running the tests were unnecessary, since the properties of the basic machines were well known. Results firings were as follows:
In addition, frequent delays occurred when firing machine guns.
"The act of commission on comparative tests shooting 12.7-mm machine guns on tanks T-90, T-70 and T-60" (September 1942) contained the following conclusions:
Installing DSHKT in the T-90 can reflect the air attacks in the parking lot and on the march and fight with gun emplacements.
Tests shooting and had enough strength of mileage and reliability of the T-90.
Accuracy and marksmanship were the T-90 is lower than probable and unsatisfactory from the T-70 (zen.).
Advantage of the mechanisms targeting the T-90 comfortably, the T-70 (zen.) — awkward.
Impractical remake series of towers T-70, since rework approaches to the production of the newest tower. The design of the tower does not provide a standard of satisfactory fire control. The enormous size and weight of standard tower T-70 is not allowed to reach the desired maneuverability fire.
It should increase speed traverse the T-90 to 10 ° per handwheel revolution.
Increment of T-90 ammunition and 1500 rounds of ammunition in stores and zinc.
Tower -90 with small design changes can be installed in the T-60.
It is noted that the body armor — the mask machine guns on the T-90 protects the hand from gunshot injuries. At the T-70 (zen.) because of the huge holes for sight such protection is not provided. In addition, the T-90 was equipped radio transceiver 9R, placed on the floor of the tower. Boeukladki was on the left side.
The Commission gave a clear preference for the T-90, but noted the need for a significant fine-tuning the machine to the required criteria. But work on the creation of machine-gun ZSU were left because of low power and low accuracy of fire doubles mnogokalibernyh guns.
The plant number 37 and GAZ already were working on the creation of ZSU-37 on the basis of a slightly modified T-70. This system proved to be more stable, had a huge height and reach a much more powerful projectile. However, the ZSU-37 entered into service until the end of the war.
Work on the machine-gun ZSU had all the same and a good result: designed for the T-70 (zen.) tower with a roof under Sparky the ANC were somewhat improved and mounted on armored and armored trains.