In the early twentieth century, the world was mired in the first passion for remaking rights. The results were soon to appear: Russian, French and Austrian clean-Ravens Steinach to rejuvenate spent hundreds of monkey testicular transplants people. But in the 1940s, for ethical reasons, these experiments have been banned.
Fixed idea "we can not wait for the mercy of nature, take them from her — our task" (breeder Ivan Michuryn) wrongly associated only with the new Soviet government. In the same piggy bank is "Heart of a Dog" by Mikhail Bulgakov (especially the eponymous film), which is not too educated person finds pridurochnosti Bolsheviks. Intellectual, well-read yet heard something about the early Soviet attempts to cross a monkey and a worker, and that's ready cliche: "Scary!".
Sergei Voronov of operation
But this whole Soviet experience to remake man only a tiny fraction of what they were doing with the people in the West. And not pridurochnosti and not out of malice, but because of the belief in the omnipotence of science. Almost everything that mankind enjoys today and mistakenly believes the creation of modern scholars, was coined in the period 1870-1930. The internal combustion engine and the electric vehicle (before and after a hundred years, the descendants got), communications, television and kibirneticheskaya machine, electricity and basic mass-produced goods, selection of animals and plants. The material world around us is 95 percent — that's all inventions century or more ago.
Latter, how could not reach a science — a man. We are also subject to all the laws of nature and almost can not change it. But not for lack of talent, but for ethical constraints.
The first experiments to "improve" a person at the beginning of the twentieth century gave a quick and good result. It (the result) did not have to tuck it under the microscope to ensure the effectiveness of manipulation of scientists. Two great physician of the time — Sergei Voronov and Eugen Steinach — demonstrated results of his experiments in overcrowded classrooms, and the audience applauded them.
Both scientists were working on the rejuvenation of man, and there was a leader Sergei Voronov.
Alexander (Samuel) Abramovich Ravens was born in 1866 in Voronezh, in the family Subbotniks — Russian subethnos, professed Judaism from the XVII century. The tsarist government was still somehow tolerated the Jews, but Russian Judaism were the most oppressed religious group in the Russian Empire ("betrayed the faith of the fathers"). Therefore, there was nothing surprising in the fact that Sergei Voronov in 1884 along with his family moved permanently to France. In 1893, he received a medical degree. In 1896 he went to Egypt, where he became a member of the Khedive of physicians (the title of the head of state in 1867-1914).
In Egypt, the Ravens found the perfect biological material for his experiments — the slaves, eunuchs. Castrate them quite a young age 6-7 years. Growing up, this man bought effeminate body shape. They had wide hips, narrow shoulders. Did not grow a beard. Intelligence at the eunuchs was low and they had a bad memory. Similar patterns have led Voronov to the conclusion that the formation of muscle, skeletal, mental development is directly influenced by the sex glands.
Illustration to magazine about the experiments Voronov in Cairo
Young doctor also found that the castrati quickly grew old, saddles and did not live to old age. That is what prompted Sergei Abramovich thought about rejuvenation of the body, if the aging eunuch enter the testes of young men full, the body was to rejuvenate the castrato.
He later recalled that immediately began to experiment with a change of glands of monkeys to people. But gossips claimed that the Egyptian princes allowed him to experiment with men sentenced to death in persons (bodies to take them). However, the Ravens were a smart man, and he understood that it is necessary to fill his hand still on monkeys — Egyptian room in Europe with suicide bombers and so would not pass.
Moreover, in his view monkey was a better person and for ethical reasons: they did not have a negative family history, were not inclined to alcohol, tobacco, child molestation and other unsavory qualities of human nature.
In 1912, the Ravens makes its first operation in Europe. He transplants thyroid chimp a person suffering from thyroid disease. After that the patient feels much better, and this success inspires the experimenter.
Before (left) and after treatment
The next patient is a 14-year-old boy, who suffers from mental retardation. Sergei Abramovich took thymus monkeys and put the boy vaccinated. "At the time of the surgery, he was an idiot and gave the impression of eight — the age at which it seized disease. 5th December 1913 with the presence of 19 doctors transplanted it right lobe of the thyroid gland baboon. The effect is striking, the boy grew up and got better so he could get an education, and in 1917 he was declared fit to the front, "- said Abramov.
Since 1920, the Ravens began to specialize in the transplantation of the testes. He produced thin sections on the testicles and chimpanzees are sewed them into the patient's scrotum. At the first operation the human body has a foreign body. It is ingrained in the testes 65-year-old patient. "The significantly freshened, wrinkles on his face smoothed out, in the movements appeared plastics and energy" — described the Ravens.
During these years, in parallel with the same experiences Voronov was engaged Austrian surgeon Eugen Steinach, and he transplanted gland and from person to person. The magazine "Red Field" in 1921, described his practice:
"After Steinach got amazing results in animals, he could consider himself the right to transfer them to the man. The first transaction made by it, together with his young staff surgeon Lihtenshternom, was the return of potency and masculine characteristics Kastrati. The first subjected to this operation was a military, which during the war were removed both testicles due to injuries.
Just a few months after it showed signs of castration: obesity, hair loss, loss of sexual ability, general apathy and weaken. In 1916, he drove Lihtenshtern kriptorhicheskoe egg, then returned to the patient sexual feeling intensified musculature obvolosenie, etc. The subject was married and enjoys a happy family life, according to recent data so far, ie is the 5th year.
(Kriptorhicheskimi or "crotch" referred to the testicles, which are still unclear due to the conditions of embryonic development does not descend into the scrotum, and get stuck in the groin. Such testicles often cause pain and are a source of dangerous tumors, resulting in their earlier removed and thrown away)
After Lihtenshtern described two similar cases, and in 1918 — the first case of homosexual operative treatment: the patient has been removed by his own testicles and bisexual vsazhu kriptorhicheskoe of a normally sexual subject.
Finally Steinach describes 3 cases of rejuvenating the elderly. In these three cases, significant importance is the fact that all three patients were not aware of the nature of the operation, which they were when they began to show signs of rejuvenation all objective: they are not consulted a doctor for rejuvenation, as with any other diseases and illnesses. So here excludes any possibility to suspect self-hypnosis.
Case 1 refers to a manual laborer 44 years, but with all the signs of premature aging. He came to the doctor because of the general body weakness and pain in both testicles. Very thin, weak, flabby muscles, the face in the folds.
Unable to physical labor, and sexual appetite has been missing for several years. Pain in the testicles was the result of bilateral hydrocele.
November 1, 1918 he underwent a surgery: opening of both testes, both bilateral ligation and transection of the method of Steinach.
After 4-5 months, the patient as a laborer is on the back of loads up to 100 pounds of weight. He arrived in weight, his face smoothed out. Potency at the height of turbulent adolescence, the growth of hair on the head, thighs and pubic hair, shave more often. A year later, he put on weight by 12 pounds.
Case 2. 70-year-old man, the head of a large company. Delivered to the resort with an abscess of the left testicle. He left testicle removed and at the same time made dressings on the right side.
Here's how a few months after the surgery the patient describes his condition in a letter to Lihtenshternu (typical of that at the time of writing this letter, he still had no idea of the nature of the operation produced on it): "After healing the wounds I searched destinations to gain strength. Already there, to my utter surprise, I had a night at the dorsal position of erotic dreams and in connection with them — wet dreams. My appetite has degenerated now gluttony and even now, in the present difficult times I barely able to meet the needs of my stomach. At the time, as before, I was in a state of deep spiritual depression, now I have a lot of months again cheerful. My view is fresh again and for my age I'm very flexible. The people with whom I am now once again enter into relations, consider me for almost sixty years, and I doubt that I turned 71 th year of life. Before, when I was going a little fast or slightly up the steep road, I had to deal with the severity of dyspnea and: it is now almost entirely ceased, and I'm often on my feet for an hour. "
The result of the operation made Voronov — there
Third case concerns a 66-year-old merchant, who suffered for 5 years, severe fatigue, loss of mental powers and memory, difficulty breathing, and so on 12 November 1919 operation took place. After a half years after that, he put on weight by 7 pounds, he recovered memory and mental alertness, disappeared typical signs of senility (shortness of breath, pain in all his limbs). Restored libido ».
Both the physician put the case to the stream. For the rejuvenation of them dragged dozens of people, and if not for a high fee for the operation, it would be thousands of patients.
From 1921 to 1924, the first year the Ravens made 56 transactions. They all had a beneficial impact on the health of patients.
In 1923 he took a surgical congress in London. It brought together luminaries of medical science in Europe and America. Speech Voronov was the main event of such a serious event. Time magazine described him as "a triumph."
Before (left) and after
Sergei Abramovich said that operated on 238 patients aged 55 to 70 years (including the Egyptian experience). In 90 cases out of 100 the result was positive. In persons aged 70 to 85 years of data were slightly worse. They were operated on 19 people. The most important functions of the body, including the sex, were recovered in 11 patients.
Particularly impressed by the luminaries of medicine has made the case with some wealthy Englishman. Tom was 74 years old, but he looked at all 85. He Ravens vshil testicle into the scrotum baboon. The old man dropped his pants, happily spun in front of the public.
Ravens becomes a celebrity and a millionaire. Demand for the operation was such that he had to create a monkey nursery in the south of France, Chateau Grimaldi. In 1927, the Ravens said that "soon in Europe and America apery will not be less than the Ford factory.
by grafting monkey testicles that interested the audience, which is reflected even in the popular literature. At intervals of two years in the light out two works written by medical professionals, part of the great writer — the story of Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Adventures of crawling Man" (1923), and Bulgakov's "Heart of a Dog" (1925).
In Russia, too, are similar experiences, and the doctors who conducted them, and become the prototype of Bulgakov's works. The character "Dr. Burmental" — this is Dr. Rosenthal, head of one of the three laboratories under the great physiologist Ivan Pavlov. "Professor Preobrazhensky" — a professor of laboratory Resurrection on rejuvenation in Tver.
Here, for example, that the newspaper "Pravda Peasant" from January 12, 1924 about the followers Voronov in a note titled "Rejuvenation":
"Continuer of Steinach and Voronov are Prof. Dr. Resurrection and Assumption with special facilities in Tver. They produce their own work and over the people. They are one and a half year rejuvenated 10 items, 5 doctors, 2 priests, 1 merchant and more than 15 Soviet officials. Material for operations provides apery. The majority of individuals undergoing surgery, feel quite good, cheerful and functional. Some of them have disappeared wrinkles started to grow hair on a bald spot the same. "
In 1925 he published a book Voronov "Rejuvenation grafting," in which the doctor described the expected effects of testicular tissue transplantation: improved memory, high performance, falling demand in points (due to the strengthening eye muscles), prolongation of life and increased potency. Engaged Ravens and the monkey ovary transplant women. He has also conducted experiments on the back of the human ovary transplant monkey and ape human artificial insemination with sperm, however, to no avail.
Apery Voronov in his castle in Provence Grimaldi
By the beginning of 1930 "rejuvenation" were thousands of very wealthy people, among them Harold McCormick — Chairman of International Harvester Company, and the aging prime minister of Turkey Ataturk. Also, the patient Voronov was Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France.
At the same time the growth of right and pro-fascist sentiment in France intensified attacks on Voronov. He is accused of neglecting human morality, immediately showered accusations that he was an agent of the NKVD. Ravens moved to the French colony of Algeria, there was a bit quieter.
In 1940, the Nazis occupied France and Vichy subject to them confiscated all lab equipment Voronov, all of its records and documents that were in his palace on the Cote d'Azur. He had to flee and Algeria — in neutral Switzerland. Where the local authorities have categorically forbade him to engage in "rejuvenation", and the rest of his days — in 1951 — the Ravens was a regular pension. He lived 85 years.
Around the same years — in the early 1930s and pravelo Stalinist regime, and therefore experiments with organ transplants monkeys people have stopped. Especially as the main enthusiast of these practices Dr. Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov died in 1932.
It is the experience of Ilya Ivanov began fiction in the Soviet Union, gathering every year speculation. Ivanov allegedly led out of the "hybrid rights" — polucheloveka-poluobezyanu.
Article Ivanov's experiments, clicking on the picture you can see a larger size
"In 1926, Stalin backed a secret plan to create in the laboratory beings with incredible power and an underdeveloped brain, insensitive to pain, hardy and undemanding in food. It was assumed that manage to grow a "living war machine", and along with the "workhorse" that without the high cost could be exploited in the coal mines, construction in Siberia and the Arctic regions "- so now thinking the experiments Ivanov. People and it never occurs to them that this "hybrid" was ten times costly than the "workhorse" in the form of a Russian peasant. Poluobezyane had to have an operation — it would require hundreds, if not thousands, from expert physicians (in the late 1920s, the Soviet Union was of a good idea, a dozen). We had to wait for 5-6 years, while "hybrid grows up" to feed and protect it. Why all this, when you could pull out a million or two peasants and send them to the shock and the construction or in the thick of battle. Free and angry. Under Stalin, the "hybrids" had 80% of the population.
No, Ilya Ivanov, was engaged in the same experiments that the Ravens or Steinach — rejuvenation, replacing the diseased human body to a healthy monkey. It is for this purpose and was created by a big monkey nursery in Abkhazia.
If Dr. Ivanov as Stalin needed, he would not have received in 1930, 5 years imprisonment for "counter-revolutionary activities", however, replaced him on the link in Alma-Ata. Where he died at the age of 62 years.