Counting the losses of natural disasters Natural Disasters
Worldwide industrial chain deliverable no time to recover from the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, in October new disaster undermined their work. Because of the unusually heavy monsoon rains floods in northern Thailand. Affected by both local and foreign companies (Honda, Western Didzhitalz) located in Bangkok, nicknamed "Asian Venice." Total losses amounted to $ 40 billion, which is 2.5% lower global industry revenue.
Over the past five years so costly in material sense natural disasters are common. According to estimates of the largest reinsurance company Munich Re, the world's loss amounted to 378 billion U.S. dollars, which has a rich record of the vicissitudes of 2005 (262 billion). Besides Japan and Thailand have suffered from natural disasters as New Zealand, Australia, China and the Americas.
God's finger or ..?
In our time, everything, except, perhaps, earthquakes, decided to give one explanation — global warming, which sounds quite reasonable in the case of the tsunami and floods. People have learned to minimize the effects of almost all types of natural disasters through early warning systems, to better inform the public about evacuation plans, safe construction, etc.
Despite the still greater loss of life, the mortality rate during disasters is on the decline, which is not the material loss. This is largely due to the geographical location of the flagships of the global industry in potentially hazardous areas in the tropical coasts, river deltas, in the woods, along the fault-lines of the Earth's crust.
For example, in Thailand are growing export-oriented enterprises in Bangkok and the main Chao Phraya River in the region, which are more susceptible to flooding (the former area of rice cultivation, for which an increased level of water is necessary.) Large-scale fires in Texas, USA, and Australia have occurred in areas of recent residential development adjacent to forest areas. 25% of Australian homes were burned in the forest area, 60% were 10 feet away, prompting fire. In case of fire in the "Black Sabbath" killed 173 people, burned 2,298 homes.
In the way of evil
With a growing population and an increase in its assets growing economic cost of disasters. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2007, estimated that by 2070, seven of the ten largest accumulation zones of the urban population and infrastructure are located in the coastal areas of developing countries, the risk of flooding, which is very high. GDP in these areas will increase from 5 to 9 percent. In addition to double the population of area subject to tropical cyclones and earthquakes, reaching 16% of the total number of people on Earth.
Continuous development of human activity increases the risks of natural disasters, destroying natural barriers against floods and droughts (forests, wetlands, mangroves, water and underwater reserves, etc.).
People are always settled in the river deltas, despite the risk of flooding, because the closer the city to the water, the faster it develops, and the easier it is there to make a living. Contact motivation works fine in case of real estate in the areas of potential flooding. In America, the owners of coastal homes are required to have special insurance received from the federal government. Often, during the floods, and so produce power subsidies, and part of the population living in the areas directly outside the danger zone, prefers not to buy insurance in the hope that they will pay 75-100% of the devastation. Such an organized system of strongly resisting any reforms by the government, and the building is not transferred to safe areas, as a holiday home in Pass Christian, Mississippi, after Hurricane Camille in 1969, and a shopping center after Hurricane Catarina in 2005, which gutted in the same place.
It works well as a habit of people do not try to assess the damage from the rare, unpredictable events, which is what natural disasters, even if they can be devastating. But if you can not fight human nature, it is possible to change the laws and begin to invest more in preventing floods and fires as a result to reduce the cost of the budget. Currently 20% of humanitarian aid are responses, while the preventive takes only 0.7%.
Netherlands, many centuries living in the heavy dependence on natural grace, can be a great example in the struggle for making preventive measures of the highest status. About 60% of the country is below sea level. So it could at any time be flooded waters of the North Sea, the Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt and their tributaries. In 1953, 9% of the country was flooded North Sea storm, 1,800 people were killed. After the terrible tragedy in the Netherlands began a multi-year program "Delta Works" to protect estuaries from storm surges and strengthen abductors ditches. Following the floods in 1993 and 1995 and a large-scale evacuation of the population, whose numbers continued to grow it in the industrial areas of the river, in 2007, EUR 2.3 billion was allocated for the program "The Place of the rivers!" With all the consequences of previous events. In the 39 communities along the Meuse, the Rhine, Waal and IJssel ditches were extended inland, deepened river channels. "Polders" reclaimed land that connect the swampy / flooded area and the ditch, were eliminated, which increased the volume of water in the rivers to an acceptable level. Rhine is 16-18 thousand m ³ / s instead of 15,000.
Former polders again become flooded plains that can absorb water during the floods and will save the adjacent localities. To do this, the government had to convince the 18 farmers move their land in the higher parts of the country and to promise all sorts of compensation for damages. Are currently under serious work on the introduction of the Dutch flood control technology in other countries.
In the Dutch approach has its drawbacks, such as high costs, including the costs of resettlement farmers. Carry entire cities more difficult, but they can be strengthened. In Rotterdam, there is a special tank at 10,000 m ³, designed to hold at least 25% of water coming. City Square arranged so that is easily converted into a swimming pool for rainwater, and the harbor is a life floating pavilion in the form of hemispheres, which supports the construction of pepoplasta.
Protection of property
Strengthening of cities in developing countries can be considered from two opposite poles. On the one hand, urbanization separates the city from the natural defenses against floods and eruptions, and subjects living in them as people and property at greater risk. On the other hand, urbanization makes people richer. Density urban infrastructure increases the ability of the population to protect themselves against the elements. Therefore, all measures of protection against disasters should be made to encourage citizens to take more effective measures to protect, not hinder, the population increase in potentially hazardous areas.
In many cities, the construction of the reference, but there are no rules to strengthen buildings. In a study conducted by the World Bank for Reconstruction and Development, states that if you give people the opportunity to own property, it will increase the level of safety of buildings. Strengthening the regulation of rents to encourage homeowners to bring their holdings in accordance with the construction requirements. Conventional infrastructure must be able to have dual status in the event of disasters. We are talking about schools that are built on hills and can serve as shelters on road tunnel in Kuala Lumpur, is transformed into an irrigation canal.
With the development of society in a state of mankind to fight back to what happened to any cataclysm. Even the cost of such horrific events as the tsunami in Japan and flooding in Thailand may seem a drop in the ocean for the GDP of these countries have large stocks of material goods. For developing countries, the best way to counter is further growth.