Manipulation — domination by way of spiritual influence on the people, by programming their behavior. This influence is directed to mental structure of man, is hidden and aims to change opinions, motives and goals of the people in power right direction.
Even this very brief definition, it is clear that the manipulation of consciousness as a means of power arises only in civil society, with the establishment of a political order based on representative democracy. It is — "Western democracy", which is now, thanks to brainwashing, is perceived simply as democracy — Opposite the plurality of types of totalitarianism. In fact, many kinds of democracy (slave-owning, Veche, military, straight, Vainakh, etc., etc.). But we will not shirk.
In the political order of Western democracy sovereign, that is, the holder of all power, announced a set of citizens (ie those residents who have civil rights). These citizens — individuals endowed with equal particle theory of power as the "voice." This is carried out every bit of power during periodic elections through the ballot in the lower box. Equality is guaranteed in this democracy the principle of "one person — one vote". No one other than individuals do not have a voice, not a "taking" of particles of power — no team, no king, no leader, no sage, no party.
But as you know, "equality before the law does not mean equality before the fact." It is popular already explained the Jacobins, having sent to the guillotine those who demanded economic equality on the basis of what they say, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity", is not it? In property sense politically equal citizens are not equal. And even necessarily have to be equal — it is the fear of the poor rallies prosperous part in civil society, makes them "conscious and active citizens." On this rests the whole structure of democracy — a "society of two-thirds."
Income inequality in a society creates a "potential difference" — a strong imbalance, which can only be maintained with the help of political power. The great moralist and founder of political economy, Adam Smith and define a major ROLE gosudapstva gpazhdanskom in society: "Ppiobpetenie large porphyry and obshipnoy property is only possible when setting gpazhdanskogo ppavitelstva. In the mepe to which it is established for the protection of property, it is, in fact, the protection of the petro-rich poor, the protection of those who own property, petro those who do not have any property. "
We are here talking about a civilian government, that is about the government in a civil society. Prior to this, when the "old regime", the power of the particles are not distributed among the citizens, and concentrated in the monarch who had the do not question the right of domination (and its main tool — violence). As in any country, the power of the monarch (or, say, the Secretary General) was in need of legitimation — purchasing authority in the public mind. But she did not need the manipulation of consciousness. Relations of domination by such a power was based on an "open, without disguise, the imperative effects — from violence, oppression, domination to impose, suggestion, order — using a simple rough coercion." In other words, the tyrant commands, and not manipulated.
This fact is all the researchers emphasize the manipulation of public opinion, differing ways of influencing the masses in democratic and authoritarian or totalitarian regimes. Here's judgment of prominent American scientists:
Specialist in media Z.Freyre "Before waking people no manipulation, and is the total suppression. As long as the oppressed completely crushed by reality, there is no need to manipulate them. "
The leading American sociologists and P.Lazarsfeld R.Merton: "Those who control the attitudes and beliefs in our society, resorting less to physical violence and more to mass suggestion. Radio advertising and replace intimidation and violence. "
Well-known and popular even an expert in the field of management S.Parkinson gave this definition: "In a dynamic society, the art of government is reduced to the ability to send to track human desires. Those who have completely mastered this art will be able to achieve unprecedented success. "
Though ideology, this change of religion to civil society emerged as a product of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe, the main creator of the concept and technology of manipulating the mass consciousness from the very beginning the United States. However, they are — a product of Europe (as they said in the XVIII century, the United States — more than Europe than Europe itself). Here, in a space free of the old traditions of class cultures, there was an individual in the most pure and complete form. The "father of the nation" and a wealthy layer of the United States there was an urgent need to control the huge crowd of free individuals, without resorting to state violence (it was just impossible and contrary to the very ideological basis of American individualism). At the same time, it was not possible to appeal to such ethical norms, such as respect for authority — U.S. dissidents occupied Europe who deny the authority. Thus, a new type of social history in the management, based on suggestion. The writer Gore Vidal said that "the American political elite from the beginning featured an enviable ability to persuade people to vote against their own interests."
In general, one of the leading experts on U.S. media professor at the University of California G.Shiller gives this definition: "The United States can be quite accurately described as a divided society, where manipulation is one of the most important management tools in the hands of a small ruling group of corporate and government bosses … Since colonial times, the powers that be effectively manipulated the white majority and minority suppressed the color. "
It can be said that the Americans have committed scientific and intellectual achievement. It's no joke — to create as soon as possible an innovative technology management company. The fact that in other societies evolved for thousands of years, that European culture was based on the already huge generalizing philosophical works (such as "Politics" Aristotle and the "Republic" of Plato), the United States was constructed from scratch in a new way, purely scientific and engineering method. Herbert Mapkuze marks a huge change, "Today, the subordination of man is expanded and perpetuated pospedstvom not only technology, but also as a technology that provides even more reason for the full legitimation of political power and its expansion, covering all sfepy kultupy." Submission does not by technology, and the technology! Tyrant create technology could not, he's just a subordinated people using it, and using a very primitive system (ax and scaffold — is technology).
In the U.S., the technology is created and worked on it and runs a large group of trained, professional intellectuals. G.Shiller said: "Where the manipulation is the primary means of social control, such as, for example, in the United States, the development and improvement of methods of manipulation are valued much more than other types of intellectual activity."
It may be said that in the manipulation of U.S. experts have reached perfection — they pay for the service by the ruling circles of social movements, even those that are seemingly just in opposition to the power of these communities. Well-known American scholar Noam Chomsky in his book "Necessary Illusions: mind control in democratic societies," writes that during the 80s the Reagan and Bush administrations in the United States could carry out far-right social and militaristic policy despite the fact that there is a strong public opinion shift towards social democratic principles. When the polls overwhelmingly supports the introduction of government guarantees full employment, public health and the construction of kindergartens, and the ratio of supporters and opponents of the cuts in military spending was 3:1. Almost half the population of the United States was confident that the phrase "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" — an article of the U.S. Constitution, not the slogan of the Communist Manifesto by Marx.
Philosophers and Adopno Hopkhaymep so respected by our liberal intellectuals in the book "Dialectics Pposvescheniya" ppedstavili opganizatsy entire life in the U.S. as "industpiyu kultupy, which is perhaps the most pernicious and izoschpennoy FORMS totalitapizma." So it is, for that matter, is not about choosing between democracy and totalitarianism, and between different types of Totalitarianism (Or different types of Democracy — The name depends on taste).
If the appeal is not to cheap propaganda on television and read serious books, we learn that in most western philosophical thought of the 'democratic' illusions are long gone. Montesquieu's theory of civil society proposed the idea separation of powers, Considering that it would limit the tyranny of the executive power. These hopes were not realized, which clearly showed the history of the West. At the end of XIX century writer Maurice Joly has even written a fun book, "Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu", in which the shadow of Machiavelli as a theorist cynical and cruel executive in two accounts Montesquieu explained how easy it is sovereign can handle other "branches" simply because that he controls the finances, even without resorting to harsher means. And they also, when necessary, apply.
When philosophers writing in earnest, they cast curses like "totalitarianism" or the "cult of personality" and speak of two types of despotism — East and West. Contemporary French philosopher S.Moskovichi sees the main difference between the Western type is that it relies on the control over the means of production is not, and over the media and uses them as the nervous system, "They spread their branches, wherever people gather, meet and work. They penetrate into the nooks and crannies of each quarter, each house to lock up people in a cage on top of the set of images and inspire them common to the picture of reality. Oriental despotism meets economic necessity, irrigation and development of labor capacity. The west side also despotism is primarily responsible political necessity. It involves the capture of weapons of influence or suggestion, which is the school, the press, radio, etc … Everything happens as if there was a development from one to the other: external submission gives way to internal subordination of the masses, the apparent dominance is replaced by the spiritual, invisible domination from which it is impossible to defend. "
Submission of the same, as if the existence of "democratic mechanisms" in itself provides for freedom of the person, and their lack of it inhibits — the fruit of innocence, almost indecent. To some extent, this naivety was still forgivable Russian early in the century, but even then Berdyaev wrote: "For many Russian people used to the oppression and injustice that democracy is something definite and simple — and would bring great benefits must release the person. In the name of some indisputable truth of democracy, we were ready to forget that the religion of democracy, as it has been proclaimed as Rousseau and Robespierre was carried out, not only does not release the person and does not approve of its inalienable rights, but it suppresses the identity and wants to know its autonomous existence. State absolutism in democracies also possible, as in the most extreme monarchies. Such bourgeois democracy with its formal absolutism of the principle of democracy … The instincts and skills absolutism moved in democracy, they dominate in all the most democratic revolutions. "
Strictly speaking, as soon as the manipulation of consciousness has evolved into the technology of domination, the very concept of democracy was purely arbitrary and is used only as an ideological stamp. In the professional environment that stamp does not take seriously. In his "Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences" G.Lassuell said: "We must not yield to the democratic dogma, according to which the people themselves can judge their own interests."
Since we are talking about democracy and totalitarianism, we must digress for a moment and highlight the special case: what happens when a society with a "totalitarian" views about man and about the power suddenly introduced a revolutionary way "democratic" rule? It does not matter whether democracy brought the U.S. military marines, as in Haiti or Panama, Belgian paratroopers, as in the Congo, or domestic idealists, in the spring of 1917 in Russia. In any case, it is democracy that does not grow out of the current in the culture of "feeling of power", but is imported from overseas as a wonderful fruit. There is a hybrid that, if you work carefully and cautiously, may be quite acceptable (as the Japanese "democracy", created by the occupation authorities after the war, the United States). But in most cases this hybrid horrible as Mobutu.
For us, this option is important because it has been more than ten years, the problem of democracy and totalitarianism was the subject of a downhole washing our brains. And in fact, we even follow the logic of our own democracy, just get referred to a hybrid: on our "totalitarian" past, our 'totalitarian' thinking have imposed a wild jumble of rules and concepts (mayors and prefects mixed with the Duma, clerks and a thousand parties).
Thus, Russia has never been a "civil society" free individuals. Speaking the language of a cloth, it was corporate, social class society (peasants, nobles, merchants, clergy yes — not classes, not proletarians and owners). Softer, although with a sneer, liberal social philosophers call this type of society is this: "warm society face to face. " Candid same ideologues cut honestly totalitarianism. The behavior of the people of this society when they suddenly have to create power (they are committing to be "democrats")? This is what we see today and are amazed, not understanding — people elect people worthless, it is desirable to non-Russians, and very often criminals. Meanwhile, there is nothing surprising. This archetype, this subconscious craving manifested itself at the initial formation of Russia when she was invited to manage the robbers Vikings.
There is an explanation low, consumer, and there is high is ideal. Let us remember the "pure" case of hybridization of power, when, after the February Revolution of 1917 and in the village and in the city had to go straight from the constable and the king's officials in the police, local government and "the people's ministers." What happened?
We left a meticulous, day after day, the description of the events M.Prishvin in their diaries. He was almost the only writer who has spent years of the revolution in the countryside, in the heart of Russia, on his farm in the county Eletsky Orel province. And not at a desk — he plowed his 16 acres (he even forbade to have the employee). In addition, he was really in the thick of all the events, as well as a delegate to the Provisional Committee of the State Duma of the Oryol province, met every day in his rural committee toured the counties and districts. At times, been to St. Petersburg — in the ministries, the Duma and the Council. In its report to the State Duma of May 20, he writes that in committees and councils of peasants choose criminals. "From the inquiries I made sure that the phenomenon is widespread in our region," — writes Prishvin. Arriving in early September in the capital and had a look at the leader of the Socialist Minister of Agriculture, Chernov Prishvin realized that it was not his province, and of all Russia. Here is his record on September 2:
"Chernov — a small man, it can be seen on his antics, and a little smile, and a large, cleverly speeches without any content. "The Village" — a word he says with a French accent and calls himself a "Rural Minister." It is evident that he has nothing to his name, for that matter, and most of these "Rural Minister," which is now the village sends a parish, municipality in the county, the county capital. These ambassadors are selected village of peasants often criminal, because they have suffered, they are unhappy, they do not farm, free men, and they can not because of any personal injury to stand up for farmers. They learn a hastily necessary alphabet policy funny pronounce the foreign words, as well as a messenger of intellectuals Chernov funny pronouncing words with the French village de. "Rural Minister" and the village delegates psychologically opposed to a real man. "
How can one create that authority and reason as those who are willing to submit to it? Prishvin recorded the progress of such gatherings. Here is one case, 3 July 1917 election to the committee, it's important, because Committee, in contrast to the Council, the leading economic affairs. Candidate Meshkov ("whiskey compressed utjuzhkom forehead, eyes wander. Who is he? Yeah so — that it's all here: neither the plow nor harrow, no land"). Bags — thief. But the deacon is the leading collection of argument:
"- His sin, comrades, is a clear and blatant sin torments more secret, we are all sinners!
And he gave the word to justify himself Meshkov. He said:
— Comrades, I am nine years ago, was tried, and now I justified myself in politics. Under the new law, all is forgiven!
— That's right! — Told the crowd.
And someone said quietly:
— If we do not elect Meshkov, whom we elect. Bags all the people there: and his pants and shirt, and worn-out boots — that's it! One word, one speaker, and he does not have any horse or cow, or a plow or harrow, and he lives out of favor with his uncle on Zagumenov, and his wife begging. Do not select High, the tall a lot of cattle, land, economy, he — the bourgeoisie. Choose small. And the bags we have — the smallest.
— Thank you, comrades, — said Meshkov — now I will devote you that there is a ballot box. This is the secret question and coincides with some secret, the secret of this very much for you to bear very carefully and very politely, even under strict guard!
He called the elections:
— Choose, however, only the Socialist-Revolutionaries, and if you choose which of the People's Freedom Party, of the bourgeoisie, it is still all we mix and all you dare! ".
Here it is — a hybrid of democracy and the "warm community." As a result, writes Prishvin after February in just six months' power was raped "(" of power now just hunt and take her with his bare hands "). And the hunt for power, raping her people are just worthless:
"As in the division of land involved mainly those who do not, and many of those who have even forgotten how to cultivate it, and participate in a sharing of power in most cases, people are naked, unable to creative work, having forgotten that … the power of the state is above all human unhappiness. "
Here Prishvin already for the "ideal" setting, perhaps, a little apart from occurring where the Russian culture. The burden of government is a misfortune for a man! The power is always something external to the "warm community," and the person who took the burden of power inevitably becomes an outcast. If he put his human relations above the national debt, it will be bad, unjust authority. In such a situation it is very difficult to pass on the edge and do not ruin your soul. It is clear why the Russian man trying to "send in the power of" the one who is not sorry, and it is better to call someone else, a German. If you require, for the sake of democracy, to establish self-government, the failure to perform the duties of power and corruption is almost inevitable.
At the household level, it looks at Prishvina this:
"June 14. Mowed garden — with their hands. Drinking tea in the garden, and on the other end of the oblique haul woman. We go to frighten women dog and calves on oats village. Call the police officer can not be — it is useless, it is a rustic man, neighbor and kinsman, and the entire village against her he can not go. The disadvantages of self-government: the constable — the power of distraction, from the side, and his policeman, tangled in obyvatelstve man …
Indeed, the self-governing village can not, because in the village all their own, and the government thought of living on the side. No one, for example, in our village can not make cabbage and cucumbers, because the neighbors kids and calves will ruin everything. I proposed to introduce a penalty for the damage, not passed.
— Then — they say — it comes to knives.
Closely in the village, all their own, and their power does not like relatives, the authorities do not have relatives.
So chosen Meshkov — criminal, frugal mind, which has no stake, no court, for the fact that he is a hard-hitting and for the truth — what truth? not known, only that which he lives, not of this world. Power is not of this world. "
In fact, the Russian peasants (especially coats) and therefore supported the Bolsheviks that they were the only spark of power "not of this world" — power without relatives. I must say that this instinct woke up in the Bolshevik state surprisingly quickly, the contrast with the current Democrats simply striking. Significantly phenomenon, which the official Soviet ideology is silent, and for good reason — the "red bandits." At the end of the Civil War, the Soviet government was fighting, sometimes in court, sometimes with the use of armed force, with the Reds, who willfully delayed the conflict. In some places, this danger to the Soviet authorities even considered the main. Under the court were used to the whole party organization — they have the power to "were not related."
And when the Bolsheviks had degenerated and their power was to "live and let live," and the spirit of it out. And today, the good of the Communist Party is not very name to power, it is home too.
So, we spent classification. There are, relatively speaking, two "pure" model — democracy and totalitarianism. And the most difficult case, our own — forced upon hybridization of foreign democracy imposed on the culture of the "warm community." In this hybrid, the reformers hoped to kill a component of "totalitarianism" (or rather pretend that they hope). Almost the main tool in their efforts to become the manipulation of consciousness.
Its technology developed in the U.S., is now used in more or less widely in other parts of the world (in Russia — without any limits) and has become the main means of social control in the new world order. Of course, we supplement the violence against "colored." However, those more and more considered as poor, regardless of color (for example, the Japanese were not considered to be colored, and the Russian is almost considered).
Briefly discussed and put aside the issue of social control in the "totalitarian" societies. Why the hard ways of spiritual influence of democracy is not covered by the concept of manipulation? After all tyrants, not only the head and chopped "black raven" scary. In short, the music and the way they acted no less than the rack. Why does the liturgy in the church or conversation in the Red Army political commissar, encourage the person to certain behavior — not the manipulation of consciousness?
Human exposure religion (not talking yet about sects), or "propaganda" in the so-called ideocratic societies, which were, for example, the Tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union are different from the manipulation of its major generic characteristics. The whole set of them is devoted to when we talk about ways of manipulation. Here we point out one feature — stealth effect and suggestion person desires, obviously contrary to its fundamental values and interests.
Neither religion nor the official ideology ideokraticheskogo society, not only do not meet this criterion — they are fundamentally different. Their appeal to the people not just hiding it loudly. Guidelines and rules of conduct, which encouraged these effects were declared quite openly, and they were hard and clearly associated with the declared values of the society.
And fathers, and "fathers of communism," felt that the behavior to which they loudly called for — in the interest of the salvation of souls and the welfare of their flock. Therefore, it could not stand the problem to inspire false goals and desires and hide share of spiritual influence. Of course, the idea of the welfare and needs of the people and the elite more or less of the population could diverge, the leaders could severely mistaken. But they are not "crept under the skin" and complement the power of words with direct repression. In the barracks of the Red Army was a poster: "Can not — can help. You do not know — teach. You do not want — to force. "
The meaning of the manipulation is different: we will not force you, we climbed up to your soul, to your subconscious and make it so that you want. In this — the main difference and the fundamental incompatibility of the two worlds of religion or ideocracy (the so-called traditional societies) and the manipulation of consciousness (in the so-called democratic society).
Many, however, is misleading similarity of some "technical" methods used in the religious, and outreach, and in handling the rhetoric — playing on the feelings, the appeal to the subconscious mind to the fears and prejudices. Although in reality these techniques in religion and ideokraticheskoy propaganda — a consequence of weakness and immaturity, and in the manipulation of consciousness — basic installation, it is not obvious. Moreover, the religious denomination committed to updating and anxious success in the social and political sphere, indeed sometimes fall into the temptation of the big master manipulation technology. This is — one of perhaps the main reflections of Dostoevsky expressed in the Legend of the Grand Inquisitor. Remember, Christ came down to Earth's Grand Inquisitor sent to the fire so that it did not violate created in the society world order based on just the manipulation of consciousness (as we would say today). The Grand Inquisitor reproaches Christ is that He refused to lead a person acting on his mind wonder.
In contrast to the Church, his criticism of the communist ideology scale Dostoevsky or Tolstoy did not get, but without them, we can see: "renovationism" Khrushchev with the temptation to use manipulation technology directly caused her injury, which zakoposhilis gobble it Yakovlev and Burbulis. Khrushchev, like a magician, and began swinging sleeves of which were dusted with miracles catch up with America for meat and milk, sow corn in Arkhangelsk, in twenty years we will live under communism. From beginning to crumble ideocratic Soviet society. It is said, for ideokraticheskogo dysfunctional society manipulation of consciousness ("unhealthy").
But, again, in real life, the deviations from the "pure" model obscure the fundamental differences, and therefore we will stop for now on the obvious generic characteristics: openness, and even show off, the ritual of establishing the desired behavior in theocratic societies and ideocratic — and hidden, achieved through the manipulation of consciousness establishment of such rules in a democracy (civil, open, liberal, etc.) society.
We agreed from the very beginning — in this book is to try not to give the phenomena of its assessments, and describe phenomena reveal their meaning. Estimates derived from the ideals and the ideals of the readers are different, and argue about them is pointless. It can only be by finding out the ideals negotiate coexistence. And for this we need to understand what is happening — the visibility to distinguish meaning.
Therefore, rather than to stigmatize a particular way of influencing human behavior, we point out two approaches to compare them. First we call functional, and the second — moral.
How successful approaches developed in ideocratic and democratic societies that allow the powers to carry out one of the main functions: to ensure the stability of the society, its reproduction, survival?
In general, ideocratic, traditional society and liberal society resistant or vulnerable to the shocks of various types. First astounding vitality, when the heavy strokes are all or a large part of society, so there is a feeling that "our beat." In these cases, the resistance is such that observers and policy "of another company" is not just a marvel, but time and again fall into the trap of hard mistaken.
Relatively little published material about parsing those conclusions advisers of Napoleon and Hitler, who were wrong in their predictions about the response of different layers of the Russian people to the invasion of Russia. Apparently, this analysis is still in the West is secret, though by instinct, by the thinkers. But what is published, shows that in both large "experiments" over the West Russia is fundamentally wrong. Russian completely different "interpreted" gestures Western media progress than they bargained for. Each hit from the outside, which was seen as a blow to Russian it is for Russia, healed its internal rifts and "canceled" internal contradictions.
It is also striking today western experts (and their "Russian" students) our ability to keep hitting winners Russia in the Cold War. Mass impoverishment not only destroyed the society, it is hardly even embittered people do not bleed off it. Contrary to expectations, the company was split, and continues to live by the unwritten laws and cultural norms, foreign to the law of the market and the norms of individualism.
We, with our usual bell tower, just do not see what is happening in Russia and how it is perceived through the eyes of "civilization." In the West, the decline in production of 1 percent — is a crisis that magically changes the entire behavior of the inhabitant. Even if the person has quite the crisis has not touched him and ruin are not directly threatened. And if you tire of the crisis he was hit, there are just incredible transformation. Decent, cultured and friendly people and the eyes becomes a vicious skvalygu. He is tormented by his children, tears with all the friends and starts wildly like a madman, save, making a strange behavior — can shortchange rob a street vendor and his graduate student, assigning him the money. The spectacle of an exceptionally difficult.
About how fast a liberal society lost its fastening cultural norms in the depletion of the middle class, wrote a lot of sad literature. During the Great Depression in the United States bankrupt businessmen were falling out of windows, like ripe pears. Do we see something like this in Russia? It's ridiculous to assume. Well, lost a fortune — will go to the superintendent. Two years ago, due to the machinations leadership busted a major Spanish bank "Santander". Shareholders lost about a quarter of its states. In the great hall — their meeting, the camera. I had never seen such a gathering of people, which is written on the faces of genuine, profound human suffering. And still talking about the lack of spirituality of the West. Artistic photos taken from the shareholders meeting, which were filled with newspapers reflected the tragedy of high intensity.
In anticipation of the liberalization of prices, which took place in Russia in January 1992, I was talking to a Spanish sociologist. "You are — he says — expect interesting phenomena. Observe, then tell me. " He predicted, for example, that with the sharp rise in prices for Moscow a week filled with stray dogs, and it will be phenomenal. They sociologists used as a makeshift, but a very sensitive indicator of impending economic difficulties, a simple summary of the number of captured stray dogs on the street. The growth of this indicator to any changes in inflation, stock market indices and the production says, will decline. Scent of the middle class is sensitive and trouble free, no economic science behind it can not keep up.
What makes a respectable bourgeois family, sensing the approach of this recession? She goes for a ride out of town. Everyone is happy, the kids are excited, the dog jumps for joy and trying to lick the owner's face. Somewhere on the edge of the grove producing dog for a walk. And while it is worn with the barking of butterflies, all seated in a "Toyota" slam the door, and — hello. Indeed, through the streets of neat towns run, wild-eyed, thoroughbred collie and Dobermans. They can not understand what happened to them, where is their gracious host to his dog food «Pedigree». I once met this even astonished St. Bernard. And animal advocates pasting posters with plaintive portrait of a dog and the words: "It would be so wrong with you went away."
Whether predictions have come true sociologist, expert Western soul? Not in the least, as I have had the pleasure to tell him. After the price increase at once-impoverished old woman pensioner, as before, endured at the hands of their pooches for a walk. Only to the apartments, which have a large dog, the neighbors began to add more bones. We have no more civil society.
But traditional society only fragile and defenseless against such impacts, to which civil society is completely insensitive. Enough to sow doubt in the public consciousness in the life of righteousness, organized ideocratic society, or the righteousness of power in the state, all the foundations of the political order can stagger and collapse overnight. About it — "Boris Godunov" by Pushkin. Wrote about this in the "Milestones" repentant liberal philosophers after the experience of the 1905 revolution. Yes, and all the drama of the second act of the murder of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union is in the form of, in front of our eyes.
Ideocratic society — a complex, hierarchically built structure, which is based on a sacred, immutable ideas, symbols, and on the relationship of authority. The loss of respect for authority and symbols — death. If the enemy manages to incorporate these ideas into their destructive viruses, victory is assured. Relations of domination by violence can not save, because violence must be legitimized by the same general ideas, symbols.
Civil society is composed of atoms, individuals associated with countless threads of their interests. This society is just and inseparably as mold, as a colony of bacteria. Shots on some points (ideas, meanings) of a large loss for the whole do not produce, produced only minor holes and tears. But this fabric is difficult to tolerate "molecular" blows to the interests of each (eg, economic hardship). For internal stability only need to control the "fan desires" of the entire colony in such a way as to avoid any large social units with incompatible, contradictory desires. This task handles the manipulation of consciousness technique. A struggle over the degree of satisfaction of desires is quite acceptable, it does not undermine the essence of society.
It is — in fact, instrumental side of things. Especially here argue about. Other business — common assessment arising from ethical values. Here the views are diametrically opposed.
Man of the liberal way of thinking (which today seems to be dominated by a "cultural layer" of Russia) is convinced that the transition from violence and coercion to the manipulation of consciousness — the tremendous progress in human development, almost "end of history." Ideology say nothing — they enjoy it greedily transition (paradoxically, they agree that for the sake of such a transition in Russia for an indefinite period, established a regime of unlimited violence). Within the scientific community estimates are generally more evasive. In the book "The Psychology of manipulation" E.L.Dotsenko its generally liberal conclusion does with caveats: "We can recall many situations in life in which the manipulation is a boon to the extent that raises the communication from the domination and violence to manipulation — in a sense, a more humane attitude . "
"In a sense," "can recall many situations" — it deprives a principled assessment of strength. It's not about the situations of moral choice and the type of society and the type of human relations. Just note that in the West, among the leading specialists have (though not many) are those who openly and puts the manipulation of consciousness morally below the open coercion and violence.
The arguments of those who welcome change from forced manipulation, simple and clear. Whip — it's painful, but the spiritual drug — it's nice. If we are still a strong force weak to obey his will, then he will do it with the help of a drug, rather than the stick. Well, there is no accounting for tastes. Let's look at the arguments of those who believe the drug is worse whip. And above all, the arguments themselves of Western thinkers who see the problem is based on the ideals and interests of the West, from the point of view of the path and the fate of their civilization. Oh, them's got to listen even Russian Westerner, who in Russia wants to build even small lesions, or "neighborhoods" of the West, at least for a select audience.
It is known that the West considers himself a civilization of free individuals gathered (after the collapse of the community) in the civil society on the basis of law. The law and the rights protected by the state, entered into eternal civilized framework "war of all against all" struggle for existence. One of the most important philosophers of civil society Hobbes called the state that is capable of civilizing the "war of all against all" Leviathan — on behalf of the powerful biblical monster. This war has become a comprehensive competition, and social life — all-pervasive market. Philosopher civil society Locke was well aware that the pursuit of profit separates people, because "no one can become rich without causing loss to another." But the freedom of the individual and is understood primarily as a separation, the atomization of the "warm society face to face" — through competition. In the political sphere, this corresponds to democracy, understood as a "cold civil war", a kind of competition.
The main condition of this order is to maintain the freedom of the individual, allowing him in every act of "war" to make an informed and rational choice to enter into a free contract. It does not matter whether they are buying or selling of labor, some chewing gum or party program (in the elections).
This is — an ideal. In its pure form it is, of course, is not achieved. The question is, in what way the development of society is approaching, and what is removed from the ideal, and then comes to a standstill. Today, most thinkers believed that making the conscious manipulation of the main technologies of domination, the West has made a fatal mistake and stalled (became a mousetrap from which there is no escape, because when you come out of it, she turned inside out and you will again find yourself within it). The reason is that the manipulation of consciousness produced always secretly deprives the individual's freedom to a much greater extent than direct coercion. Victim loses completely the possibility of manipulation of rational choice, because her desires are programmed from the outside. Thus, its position in the competition, in the "war of all against all" rapidly deteriorating. In fact, it is — the elimination of the major civil rights and, therefore, the elimination of the most fundamental foundations of western civilization. In its place, a new, the worst kind of totalitarianism, replacing the whip much more efficient and more inhuman tool — a "mass culture industry", which transforms a person into a programmable robot. In the words of the German philosopher Kraus of the current ruling elite of the West, "they — the press, they have — Exchange, and now they even our subconscious."
Some thoughts or ideological clashes that lie in this outline of reasoning, we will consider in relation to specific aspects of our problem. We only note that this very critical with respect to the manipulation of the position of almost connected with politics, the issue is much deeper. Reject human robotics both right and left, as liberals and conservatives. It is foolish to associate this position with socialism, communism, the "hand of Moscow", or the machinations of red and brown.
Let's return to his native land, and remember how the estimated shift "from totalitarianism to democracy" exponents of Russian culture. Our "left" of the past century, completely passionate denunciation of serfdom and tyranny of the problem, in general, did not notice (except Herzen, which horrified by what he saw in the West). More astute and looking far ahead immediately expressed concern.
Gogol saw in civilization, corrupting man "weapons of sweets," anti-Christian force. He suffered not only from fear for the fate of Russia, but also in the form of threats to European soul. And since it was already clear that the United States has become the most complete expression of the new spirit of the West, of which he said, paraphrasing Pushkin: "What is the United States? Carrion, a man they weathered to the point and not worth a damn. "
Perhaps, in the Russian literature and philosophy is concern for the soul of man has been the main motive in relation to the democracy that has adopted the manipulation of consciousness. So many arguments, or just come out of the Christian ideal, or painted in a religious tone, have resorted to the Christian metaphors and allegory.
It said Berdyaev, when he wrote in 1923: "Democracy — not a new beginning, and not the first time she comes into the world. But for the first time in our era the question of democracy is religious and worrying issue. He has already put in is not a political but a spiritual plane. Not about political forms in question, when experiencing a religious horror of the forward march of democracy, but of something deeper. The Kingdom of democracy is not a new form of statehood, it is — a special spirit. "
Note: Russian philosophers, immigrants, believing that the regime established in the Russian Bolshevik tyranny, threat to the soul of man is seen in the West. It was his destiny they believed the tragic. They warned of a deep delusion naive Russian pro-Western liberals. Geopgy Flopovsky said: "They do not ppihodit in mind that it is possible and necessary to think about the fate of incorporation limit evpopeyskoy kultupy … Their imaginary ppeklonenie pped europium only ppikpyvaet their profound disregard and disrespect for her tpagicheskoy fate."
If the-century Russian philosophers heard our current "Westerners", they would have torn my hair out. After all, even on a much more enlightened Westerners his time Berdyaev wrote: "It is an extreme Russian Westernism is the phenomenon of the Asian soul. You can even make the paradox … Slavophiles were the first Russian Europeans, as they tried to think of themselves as Europeans, not to imitate Western thought, as children imitate … And here is the reverse side of the paradox: the Westerners were Asians, their consciousness was a child, they belonged to European culture as could only refer people completely alien to it. "
One of the major Western historians Arnold Toynbee in his major work, "A Study of History," writes about this replacement hpistianstva cult of Leviathan: "In the hour of victory neppimipimost hpistianskih martyrs ppevpatilas neteppimost … Early in the head in istopii hpistianstva was ominous ppovozvestnikom spiritual pepspektiv Western society of the twentieth century … In the Western World to eventually followed by the appearance totalitapnogo type gosudapstva combining western genius opganizatsii and mechanization with a devilish ability popaboscheniya shower generation, which might envy tipany all the while and napod sekulyapizovannom … In the twentieth century, the Western World to the symptoms of spiritual backwardness obvious. Vozpozhdenie worship Leviathan was peligiey and every resident of the West has made in this ppotsess their part. "
In the light of Christianity saw the tragedy of the West and Dostoevsky. The use of spiritual drug to control not just incompatible with free will, and thus with Christianity — it is opposite to him, it is a direct service to the devil. Recall the Legend of the Grand Inquisitor, by selecting it from a place of, relating to the topic (this is, of course, arbitrary and impoverished citation, but the main point is needed). So, in Seville, where the huge efforts of the authorities to create a stable social order, Christ appeared. Cardinal Grand Inquisitor immediately recognized him in the crowd and arrested. At night, he came to him for an explanation of the camera.
"Is that you? Why did you come to hinder us? For you have come to hinder us and yourself know it … Yes, this thing cost us dearly, but we finally finish this thing in your name. Fifteen centuries we have suffered with this freedom, but now it's over, it's over and firmly. You do not believe that it's over fast? But knowing that it is now and that these people are now convinced more than ever that it is free, and yet they themselves have brought us their freedom and humbly put it at our feet. But we did, and that weapon you wish, whether such freedom? ..
And the people rejoiced that they were again led like a flock, and that with their hearts removed, finally, so terrible gift that brought them so much torment. Right we were taught, in so doing, tell me? Do we not love mankind, so humbly to confess his weakness, with love easing his burden and allowing weak nature of it at least, and sin, but with our permission? Why then is come to hinder us? ..
And I have to hide from you the secret of ours? Listen well: we are not with you, and with it, that's our secret! We took from him Rome and the sword of Caesar, and declared themselves kings of the earth, though hitherto not yet managed to bring our business to the complete ending. Oh, say it is still only at the beginning, but it started. For people who own the same as not to those who own their conscience, and in whose hands their bread. We have taken the sword of Caesar, and took him, of course, have rejected you, and followed him. We will all be happy and will no more rebel nor destroy one another, as in the freedom of your country, all over the place. Yes, we get them to work, but in their leisure hours we shall make their life like a child's game, with children's songs, choir, dancing with the innocent. Oh, we will solve them and sin, they are weak and helpless, and they will love us like children, for what we allow them to sin. And they will not be any secrets from us. We shall allow or forbid them to live with their wives and mistresses, to have or not to have children — all judging by their obedience — and they will submit to us with joy and gladness.
What I'm telling you, come to pass, and the kingdom of our builds. I repeat to you, tomorrow you will see it is an obedient herd, which is the first wave of my rush to rake up the hot coals to the fire do you think that is going to burn you for having come to hinder us. Because if there was, who earned more than all our fire, then it's you. Tomorrow I will burn you. Dixi ».
Certainly not for the West wrote Gogol and Dostoevsky, Russian philosophers. West has long made his choice and overcome their illness only in its path. We need only marvel at how accurately capture the essence of these diseases Dostoevsky.
For the West, said Nietzsche. In laying out his vision of the way, no wonder he took as an epigraph to his head a line from an old tragedy, "Skeleton, you tremble? You're shaking would be stronger if he knew where I am you. " And this chapter ("We, the fearless"), he began the statement: "The greatest of new developments — that" God is dead "and that the belief in the Christian God has become somewhat unreliable — is already beginning to throw on Europe its first shadows."
Gogol and Dostoevsky wrote to Russia, and especially for the Russian. Their fears were prophetic, as the warnings were directed as if it was us, the end of the twentieth century. Choosing to do ourselves, on his own responsibility, but to listen and we have to think about prevention.
We take into account, however, that the warning "of Christianity," many will be left indifferent. For most of them in fact — an empty phrase (even though they do not argue with them will be — spaced as Shumejko, with a candle in the church, and that's that.) Let's try to judge rationally, down to earth — for the Russian, but in a western. As much as admitting that "God is dead" and put aside Christian values. It is unpleasant and gives cynicism, but do nothing. As they say, time is. But maybe in some clarity there.
In the West, Nietzsche began clarifying this difficult conversation — the elimination of the German philosopher and theologian Romano Guardini called "the dishonesty of modern times." We must and we coolly estimate "strengths and weaknesses" carrot-and-stick coercion and manipulation of each to determine: if any power — the evil, the evil that is smaller for us, Russian.
Let's see increases or decreases a person's status in the transition from direct coercion to manipulate his mind. Even in the "war of all against all" being waged by the rules of civil society (the competition), the impact of objects fall into three categories: a friend, a partner, a rival. Experts agree that the person who has become the object of manipulation, generally excluded from this classification. He — not a friend, not a partner and not a rival. It becomes a thing.
Bakhtin wrote that in relation to the world and the man in the thoughts and actions of people are fighting two trends: a reification and personification. In "primitive" cultures was strong desire for personalization (for Dersu Uzala ants — "little people"). Animism, spiritual things is always present in the culture of even the most developed of traditional societies. In the technology of manipulation of consciousness we see, on the contrary, the ultimate expression of the opposite tendency — to the reification of man. Arnold Toynbee wrote: "We are fairly well known, and we always remember the so-called" pathetic fallacy "which animates and gives life inanimate objects. Now, however, we soon fall victim to the opposite — "apateticheskogo error", according to which the living beings act as though they are — inanimate objects. "
Because it takes a mass character, the result is a steady decline and was not aware of the status of the person. Of course, at first it acts on a person that is not part of the elite (she is — manipulated plebeians). But then this order machinized, embodies a man at all.
Thus, by agreeing to build a Russian political order based on the manipulation of consciousness, one must be aware of the fact that a very high probability of its status will be downgraded. This means that all promised benefits such as civil liberties, feeling like the master, etc., become devoid of all content trinkets. And those who are lucky to get a manipulative minority, will be one of the oppressors of his people, who will have to step up and this oppression have sharpened. Tyrant can become kinder and pomyagchet — and he will be grateful. But manipulator deprived of this opportunity — begins to see people come into a rage.
Why move to a state based on the manipulation of consciousness, much harder would hurt Russian than he has torn West (although even there, it is perceived as a tragedy)? Because, in a different culture has developed in the Russian category of freedom itself. A different looking and looking for the freedom of Russian people. Perfectly laid out the problem V.V.Kozhinov in his excellent book "The Mysterious page stories of the twentieth century. "Black Hundreds" and the revolution. " For the Russian people, characterized by a special combination of spiritual freedom and freedom of life. On the contrary, rather indifferent attitude to the Russian so valued in the West's political and economic freedoms. We must also remember Pushkin
I do not appreciate expensive high-profile law
From whom no one dizzy.
I do not complain that the gods are denied
Me in sweet fate to dispute taxes
Or interfere with each other kings to fight;
And there is little grief to me freely print
Fools boobies, il sensitive censorship
In the magazine designs restrict buffoon.
All this, see the weapon, words, words, words.
New, and more dear to me prava4
A different, better the needs of my freedom:
Depend on the king, depend on people —
Does it really matter? God is with them.
The report does not give, currently only available to
Serve and please, for power, for livery
Do not bend no conscience, no thoughts, no neck;
At the whim of his wandering here and there,
Marveling at the beauty of the divine nature,
And before creating art and inspiration
Fluttering gaily in the raptures of excitement.
— That's happiness! that's right …
This happiness, and these rights could not deprive us of any Nicholas I, neither Stalin nor even Brezhnev. But, to strengthen the regime manipulation of consciousness, they quietly and pleasantly deprive us of television, bought Berezovsky. It will bend us and conscience and thoughts. Even wander we will not at the whim of his, and at the behest of advertising travel agencies, as happy wandering Western middle class.
V.V.Kozhinov in his book gives the argument a "philosopher of freedom" N.Berdyaev this combination of freedom of mind and freedom of life: "Russia — a country of limitless freedom of the spirit …". Her Russian people "will never give up for any of the benefits of peace," not prefer "internal unfreedom Western peoples and their enslavement to the outside. In the Russian people truly have the freedom of the spirit, which is given only to those who are not too absorbed in the earth's thirst for profit and land improvement … Russia — the country home of freedom unknown to Western peoples enslaved philistine standards. Only in Russia is not the oppressive power of the bourgeois conventions … Type Wanderer is so characteristic of Russian and so beautiful. Wanderer — the freest people on earth … Russia — a country of infinite freedom and spiritual vistas, country of strangers, wanderers and seekers. " This is — the words of the philosopher-Westerner. As far as they are far from ideal A.N.Yakovleva and Yegor Gaidar!
And foolish to think that today Russian, throwing himself into the business, they want to lose this type of freedom. On the contrary, most of the "new Russian" this business — a new adventure, wandering through unknown dalyam. It is — in many ways the spiritual, though costly, and even destructive quest. But the Russian bourgeoisie of them grows.
Just look at, with what indifference throw our new rich their unfinished houses — they have destroyed all over the suburbs. Are they absorbed "the world's thirst for improvement?" And what kind of houses they had built? 90 percent of them — this is a huge house, and all their villages — a continuation of the village. If anyone comes to these their "country houses", then, wearing a padded jacket, planting potatoes do not need him. And his wife, ass up, the whole day collecting in a jar Colorado beetles. All this — the new version of the Russian rebellion, truly senseless and merciless.
To take away by force or bought from Russian that freedom of spirit and life can not. But the lure deception — it is technically possible. This is now and has been a whole army of professionals. I think, to help them — a big disgusting. And the end is likely to failure. Adds unnecessary grief, and will cost more to repair destroyed.
S.G.Kara-Mirza. Manipulation of consciousness