When traveling abroad, anyone is at risk infections common in the country of destination. To reduce this risk to a minimum, you need to take some preventive measures.
First of all, before traveling abroad should take care to preventive vaccination. First you need to make sure that we've passed the full amount of the vaccination of the national immunization schedule. This vaccination will protect against measles, rubella, mumps ("pigs"), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio are very common and outside Russia.
Depending on the destination, this list must be replenished. Almost all recommended vaccinations traveling from hepatitis A virus (Botkin's disease), typhoid and rabies. Before a long trip or frequent visits to a foreign country when the probability of medical and dental procedures, as well as sex, they need to add a vaccine against viral hepatitis B.
Vaccination against a particularly dangerous infections like yellow fever legally is a necessary condition for leaving her in endemic countries. It is a disease caused by RNA-containing flavivirus and transmitted by mosquito bites, causes multiple bleeding, bloody vomiting, fever, and, in severe cases, liver damage with jaundice and death.
Specific treatment for yellow fever, so the only protection against it is prevention vaccination. It is needed when checking out in Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Colombia, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Ecuador, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea- Bissau, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Kenya, Congo, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Tanzania, Chad and Equatorial Guinea. Be vaccinated and receive a certificate for this international certificate must not later than 10 days prior to departure.
Other flavivirus infection, affects the brain and transmitted by bites from mosquitoes — Japanese encephalitis — common in South and South-East Asia. Before you travel to these regions are to be vaccinated.
Travelers in Saudi Arabia (especially make the pilgrimage — the Hajj) is also required vaccination against meningococcal disease. The causative agent of the disease, which causes severe, often lethal lesion of the meninges, is transmitted by airborne droplets. Therefore, in areas with large concentrations of people from endemic areas to protect themselves from infection is almost impossible. To be vaccinated against meningococcal disease is also recommended before traveling to many other Asian and African countries.
Unfortunately, preventive vaccines developed far from all infections. Therefore, when abroad, it is important to observe basic hygiene rules: do not drink tap water, use only the thermally processed foods and wash your hands often with soap and water (preferably before meals and to wipe them with antiseptic solution).
These simple rules will help protect yourself from almost all intestinal infections, such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever and other salmonellosis. In addition, they significantly reduce the risk of contracting hepatitis A and E, polio, many worm infestation and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Marburg (the most dangerous — mortality rate of 80 per cent), Lassa, Lujo and others.
In tropical countries, should also refrain from swimming in the open (especially fresh) waters. When bathing is possible ingestion of many microbial pathogens and parasitic diseases, as well as the introduction into the skin of larvae (cercariae) of schistosomes — common in Africa, Asia and South America, flat worms that can cause severe virtually any system of the human body (most commonly the liver, bile ducts , intestines and urinary tract).
Being in warm countries need to protect themselves from more than one source of infection — blood-sucking insects and mites. With their bites are transferred tens (if not hundreds) of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, many of which are difficult to treat.
To avoid insect bites should not be too revealing clothes, use repellents and sleep in rooms with mosquito nets.
Perhaps the most dangerous insect-borne infections of viral hemorrhagic fever — the already mentioned yellow fever, and a more or less similar to her dengue, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, Ross River and West Nile, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Omsk (as the name implies, the last two are common and in our country) and some others.
In addition, insects and ticks can transmit viral encephalitis, typhus and other rickettsiosis, relapsing fever, Lyme disease, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, sleeping sickness and other trypanosomiasis, filyariaz (elephantiasis), and other infections.
The most common disease vectors which are insects — is malaria. Each year, the stings of mosquitoes that are infected with a parasitic infection from 350 to 500 million people, one to three million of whom die.
Because of the prevalence of malaria, such repellents and mosquito nets are considered to be insufficient to prevent, and when traveling to endemic countries (which is virtually all of the tropics and subtropics) to chemoprophylaxis recommended for specific areas of antimalarial drugs. And their reception should start 1-2 weeks before the arrival of the danger zone and continue 1-4 weeks after returning, so the need to attend to this matter in advance.
In this diagram, the red color indicates the country where there is a risk of malaria infection (Figure CDC)
Cvoevremennaya and full vaccination, personal hygiene and protection against insect bites will help prevent infection from the list of exotic imported gifts and experiences.