How to determine the sex of the baby?

How to determine the sex of the baby?  Photo from http://creative.gettyimages.com

Paul Child defines a man, or rather, his sperm carrying the X (girl) — Or Y (boy) chromosome. If women bred parthenogenesis (asexual), they would have only been born a girl.

However, the understandable desire of the parents as soon as possible to find out: what color sliders to choose available shops galore?

Ultrasound

Accuracy of determining the sex of the fetus depends primarily on the duration of pregnancy and, unfortunately, the experience of the expert. To8th weeks of fetal genitalia are not differentiated. The process of their formation is completed by the10-12 weeks of pregnancy. But doctors do not torment the standard question, "Who will I have?" At the first ultrasound (in12-13 weeks). According to most scientists, the identification of fetal sex is only possible with15th week of pregnancy. Determining the boy is to detect the scrotum and penis, girls — in the visualization of the labia majora. One of the errors in identifying the sex of the fetus is taking a loop of umbilical cord of the fetus or the fingers of the penis. Sometimes the girls in utero observed passing of time swelling of the labia, which are mistaken for the scrotum. There are cases when the fetus 'hide' manhood behind tightly clenched legs because of which is identified as a girl.

The optimal time to answer the question cherished — 23-25 weeks of pregnancy. Fruit sufficiently agile and patient perseverance Medical ultrasonography is likely to show who he was. At term (from 37 weeks) fetal sex determination is difficult because of its large size and low mobility.

Invasive methods

Chorionic villus sampling. Often, future mothers and fathers are asked: is it possible to determine the sex of the child is not visually by ultrasound (as we have seen, this method is hardly infallible), andsome more reliable way? It is possible. In cases where the birth of a child, male or female in the family is undesirable for medical reasons (with severe genetic diseases), the definition of sex is in the early stages (7-10 weeks) using chorionic villus sampling. In this case, from the uterus with a thin needle is taken small amounts of its content to determine the chromosomes of the fetus. In this case, floor embryo is established with almost 100% guarantee. However, to carry out this procedure only to establish the sex of the baby is not safe: miscarriage may occur.

Amniocentesis. It looks like this: on the age 16-18 weeks through a small puncture drawing small amounts of amniotic fluid and examined her chromosomal makeup. Amniocentesis — invasive (penetrating) method of diagnosis, that is, it is associated with certain risks for mother and baby. Therefore, only for the satisfaction of his parents do not — only to identify the genetic and chromosomal disorders. But in these cases, sometimes floor is everything: some diseases are transmitted only to girls or only boys. Normally, the results of amniocentesis calm, and the sex of the baby's parents learn healthy, they say, in passing. The reliability of the results — 99%.

Cordocentesis. This method study is similar to the previous one, only for the study of fetal umbilical cord blood is taken. Cordocentesis helps identify these sex-linked genetic diseases, such as hemophilia. Do it in the same terms as amniocentesis.

What's new?

American scientists have developed a method for separating sperm containing X chromosome (When a fertilized egg so the sperm is formed embryo is female) from sperm containing Y-chromosome (Giving, respectively, boy).

The method is based on determining the amount of genetic material in cells. Sperm withY-chromosome comprise about 2.8% less DNA than with spermX-chromosome.

The procedure consists of several steps: (1) staining of DNA, (2) sorted by number of sperm DNA, and (3) separation of spermX chromosomes of semenY-chromosomes. The whole process is quite time-consuming: need a full day to process one sample of semen.

However, even this method can not be considered infallible. And it is interesting that the "obedient" were the sperm responsible for conceiving girls: at the end of the procedure described in the test sample of sperm X chromosome contained 85% of spermatozoa. The boys, as usual, stubborn: maximum concentration of male sex cellsY-chromosomes was only 65%.

The developed method is designed to help couples for which a risk of having a child with a genetic disease that selectively affects only people of a certain gender (men only or women only).

In conclusion, we want to remind dear fathers and mothers: not you, not a doctor or ultrasound decide replenish your family is a boy or a girl. The main thing — from the early days of conception to love someone who will soon be born, and even before he was born to do everything possible to ensure that his life was as happy as possible.

According to the magazine "9 months" Number 2-3 2001

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