Priests called this disease harbinger of the Apocalypse, the doctors — "immunodeficiency homosexuals." With its appearance dramatically surge in demand for condoms, syringes and "family values." Cure for AIDS has not yet been anyone.
Officially, the first encountered this disease American Dr. Michael Gottlieb of
An American Tragedy
Despite the best efforts of doctors to save the patient failed. However, the thought of a strange illness prevented Gottlieb rest, and he became a direct reference to colleagues on the other strange cases of immunodeficiency. His meeting with a private physician Dzhoylom Wiseman was crucial. Most of the clientele were young Dzhoyla homosexuals. For the past few years, one, then the other of these doctor observed diseases caused by relatively harmless microorganisms. No drugs did not help them, the patients feel every day is worse. Checking immunity showed that patients Wiseman also not immune cells responsible for the destruction of the infection. By that time, the Gottlieb asked a few patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia. Confronted with this situation the doctors decided to inform about the mysterious phenomenon of the Center for Disease Control, USA (CDC). And June 5, 1981 appeared in print first article about the disease of American homosexuals.
That summer, the hospital
By September 1981, the United States has already registered 107 cases of unexplained immunodeficiency. Among the cases: 95 homosexuals, heterosexuals 6, 5 bisexual men and one woman. After some discussion, the scientists gave a new disease called "GRID" (
Sex, drugs …
First of all, the scientists had to figure out what the cause of the disease, and how this disease contagious. The first experiments have shown that the more the patient homosexual lovers, the worse his immune system works and the more difficult the GRID. The researchers speculated that the cause of the disease lies in the fact that immunity can not stand gays too many germs that are transmitted through sexual contact. Exhausted prolonged struggle immune cells die and people die from trivial infections.
Most of all, such a theory
Meanwhile, a mysterious disease showed up in Europe. In 1981, there were 36 patients identified gay men, half of whom were French. There is evidence
Gradually, it became clear that some "blue" disease is not limited. Immune deficiency gay men mowed and traditional orientation, and women (not just prostitutes, but also married matrons). To doctors started treating patients
Comparing the accumulated facts, the scientists decided it was time to rename the disease. July 27, 1982 "immunodeficiency gay 'has become a politically correct" acquired immunodeficiency syndrome "(AIDS).
Who is to blame?
The number of patients is growing, and scientists from the CDC began to suspect that AIDS
The first indirect evidence of transmissibility of AIDS belonged to the independent expert on statistics of epidemics
Moss received the results for a long time was not made public. Conservative scholars and narrow-minded policy unsuccessfully tried to catch a scholar of incompetence and find a mistake in his figures. Meanwhile, unaware of the impending danger, the people continued to engage in casual sex (without a condom) and work hard drugs share a syringe …
Another, no less important, but also indirect evidence of contagious AIDS social scientists have extracted from the notorious "Group on Kaposi's sarcoma» CDC (Center for Disease Control). They drove across America sought AIDS patients and asked them tough questions. They asked about the way of life, attitudes towards drugs, made a list of all lovers. It soon became clear that the wives and husbands usually get sick at the same time that it affects stitching, and not smoking addicts. In addition, patients with sexually promiscuous at least one of the sexual partners necessarily have AIDS.
Trying to figure out who gets infected, social scientists have made great
This young Canadian has worked to steward
The first signs of the terrible disease appeared in Dugas back in 1979, when the existence of AIDS, no one knew. Swollen lymph nodes and the weakness of a young gay took for severe influenza. A little later, he managed with difficulty to recover from Pneumocystis pneumonia. Only after two years after doctors diagnosed him with "KS", Gaetan realized that he had with serious health problems. However, during the illness steward indulged in pleasures, still sleep with their admirers. In 1984, the "patient zero» died of AIDS. Over a lifetime, with Gaetan Dugas had over 2,500 lovers.
Once finally clear that AIDS is contagious, scientists rushed to search for the causative agent of the disease. The closest thing to a solution were the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda (USA), Institut Pasteur, Paris (France) and the poor as a church mouse, the research team of Jay Levy
Priority in the discovery of the virus has got the French. In 1983, Luc Montagnier proved that the cause of the mysterious AIDS — tiny organism from the family of retroviruses, lentiviruses (from the Latin "lente" — «slow»). There, except for the AIDS virus, pathogens and includes slow fatal infections in sheep and horses. New microbe received several names from different laboratories: LAV (lymphoadenovirus — limfoadenovirus)
Soon their viruses found and the Americans. However, haughty Cancer Institute re-opened French LAV, but the group of Jay Levy discovered a completely new type of retrovirus (ARV), damaging the human immune system.
It's in our blood
By the middle of the same in 1983 in the world already had about a thousand patients with AIDS, but scientists do not become discouraged. Now, knowing the "enemy entity", they hoped that in the next few years will be able to invent a cure for it. First of all it is necessary to understand why HIV is deadly to humans. The answer came almost immediately. It was found that the virus can not replicate in all cells, but only in immune
The disease can be divided into three stages. In the first stage immunodeficiency virus enters the bloodstream. Trying to escape from the invasion, the body responds by inflammation. The patient may have a fever, appear weak and swollen lymph nodes. In the second stage, which lasts from 1 to 12 years, a person looks healthy, but the lymphocyte count had been steadily declining. The virus may at times go to sleep ("sleep"), such a patient is infected with HIV doctors name. However, at any moment of HIV may be activated, leading to the third stage of infection — AIDS. This stage is characterized by frequent and severe secondary infections or the appearance of a malignant tumor. These are called opportunistic infections, and their typical set of AIDS —
Do not worry — I'm with you
By the mid-
Ordinary people were panicking. For example, police
The first official report on the problem of AIDS in the United States was made only in 1986. Stay calm, use a condom, do not sleep with anyone, sterilize syringes before injections, and all will be well. About this health minister said. Immediately on the scientists involved in AIDS-hit money rain. Patients no longer considered outcasts. Officials began to fuss and introduced compulsory test donated blood for AIDS (four years after the CDC scientists have proved that disease transferred from the blood). In 1987, the first case of AIDS was reported in Russia.