How to find AIDS

How to find AIDS

Priests called this disease harbinger of the Apocalypse, the doctors — "immunodeficiency homosexuals." With its appearance dramatically surge in demand for condoms, syringes and "family values." Cure for AIDS has not yet been anyone.

Officially, the first encountered this disease American Dr. Michael Gottlieb ofLos Angeles. In autumn 1980 he was summoned to advise the dying patient with pneumonia. Patient gay thirty-three years old, looked terrible: a pale, almost white, emaciated. He constantly coughing and complaining of chest pain. Meticulous Gottlieb decided to investigate the accident to complete the program and get the results very surprised. It was found that severe lung disease caused harmless microorganism — pnevmotsista who can not even do harm a nursing baby. Why does an adult patient did not cope with such a ridiculous infection? Analysis of immunity patient showed complete absence of cells to fight germs. Such Gottlieb has ever seen.

An American Tragedy

Despite the best efforts of doctors to save the patient failed. However, the thought of a strange illness prevented Gottlieb rest, and he became a direct reference to colleagues on the other strange cases of immunodeficiency. His meeting with a private physician Dzhoylom Wiseman was crucial. Most of the clientele were young Dzhoyla homosexuals. For the past few years, one, then the other of these doctor observed diseases caused by relatively harmless microorganisms. No drugs did not help them, the patients feel every day is worse. Checking immunity showed that patients Wiseman also not immune cells responsible for the destruction of the infection. By that time, the Gottlieb asked a few patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia. Confronted with this situation the doctors decided to inform about the mysterious phenomenon of the Center for Disease Control, USA (CDC). And June 5, 1981 appeared in print first article about the disease of American homosexuals.

That summer, the hospital gay capital America Frisco brought a young man with strange red-and-blue spots on the skin. Doctors were horrified: it was the most rare type of skin cancer — Kaposi's sarcoma. Until now she had met only in elderly patients. Perhaps the young man earned a tumor on the radioactive production, suggested by doctors. However, they were wrong, their strange patient was only homosexual prostitutes. Immune cells against tumors he was not there, which led to a sarcoma.

By September 1981, the United States has already registered 107 cases of unexplained immunodeficiency. Among the cases: 95 homosexuals, heterosexuals 6, 5 bisexual men and one woman. After some discussion, the scientists gave a new disease called "GRID" (Gay-Related immune deficiency) — immunodeficiency homosexuals.

To study GRID-and needed the money. However, the new leadership at the head of the White House with Ronald Reagan not only ignored the emergence of immune homosexuals, but in general has decided to cut back whole medical budget. Ostensibly, this will help to reduce the taxes on ordinary Americans. Had Dr. Bill Foege (Director of the Center for Disease Control) to apply the trick. He established his own financially independent project "On the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections." "Let the gentlemen politicians think that we are studying skin cancer in elderly men — the main voter Reagan" — joked the director CDC. In fact, the main objective of the project was to study the GRID-a.

Sex, drugs …

First of all, the scientists had to figure out what the cause of the disease, and how this disease contagious. The first experiments have shown that the more the patient homosexual lovers, the worse his immune system works and the more difficult the GRID. The researchers speculated that the cause of the disease lies in the fact that immunity can not stand gays too many germs that are transmitted through sexual contact. Exhausted prolonged struggle immune cells die and people die from trivial infections.

Most of all, such a theory GRID-and not liked by homosexuals. They argued that it is — a provocation that was invented in order to deprive them of their right to "free love." All those who spoke about the deadly disease, fell into the category of fools, homophobes and alarmist. It is interesting that a number of them were referred playwrightgay Larry Kramer, a prominent doctor Joseph Zonnabend and several patients gay men who have learned from experience that such a GRID. At the risk of a new disease as yet, few believed.

Meanwhile, a mysterious disease showed up in Europe. In 1981, there were 36 patients identified gay men, half of whom were French. There is evidenceGRID-e Haiti and Africa.

Gradually, it became clear that some "blue" disease is not limited. Immune deficiency gay men mowed and traditional orientation, and women (not just prostitutes, but also married matrons). To doctors started treating patients GRID-th addicts. Rumors about the link between the disease and blood transfusion in hemophilia.

Comparing the accumulated facts, the scientists decided it was time to rename the disease. July 27, 1982 "immunodeficiency gay 'has become a politically correct" acquired immunodeficiency syndrome "(AIDS).

Who is to blame?

The number of patients is growing, and scientists from the CDC began to suspect that AIDS yet contagious. However, no direct evidence has not happened. Animal experiments did not give any result. Injections of infected human blood on the health of animals is not reflected. Instill a healthy man immunodeficiency no one dared. We had to go another way.

The first indirect evidence of transmissibility of AIDS belonged to the independent expert on statistics of epidemicsFrisco Andrew Moss. Intrigued by the challenge, he has collected data on all reported cases of illness. Then Moss built a graph showing the annual incidence of AIDS, analyzed it and was horrified. Even the most rough estimates turned out that AIDS is spreading much faster than any non-contagious disease. Of course, not as rapidly as airborne droplet infections such as influenza, but it is comparable with hepatitis, which is transmitted through sexual or blood. This means that if the disease does not prevent it, then by 1984 worldwide epidemic of AIDS.

Moss received the results for a long time was not made public. Conservative scholars and narrow-minded policy unsuccessfully tried to catch a scholar of incompetence and find a mistake in his figures. Meanwhile, unaware of the impending danger, the people continued to engage in casual sex (without a condom) and work hard drugs share a syringe …

Another, no less important, but also indirect evidence of contagious AIDS social scientists have extracted from the notorious "Group on Kaposi's sarcoma» CDC (Center for Disease Control). They drove across America sought AIDS patients and asked them tough questions. They asked about the way of life, attitudes towards drugs, made a list of all lovers. It soon became clear that the wives and husbands usually get sick at the same time that it affects stitching, and not smoking addicts. In addition, patients with sexually promiscuous at least one of the sexual partners necessarily have AIDS.

Trying to figure out who gets infected, social scientists have made great sketch map. It names of lovers with AIDS, were connected by arrows. Imagine the surprise of scientists when they discovered that the name of Gaetan Dugas is the largest number of arrows. Really, this is the kind of person with whom the United States has begun AIDS? Social scientists were wrong. Gaetan ahead of a 15-year-old tee
nagerSt. Louis, who died in 1968 from an unknown science of the disease. The diagnosis put him in hindsight, if you check the AIDS sample of frozen blood. After the first case there were others. However, Gaetan Dugas has remained in history as the "patient zero».

Flying Canadian

This young Canadian has worked to stewardFrench-Canadian airlines, often inFrisco and Haiti. By the way, it is believed that there went the AIDS epidemic in America. In a fantastically beautiful Gaetan from the fans did not rebound. For a time life seemed to him a permanent holiday.

The first signs of the terrible disease appeared in Dugas back in 1979, when the existence of AIDS, no one knew. Swollen lymph nodes and the weakness of a young gay took for severe influenza. A little later, he managed with difficulty to recover from Pneumocystis pneumonia. Only after two years after doctors diagnosed him with "KS", Gaetan realized that he had with serious health problems. However, during the illness steward indulged in pleasures, still sleep with their admirers. In 1984, the "patient zero» died of AIDS. Over a lifetime, with Gaetan Dugas had over 2,500 lovers.

Once finally clear that AIDS is contagious, scientists rushed to search for the causative agent of the disease. The closest thing to a solution were the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda (USA), Institut Pasteur, Paris (France) and the poor as a church mouse, the research team of Jay LevySan Francisco. Money for research, just a few thousand dollars, employees Jay Levy gave a tiny NGO AIDS, but the material for the study, they had plenty. Almost all patients Frisco wanted to help them.

Priority in the discovery of the virus has got the French. In 1983, Luc Montagnier proved that the cause of the mysterious AIDS — tiny organism from the family of retroviruses, lentiviruses (from the Latin "lente" — «slow»). There, except for the AIDS virus, pathogens and includes slow fatal infections in sheep and horses. New microbe received several names from different laboratories: LAV (lymphoadenovirus — limfoadenovirus)HTLV-2 (Human T-lymphotropic virus — human T-lymphotropic virus) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus — human immunodeficiency virus, HIV). Subsequently agreed to call the virus HIV. Now he is called HIV-1 was isolated as a pathogen similar to it, called HIV-2.

Soon their viruses found and the Americans. However, haughty Cancer Institute re-opened French LAV, but the group of Jay Levy discovered a completely new type of retrovirus (ARV), damaging the human immune system.

It's in our blood

By the middle of the same in 1983 in the world already had about a thousand patients with AIDS, but scientists do not become discouraged. Now, knowing the "enemy entity", they hoped that in the next few years will be able to invent a cure for it. First of all it is necessary to understand why HIV is deadly to humans. The answer came almost immediately. It was found that the virus can not replicate in all cells, but only in immune (T-lymphocytes), responsible for protection from infection. Sticking tohost cell HIV penetrates and rearranges its operation. Infected cell soon begins to synthesize new viruses, and she dies. In the end, one is left without Cell-defense and any innocent infection becomes a lethal.

The disease can be divided into three stages. In the first stage immunodeficiency virus enters the bloodstream. Trying to escape from the invasion, the body responds by inflammation. The patient may have a fever, appear weak and swollen lymph nodes. In the second stage, which lasts from 1 to 12 years, a person looks healthy, but the lymphocyte count had been steadily declining. The virus may at times go to sleep ("sleep"), such a patient is infected with HIV doctors name. However, at any moment of HIV may be activated, leading to the third stage of infection — AIDS. This stage is characterized by frequent and severe secondary infections or the appearance of a malignant tumor. These are called opportunistic infections, and their typical set of AIDS — AIDS-related complex.

Do not worry — I'm with you

By the mid- 80th a strange situation. Scientists have known about AIDS almost everything except how to treat it and where it came from. The U.S. government pretended that this disease does not exist. The priests predicted that AIDS will destroy all sinners (prostitutes, homosexuals and drug addicts), remember Sodom and Gomorrah, and threatened over the world.

Ordinary people were panicking. For example, police Frisco without protective masks and gloves reluctant to approach people with AIDS. Janitor ofNew York I almost got a heart attack, touching the garbage bag in which lay the syringe. Housewives refined, it is safe to wash clothes in the laundry. What if they are gay? Afraid to catch people trying not to touch the handrails on buses and the metro stop to go to the public toilets. Many homosexuals stopped attending orgiesgay saunas and generally preferred to conceal their orientation. Europeans are quite seriously compared with AIDS plague.

The first official report on the problem of AIDS in the United States was made only in 1986. Stay calm, use a condom, do not sleep with anyone, sterilize syringes before injections, and all will be well. About this health minister said. Immediately on the scientists involved in AIDS-hit money rain. Patients no longer considered outcasts. Officials began to fuss and introduced compulsory test donated blood for AIDS (four years after the CDC scientists have proved that disease transferred from the blood). In 1987, the first case of AIDS was reported in Russia.

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