Tankista day — Russian and Russian servicemen and Prof. prazdnichek tank builders, celebrated every year during the second Sunday in September. Established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from July 1, 1946 to commemorate the huge awards armored and mechanized forces in the defeat of the enemy during the war, Russian stateliness, as rewards for tank builders in equipping the Armed Forces armored vehicles.
On the same day in 2012 KP «KMDB Morozov» (KMDB) will celebrate its own 85th anniversary. Formed on the basis of the Kharkov Locomotive Works in 1927, a design team for the design of tanks uniformly transformed into a single massive engineering and manufacturing enterprise to create armor, taking in the former USSR, and now in the Ukraine a major role in bronetankostroenii. Among the developments KMDB occupy a special place such cars as the best tank second world war the T-34 and the mother of all post-Soviet main battle tanks (MBT) T-64. The last car was the ancestor of 3 branches of Russian MBT with monotonous guns, similar sighting systems, 1st class, by weight, but differing in the type of engine and chassis, as automata (mechanisms) loading (AZ, MH). Development of these lines and the latest developments are now Ukrainian tank «Hold-M» (object 478DU10) and the Russian T-90ms. «Hold-M» was adopted by the army of Ukraine on 28 May 2009. Is preparing to release a series of 49 cars, but to order Imperial Army (CB) of Thailand. T-90ms for the first time shows the September 9, 2011 at the site Prospector in Nizhny Tagil in the framework of the VIII international military exhibition REA-2011.
Try to objectively compare two such similar to each other and the tank at the same time very different representatives of Kharkiv and Nizhny Tagil bronetankostroeniya schools.
First, that is on the mind — the presence on machines commanding panoramic sighting and observation systems that enhance the ability of the tank commander to monitor the situation and keeping the fire in the «Double».
Panorama commander. The tank «Hold-M» set multichannel panoramic sighting and observation complex PKN-6 are independent day and thermal imaging optical channels and a laser rangefinder. Installing PKN-6 increased the powers of observation of the terrain, especially at night criteria and the criteria of reduced visibility. Target detection range of the «tank» through the optic canal panorama achieves 5500 meters, and through thermal channel in a wide field of view — 4000. Tank commander has the ability to detect and identify ground and aerial targets, the gunner targeting issue. The system allows the commander to fire himself out of a cannon and coaxial machine gun mode duplicated control arms. Installing PKN-6 resulted in a configuration and in the outer form of the machine.
T-90ms uses multichannel panoramic sighting and observation complex with daily are independent television channels and thermal imaging and laser rangefinder PC PAN «Hawkeye.»
Gunner. The tank «Hold-M» set daily Gunner 1G46-M — optical viewfinder with a two-plane-independent stabilization of the field of view with a laser rangefinder and laser missile control channel, also thermal sighting system PTT-2, designed for surveillance, detection, and identification objectives and aimed fire of cannon and coaxial machine gun in all operating criteria.
T-90ms uses combined Gunner ISM «Sosna-U» with two-plane-independent stabilization of the visual field, kitted laser rangefinder. There are channels of laser control and thermal rocket with videosmotrovym device for duplication of the optical system in the criteria of limited visibility and black time.
Anti-aircraft gun. The tank «Hold-M» moved to the bracket at the rear of the tower, is remotely controlled and dogs cephalic panorama on the horizon and mirrors vertically. There is a dead zone in the corner of the slide area panorama. Sector of fire — 360 degrees over the horizon and from -3 to 60 vertically. Caliber — 12.7 mm.
T-90ms used universal remote-operated machine gun mount 7.62mm. Range liquidation manpower — up to 1500 meters. Placed behind the head with a pan sector of fire 316 degrees over the horizon and from -10 to 45 vertically.
Protection and engines
Reservations. This is followed by a corresponding element. The tank «Hold-M» used brand new system integrated dynamic protection «Blade 2», capable of resisting the ATGM with a tandem warhead, cumulative and armor-piercing shells. Its containers are mounted on the front of the chassis and on the tower, along the sides of the housing also providing additional protection to the sides. Complex «Knife-2» has a modular design, so it can simply be replaced or upgraded the same as the respective technologies to improve dynamic protection.
On the T-90ms installed new additional protection «Relic» (EDZ 4C23) on the housing and modular tower defense modules booking boards. On the body aft — lattice screens for protection against hand groove TCP.
Engines. The tank «Hold-M» set a better engine 6TD-2E capacity of 1,200 horsepower, which works tightly without derating at temperatures up to 55 degrees Celsius. Shaped as letters «E» means «environmental». Earlier on environmental combat vehicles is not particularly thought, but now the situation has changed — in international tenders taken into account and such parameter as exhaust emissions.
On the T-90ms is used in power plant capacity of 1130 93-horsepower with improved cooling system also allows operation at temperatures up to 55 degrees.
To improve mobility and maneuverability of the tank «Hold-M» set encompassing traffic control system tank (KSUD). It is designed to increase the respective characteristics in different road conditions and reduce fatigue of the driver with wheel control.
T-90ms used based control steering and automatic gear change with the possibility of switching to manual.
Auxiliary units. Inflated energy load claimed use more massive aggregates. The tank «Hold-M» auxiliary power unit installed capacity of 10 kW. Located on the right fender in an armored airtight compartment and connected to the electronic and fuel systems of main motor.
On the T-90ms — seven kW unit. Mounted on the left fender in a sealed compartment of the armor.
Guns on tanks similar — caliber 125 mm inflated precision accounting system crimps barrel. Machines (mechanisms) are also similar to the loading basic models 28 and 22 shots. Installed «Aynet» for remote detonation of ammunition.
Tanks are equipped with air conditioning systems, which increases the comfort of the crew and allows their use in countries with a hot climate for a longer time.
Specifically, the greatest difference in the towers. In the tank «Hold-M» — welded, made the project «Improvement of 88» with the latest protection and dynamic system developed kapotirovkoy aft. Less design — overvalued moment unbalance, as follows, a more powerful drive tower.
T-90ms tower has made the project «Breakthrough», trailed compartment for ammunition made of the crew compartment. Aft on the length and width of more developed hatches of larger, In this assembly down time imbalance tower, but increased compared with the standards of early T-90 its mass.
So Makar, tanks are almost identical. Over the past 50 years, the assembly also achieved peak development. Unfortunately, architecture and technology solutions do not allow to implement the concept of the greatest protection for the crew in the defeat of the tank, because the ammunition found in the fighting compartment, together with the crew. In this case, the lesion becomes unimportant, how many of them in the machine and whether Rockets handed down in an outer box. The greatest problem is the almost complete lack of protection from the third generation anti-tank type of FGM-148 Javelin and other weapons of the same class. Attempt to organize the radial booking from manual TCP using an old assembly leads to increased weight combat vehicle to very acceptable values for the running and growth in ground pressure, which affects the permeability.
These models appeared with a delay of 20 years, current conditions and battlefield survivability requirements no longer meet. And even more so they are not adapted to the role of local conflicts, and their implementation in urban combat lead to sad consequences.
Yet backlog acquired as a result of work performed on these tanks, when combined effort 2-design companies can assist in the development of the latest generation of machines really — tank XXI century.
Alexander Basharov independent columnist