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History of Creation

With the growing power of anti-tank weapons (TCP), it became clear that the passive ways to protect armored vehicles is virtually impossible. Therefore, for this purpose it is necessary to use external power sources. These sources can serve as explosives (HE), the electron energy, the energy generated during the reaction of chemically active substances. There are many different kinds of devices, implements the principle of dynamic effects of the TCP, different variations of the applicable sources of energy and methods of implementation.

For the first time in the world the introduction of dynamic protection proposed in the USSR. The possibility of the damaging effects of the explosion of goods explosive charge on the cumulative jet leads to a decrease in the cumulative jet penetration into the target was found in the years of Russian majestically, there have been cases when the unaffected tanks cumulative TCP in case of contact about carrying on their armor ammunition or explosives. A series of research and testing in the field.

However, a significant reduction of the depth of penetration into the target of a cumulative jet asks a significant amount of explosives that draws significant challenges due to the impact on the protected object. For this reason, the first standards of safety devices implementing this principle does not have support in the military top. Studies in this area have continued when the end of the 50s were due to more effective methods of influence on the software and hardware meta iron plates, in this embodiment explosive charge did not play the main and auxiliary role as a source of energy for the records that are specifically affected by the cumulative jet.

First universal standards (integrated) RS were also developed during the mid-60s, but it's a story that has yet to be told.

In parallel, the development was carried out in Germany by Dr. M. Held, where the end of the 60's, there were also the first benchmarks successfully passed tests proving ground.

The complex suspension DZ
"Contact" (EDZ 4S20)

The complex is the first generation of "Kontakt-1" have been implemented in a suspended form. Installing ZUDT been carried out by a double row ploskonapravlennoy scheme so makarom to achieve great angles at which the interaction of platelets with the cumulative jet will be more effective. This is explained by the fact that the effectiveness of the impact on the cumulative jet ZUDT with the introduction of meta platinum is dependent on the angle of impact of the cumulative jet with them. At the corners of the meeting (the angle measured from the normal to the surface of the container) of 50-70 degrees. achieved greater efficiency effect of motion on the iron plates of the container cumulative jet. At the corners of the meeting about 30-45 degrees. the impact of reactive container still markedly reduces the ability of armor-piercing shaped charge jet, although reduced by 60 percent and more than rational. At the corners of the meeting close to the normal to the surface of the container, the device loses a large part of self-efficacy, and usually can not provide basic armor protection barriers on the cumulative jet.

At a penetration element DZ cumulative jet, BB is in it, detonate, and the iron hull plates EDZ begin to scatter in the opposite direction. For all this they cross the line of the jet, constantly working on it. Part of the jet penetration is spent on these plates, and the momentum of a side collision destabilizes the jet.

As a result, the impact of ERA armor-piercing properties of cumulative funds may drop by 50-80%. On lowering armor-piercing armor-piercing projectiles features RS-type "contact" actually has no effect.

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Containers complexes DZ suspended type "Call 1"

KnDZ "Kontakt-1" provides:

The complex provides a gain in weight of 10 … 20 times (compared with the rolled metal armor) for protection against chemical anti-tank weapons. Installation and maintenance are carried out only by the crew, the installation of a cooked by the crew of the tank (on average) 2:00.

Provided failure to function EDZ during the shelling of small tools, effects of napalm and combustible liquids. Maintainability, including with the use of electric and gas welding.

Warranty period — 10 years.

Weight of container framed KnDZ 2 elements 4S20 — 5.3 kg (without attachments). Mass complex differs from the number of containers mounted on a tank (e.g., 165 in the T-72C, 227 on T-72B and T-265 at 64BV). An average of about 1200-1500 lbs.

The complex "Contact-1" is set to MBT T-64BV, T-64AV, T-72B, T-72AV, T-80BV medium tanks T-55AMV, T-62MV, and others.

When installing KnDZ "Contact-1" to the index base modification of the upgraded tank added the designation "B". On tanks, installation of ERA which was assumed at the beginning (T-72B, the first series of the T-80UD and T-80, etc.) the additional symbols are not applied.

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When installing the 3 types of containers were used, they were fitted with 2 EDZ 2S20 and differed only in form.

Installing EDZ 4S20 (and other, for example, 4S24) is considered probable and highly flexible protective screens mounted on the side projection of the tank in case of danger, the introduction of TCP close combat (RPG). It consists of a fabric cover with pockets, which are inserted in the EDZ. By means of belts security module is attached to the eyelet on the protected projection of the tank.

The module provides protection against chemical facilities have become the weapon in the normal to the board. Application modules advisable in the case of acts of tanks in the criteria for urban areas. Setting the screen goes into a regular set of protection BMPT "Frame 99" can also be mounted on any other tanks.

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Installation of flexible protective screens on BMPT "Frame 99". T-55AM with flexible shields.
The demonstration features flexible protective screens on the T-72B, pictured before and after the shooting.

The complex is a universal integrated RS
"CONTACT-V" (EDZ 4C22)

This complex provides protection against shaped vehicles (COP), and against armor-piercing projectiles (BPS). Cover for RS from a thick solid steel with the impact it BPS generates a stream of high-speed fragments, which are detonated EDZ. Exposure to move around a thick cover plates and EDZ is sufficient to lower the armor-piercing properties as the cumulative funds and BPS.

Set of universal serial RS "Contact-V», was adopted in the middle of the 80s. According to the complex were equipped with tanks T-72B later series, the T-80U and T-80UD, later T-90.

Considering the particular variant of installation of "Kontakt-5" — T-72B/90 tank shows that the tower T-90 set 7 blocks and one container of explosive reactive armor (8 blocks to the T-72B), which cover approximately 50% of the frontal projection towers at the corners of the course bombardment of 0 °, is located in blocks of up to 6 EDZ type 4C22 set with 2 rows.

On the top front part (VLD) of the body of the T-90 set section in which are located EDZ (four and six 4C22 devices installed in two rows).

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The total mass of the complex DZ — 1.5 tons (the weight of the EDZ least 500 lbs.)
The total number of sections DZ — 26 pcs.
The total number of EDZ 4C22 — 360 pcs.
The number of sections in the main parts of the tank:
on the tower — 8 pieces;
VLD to -12 pc;
on-board screens — 6 pcs.
Frontal area of the projection of the tank, covered by a set of DZ:
at course angle 0 °> 55%;
coursework at the corners of ± 20 ° (body)> 45%;
coursework at the corners of ± 35 ° (a tower)> 45%.
Increasing protection of the tank:
PCB from 1.9 … 2.0 times;
BTS from 1.2 times.

EDZ does not detonate when hit bullets 7.62 mm and 12.7 mm, fragments and 30-mm projectiles. ERA has a high stability of the explosive impact, compared with KnDZ.
Excluded detonation when exposed parts DZ ognesmesi like "Napalm".
Weight EDZ 4C22 — 1.37 kg, dimensions 251.9 X131, 9×13 mm.
So Makar, the total mass of the EDZ in the implementation of the complex is 493 kg. The rest is a lot of construction of sections and units to accommodate the parts.

Last barrierAbout the lengths of the DMZ is to see that indeed, the Russian EDZ have a length of 251.9 mm. However, they are placed in several pieces in one container.
Two 4C22 form the same 500 mm, which is not mentioned once in the critical articles M. Rastopshin.
Left — EDZ accommodation option in the sections on the hull of the VFD. DPU 4C22 installed in the sections forming a work surface height of 500 mm.

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In Figure 1 — Section CLE provided with a removable cap (2) to set the EDZ.
The integrated dynamic protection with EDZ 4C22 set for the next production tanks — T-80, T-80UD, T-72B (since 1988), the T-90.

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Installing universal WHD "Contact-V» on the tower and VLD case of T-80U.

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In the photo — cassette EDZ tower blocks, sections ERA on VFD enclosure.

The frontal armor of tanks T-80 and T-72B has been in a long time, they neporazhaema modern BPS and ATGM cope with it only by the new BPS and anti-tank shown in the recent years.
In case if the tanks will be equipped with modern standards of dynamic protection they fail to provide an advantage over the more modern and antitank weapons.

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In the photo — T-80UD after pounding sides of the hull and turret 125 mm cumulative projectiles.

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Power Screen Enclosure, top type T-72B/T-90, bottom T-80U.

Fig. left — screen housing on the type of T-80 (left) T-72B/90 (right). Power screens T-72B/T-90 body made of solid iron plates, similar screens possess significant drawback — the least significant portion of their board of overlapping projections. Power screens T-80U/UD body (T-84, T-64BM) are dissected, their overlapped area substantially larger than the screen T 90 but protection BTS they provided somewhat smaller screens than T-72B / T -90.
Features of the accommodation WHD "Contact-V» on MBT T-72B/T-90 and T-80U/T-80UD
As can be seen from the drawings and photo installation ERA in tanks and T-80U/UD T-72B/90 different.

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T-80UD, T-80, T-90.

On T-80U/UD EDZ installed in blocks bearing elements welded to the front projection of the tower.
Each cavity block contains up to 4 EDZ. Next in the drawings can be seen that there are a number of containers which, depending on their location are different in shape and Equipment EDZ.

Installing the DMZ provides a uniform ceiling front projection and lack of weakened zones between trapezoidal blocks DMZ.

On T-72B/T-90 blocks EDZ set with mounting bolt on the nodes. The block contains two cavities with cassettes to accommodate EDZ. Each cavity block contains up to 6 EDZ (6 and 4 at the top of the bottom). The angle of inclination is similar containers VLD and the tank is 68 degrees, provided such makarom the ratio of mass and velocity of the material, which will affect the TCP is more than good for a significant reduction of disruptive acts. Installing ERA on frontal rolling tower T-72B/T-90 provides a somewhat high level of resistance in a number of TCP segments (upper container units), with the least overlapped projection tower complex in general.

As you can see from the photos and drawings of the main tanks T-80U/UD and T-72B, batch creation of which took place in the same time were not absolutely uniform over the elements of the complex ERA. This can be attributed to defects, which once again confirms the problem of the lack of unification of Russian MBT. Now in Russia is taking steps to unify systems DZ tanks, the armament of T-72B (T-90) and T-80B. Protecting upgraded MBT done by a single modular scheme — "relic."

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In the diagram of the installation on the tank 478BE RS (T-80UD with a welded turret).
320 such tanks were supplied to Pakistan.

With the emergence of large quantities of ammunition attacking a tank top and on the protection of the lumen of the roof of the tower all the great demands are put forward. Protection of the roof towers of both Russian and zabugornyh tanks in this step is justified their traditional assembly and does not protect against attackers on ammunition. Yet, here the Russian tanks profitably different from zabugornyh because protection of the roof is reinforced ERA, also red lining and nadboya layers of polymer material created for protection against radiation, as well as acting as additional protection that minimizes the angle of scattering of secondary fragments .

Dynamic protection installed on the roof of the tower Russian tanks (for example, the T-80UD and T-90, BM Bulat, etc.) provides protection against today's cumulative and kinetic weapons. ERA blocked major portion of the roof of the tower except for hatches and sights.

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The figure — plant layout DZ on the roof of the turret (embodiment).

Consistent action EDZ and elastic member disposed between them, which further affect the cumulative jet or kinetic ammunition (flexible element increases the time operation of the device, due to its dynamic compression of the material), and then the impact of the second EDZ leads to a significant decrease in broneprobitiya attacking ammunition. Not counting the pieces of elastic between the EDZ in the container can be placed further from the steel plate of the highest hardness.

The complex is a universal modular DZ
"Relic" (EDZ 4C23 in Tumen)

The increase in operating characteristics was achieved by switching from built to a modular implementation of the complex, which provides a number of advantages, such as ease of maintenance, including the possibility of substitution warped modules in the field criteria, the possibility of upgrading the existing tank fleet forces companies of the Ministry of Defence in the course of their routine repair.
The complex consists of a module DZ upper front body parts, quick-DZ containers to be installed on the roof and lateral projections of the tower, also on the sides of the body.

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Installing universal DZ "Relic" on the tower and the VLD case of the T-72B "Slingshot".

The superior devices 4C23 in Tumen managed to clean 4C22 some shortcomings, such as lacking sensitivity to the initiation of low-speed kinetic projectiles and by certain types of cumulative ammunition. Improving efficiency in the protection of the kinetic and chemical energy attack is obtained due to the introduction of additional throwing plates, the inclusion of the non-metallic parts that affect the attacking munition also a long-time collaboration. As a result of these measures the developers managed to reach the lower armor penetration BOPS depending on the type of ammunition within 20-60%. Due to the increased time of exposure to cumulative jet, and also managed to achieve a certain performance on cumulative TCP with tandem warhead.

The total mass of the complex DZ — 2.3 m (at a complete set together with ER — up to 3 tons)
The total number of sections DZ — 27 pcs.
The total number of EDZ 4C22 — 394 pcs.
The number of sections in the main parts of the tank:
on the tower — 9 pc;
VLD to -12 pc;
on-board screens — 6 pcs.
Frontal area of the projection of the tank, covered by a set of DZ:
at course angle 0 °> 60%;
coursework at the corners of ± 20 ° (body)> 45%;
coursework at the corners of ± 35 ° (a tower)> 55%.
Increasing protection of the tank:
from the PCB in 2 times;
BTS from 1.5 times.

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Upgraded MBT T-72B BMPT "Frame 99" with ERA "Relic".
Complexes of protection T-72B, T-80B and BMPT unified.

According to the developers of the complex, it will provide the tanks of the T-72B and T-80B effective protection against a vserasprostranennyh now piercing projectiles such as M829A2, DM-53 and other
similar lines, also ATGM with a tandem warhead type TOW-2A and their analogues. Bimbo DZ is also deprived of some shortcomings of their predecessors.

The complex RS for LME
(EDZ 4S24)

As you know, booking LME (armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles) are much weaker than the tanks in the event of an EDZ and the van on their armor for such a joint bombing the protected object can get my severe damage to Denia. As demonstrated by the available test results, in the designated criteria may fuss Cach breaks and significant residual deformation of the armor parts, friction weld ness buildings and towers protected bors of the displaced object. In addition, with all this in an internal volume of the protected object tic appears complicated superposition of multiple shock waves with the amplitude and the time of the act, sufficiently clear to cause harm to the members of Equipo Ms (rupture eardrums, and so on).

To eliminate the above problems EDZ are arranged in layers of foamed polymeric filler material that provides a smooth braking voltage explosion scatters iron plates, which, on the one hand, allows them to apply the cumulative damage Denia penetrating jet trajectory of motion which they cross on the other hand, inhibition Set records in the prefecture of the filler reduces speed of their impact on the adjacent explosive reactive elements to the value of non-hazardous.

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The new unit with DZ EDZ 4S24 for the BMP
(In comparison with the old unit with DZ EDZ 4S20).

Does not detonate and no flames when hit incendiary bullets. Blocks protect the front and side of the projections of the software and hardware to be penetrated up to 600 mm (RPG-7VM/VL/VS/V, etc.). As a location for the DZ (in the case of BMP-3) increased bulletproof durability (resistance provided by the board of armor-piercing bullets B-32 14.5mm with a distance of 50 m and above, the resistance of 23 mm rounds is provided at a distance of 550 m and above) . Weight EDZ 4C22 — 1.37 kg, dimensions 250h130, 9×10 mm. The total mass of the complex DZ — 4.15 m

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