Water, alcohol and nitrous oxide
One of the most popular and unique methods of short-term boost engine has a water injection. The spray liquid to the inlet manifold due to its own comparable low temperature cools engine parts, this becomes possible to bring it to a huge momentum without the risk of overheating and failure. With the passage of time appeared candidacy water — different consistency. In most cases the water combined with alcohol, ethyl or methyl. That is particularly the latter mixture was used in the German system of MW 50 (Methanol-Wasser — Methanol-water and the figure represents the percentage of methyl alcohol). The methanol injection "vodka" was quite effective: the engine Daimler Benz DB605AM, puts on a fighter Messerschmitt Bf-109G6, upon injection consistency increased its capacity by more than two hundred square meters of horsepower. At an altitude of thousands of meters that gave the greatest increase in speed of about 50 km / h For increased power had calculated significantly increasing costs of fuel and lowering the motor lifetime. But there was a war, and such loss was considered to be applicable.
A similar system is a little later than the broker of the fighter Fokke-Wulf Ta-152H become the most high-Luftwaffe aircraft. Now, however, the equipment used GM-1, which is injected into the engine nitrogen oxide (I) (nitrous oxide, laughing gas). Because of the widely known features of the system of gas used GM-1 was nicknamed Haha-Gerat («Device" Ha-ha, ""). In contrast to the 50 MW, "funny" equipment designed for use at a great height. As the water-methanol mixture, nitrous oxide has cooled engine. With all of this gas to the fuel mixture fed the same oxygen, which greatly increases combustion efficiency and as a result, motor power. Jumo 213E1 engine with injection of nitrous oxide in addition to gaining three hundred horsepower and developed the power of the order of 2000-2050 hp In the course of the 1st flight of fighter Ta-152H headed for speed 755 km / h at an altitude of about 12.5 km. Until the end of the war, the company "Focke-Wulf" did not stop work to increase the capacity of its own aircraft engines, but for a number of events most of the technical proposals failed to break even in the design stage, not to mention the mass production. Practically speaking, the instruments MW 50 and GM-1 are the only mass German system of short-term boost motor. As to the fighters Ta-152H, then the total number of these aircraft did not exceed a few hundred, with most of them were destroyed or captured by the enemy in order to making the Luftwaffe.
P.1076: a descendant of He-100
First, the second World Nazi Germany had a pretty modern technology in order to create a winged technique without conceding zabugornom rivals. But by the end of 1944 in all European fronts has developed a very unfavorable situation for the Germans. To protect against enemy bombers needed high-speed, high-altitude, and most importantly, a cheap fighter. Vorachivatsya had to pre-war projects, even modifying them.
At the beginning of 1945 the company "Heinkel" received an order to develop a new fighter that meets the requirements of cruel time. Not long thinking designers have taken from their own archive project documentation He-100 and its painstakingly researched. The project is a promising cheapest kind of high-speed fighter designated index P.1076. This fighter was created exactly for the same purpose, which suggested an old project. The first method was the acceleration of the engine. The requirement regarding low price fluctuations fighter is not allowed in the type of motor used. No question about jet engines and could not be. After a little thought, was elected Daimler Benz DB603LM, develops power up to 2100 hp With all of this engine is supposed to equip gear and 2 coaxial three-bladed screws.
Second method merits of high speeds caused a few innovations in aerodynamics. So, an old He-100 project was borrowed engine cooling system. It was the duty of the motor cooling system of surface evaporation scheme: it instead of ordinary radiator tubes were special panel created to be placed on planes sides of the fuselage or tail fin. Inside the panels were installed pipes for pumping cooling water. It was assumed that the cooling water or oil will be carried out by blowing the panel a counter flow. Noteworthy that the panel with the tubes, unlike the standard radiator is errant resistance and substantially prevents speeding. It should be noted severe negative surface evaporative cooling. Panels with inner tubes are required to have a fairly large area. As a result, they are particularly vulnerable to bullets, projectiles and fragments. Yet, the situation on the fronts sought rapid and ordinary resolutions, even to the detriment of vitality.
In the end, in an attempt to make better aerodynamics it came to providing good maneuverability than the same could not boast of past champions of the German planes. To do this, decided to use the latest know-how of the German aerodynamics — the back-swept wing. Since then, technology is not allowed to make a big sweep, but with a small 6 degrees, as shown in the blowdown wind tunnel, it was enough for a tangible increase in computational features. Totality of features allow future aircraft to equip it with harsh weapons. In the forward part of the fuselage was sufficient volume to accommodate a 30-mm cannon-type MK-108 and 2-20-mm automatic guns. Flying characteristics P.1076 promised to be the highest: the speed of about 850 kilometers per hour and a service ceiling of more than 10 thousand meters.
P.1076 project was started very late. Just a few months after the order for a new aircraft Russian troops Union and the other of the Allies fled pre-war German border. At a time when the enemies of command countries signed the act of capitulation of the Third Reich, the engineers office "Heinkel" just started to prepare the documentation for th
e assembly of an experienced reference P.1076. Naturally, all papers and drawings were collected in full and the aircraft, in turn, was constructed.
"Defender of the house" Messerschmitt
The more successful high-speed German fighters began developing office Messerschmitt. In them, as always, there were flaws, but they were almost the only ones bold projects that have come down to what, no mass production. The first rose in the air fighter Me-262, filled with 2 turbofan engines. During the test, the maximum speed has been reached 850 km / h For the first half of the 40's it was awesome, but still not enough for some tasks.
In the late 44 th and early 45 th German command's worried about the project Heimatschutzer («Defender of the house"). The plan is comparable to conventional and cheap plane with a rocket engine, which could rapidly go out to the lines intercept enemy bombers storm more swiftly and leave a response from the attack. The company proposed a draft Willy Messerschmitt Me-262C1a. From entry-Me-262A it differed presence of liquid rocket engine thrust Walter HWK 509 of 1700 kg. Next to him, established a 600-liter tank for C-fuel aircraft positioned in the nose tank T-fuel capacity of 900 liters .. It was assumed that the pilot of a fighter plane lifted into the air, had to dial a certain speed and altitude, then of launching rocket motor. Increased thrust-weight ratio aircraft would greatly assist faster to type the desired height, which flew to intercept the target.
Additional fuel for the engine and it resulted in an increase in take-off weight. Normal weight filled "Defender of the house" from the Messerschmitt was at the heaviest initial Me-262A. Because of this, the aircraft required for takeoff runway 600 meters — significantly more than before the revision. February 27, 1945 Pilot H. Lindner, for the first time raised in the air plane Me-262C1a. Because of the increasing take-off weight of the plane was up heavily and without hunting. After switching on the rocket motor behavior "Defender" has changed, and he quickly went up. In order to experience subsequent flights rocket engine cut one another to tear off the strip. In this case, the supplies of fuel, designed for three minutes of the engine, enough to climb over eight kilometers. After another two minutes and a half to get up to speed plane ascended to 12.
Follow-Me-262A fighter was transformed into a version of the Me-262C2b. It established two special combined engine model BMW 003R. They were the "Spark" of the jet BMW 003A (800 kgf thrust) and the HWK rocket BMW 718 (1225 kgf). In March, the 45th held the first and last flight of the aircraft, the cabin was K. Baur. Typing speed of about 150-160 km / h, the pilot turned on the rocket engines. After a few seconds the pilot had to urgently clean up the landing gear and flaps — so rapidly growing rate. When the tanks ran out of fuel and oxidant, the aircraft was at an altitude of more than 7 thousand meters. By inertia plane scored a kilometer high. This rise took a little more than a half minutes.
Second version of the "Defender of the house" was better than the first, but still remained without shortcomings. Because another experimental aircraft Me-262C3 again equipped with a new engine — Walter R II-211/3 thrust of 1700 kgf. For ease of maintenance and simplify the construction of the engine installed on the suspension under the fuselage. Near consolidated tanks of fuel and oxidizer. The engine and tanks could shoot back, with all this, the first of them descended by parachute and could be used again. The original placement of the engine and tanks has led to a sudden problem. In 1-x, the horizontal position of the aircraft tanks were a little below the engine. In 2-x, flexible fuel could wrinkle under the influence of the incoming stream and so violate the fuel supply to the engine. The decision of the layout prepyadstviya took several weeks. Work on the "Defender of the house" ran for a few days before the end of the war. Third experimental aircraft fly too late.
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