January 2, 2011 marks 131 year a day or birthday of the famous arms designer Vasily Alexeevich Degtyarev (1880-1949). He passed on the arms of our army a number of successful models of military small guns, but the greatest fame brought him guns. It so happened that his first prototype made at the Red Army, became a machine gun DP, the last — Manual gun RAP is the last generation. But the gun RPD is fascinating not only that — it's actually the first standard the new system of small arms generated by Lofty Russian experience of war, and reflected in the features of the new step in the development of military small guns.
The main point of the forthcoming development of small arms was the creation of the machine under the crotch cartridge. The idea has long been that of patron and developed in several countries, but more progress towards implementation in Germany and the USSR. The war experience has clearly shown that the need for a tight fit interaction infantry with tanks and artillery, on the one hand, and increasing the role of mortar fire support to infantry, on the other hand, claimed to provide the greatest density of fire shooting guns at a range of 400-600 m, and the group of automatic guns — to 800 m at the same time maintaining a fight in a variety of criteria areas, in trenches, buildings, woods and mountains imposes special requirements for weight, size and maneuverability of instruments, ease of firing bursts from different positions, including the board of combat and transport machines.
CHUCK crotch eliminate the problem
The solution to these problems for a department-level — platoon could provide just chuck the crotch of power — between a pistol and a rifle cartridge. The first of these serial weapons complex who found combat use, was a German machine gun (assault rifle) MR.43 (St.G.43) by 7.92-mm "kurtspatron" (7,92 x33). Captured German machines, coupled with the "kurtspatronami" passed to evaluate spice. Chuck obviously caused great enthusiasm.
Russian 7.62mm cartridge crotch standard 1943 was developed by NM Anna, P. V. Ryazanov, BV Semin and AI Zabeginym. The term "intermediate" indicates that the size, weight, power and ballistic traits he occupies a middle position between the rifle and pistol cartridges. Then he got the title of such cartridges "automatic." The corresponding feature of the new weapons complex in the USSR was the development of a new cartridge is not the 1st, but several types of small tools: to substitute submachine guns PCA and the faculty intended machine with a detachable magazine and a translator kinds of fire, the standard rifle in 1944 — or self-loading rifle magazine with the same shop, machine gun DP — light machine gun. The mass production of standard cartridge 1943 began in March 1944, which allowed the development of faster wage guns for him. And the competition for the new lightweight machine gun was announced already in 1944. It was the role of VA Degtyarev, Simonov SG, GS Shpagin AI Sudan, FV Tokarev, A. Shilin and others. Degtyarev was headed by CB-2 Kovrov plant number 2, and a great help in the work on the newest design of machine gun gave him the office staff — EK A., VN Ivanov, P. E. Ivanov, VV Degtyarev (son of Vasily Alexeevich), Master A. Kuznetsov, chief designer of the NA Hills.
After testing and development was elected one of the most experienced Degtyareva samples, designated RD-44. And in August 1944, Degtyarev light machine gun and automatic Sudaev passed state tests. Highland plant number 2 has released the initial batch of 1,000 light machine guns. The readiness of the latest models of small arms by the end of stateliness Russian war can be judged by the order number 0114 of June 16, 1945, signed by the Deputy People's Commissar of Defense, Army General Nikolai Bulganin: "1. Chief Inspector of Infantry in the period July-August of the current year to the next troop tests of prototypes of small arms:
a) 7.62-mm machine gun RPD design Degtyareva a 7.62-mm cartridge crotch arr. 1943;
b) 7.62-mm machine AS-44 under construction Sudaev 7.62mm cartridge crotch arr. 1943;
c) 7.62-mm machine gun DP belt-fed by regular rifle cartridge …
2. Tests take place in the surrounding area and the subsequent military fronts: the Metropolitan, Central Asian, Caucasian and refresher courses for officers of "The Shot".
Troop tests and machine gun Degtyarev Sudaev the summer of 1945 were also held in the Leningrad military environment and the Group of Russian Forces in Germany.
The machine gun was accepted for service under the designation of "7.62-mm machine gun Degtyarev arr. 1944 (RAP), "and became the first officially adopted by the prototype cartridge reference 1943. First experienced guns had separate cartridge box with a ribbon, but preference is given a box is attached to the gun: it permitted to solve the problem of increasing the practical rate while maintaining the agility and readiness, cartridge box has always remained at the machine gun, a machine gunner could rapidly change the position and open fire without with the second issue of the calculation. During her time has undergone some changes and the standard cartridge itself in 1943: worked a bullet with an iron core and a modified form, with special bullets, shortened sleeves. Tests lasted for other designers and machine guns. For example, in 1947, experienced guns EK Alexandrovich, M. Goryunova, VI Soloviev, VK Egorov. But the best results are given RAP, which after the respective completions continued to release the Kovrov plant number 2. In 1948, the factory made a batch of 250 advanced machine guns.
Secrets of success — Bimbo CONSTRUCTION
Notwithstanding some identical solutions, RAP was not "remake" of an old DP under the new cartridge, and is the latest design.
Automatic machine gun had a gas engine with the gas chamber and the bottom of the barrel with a longish stroke gas piston. Installed in the gas chamber controller with 3 numbered grooves cheated of powder gases discharged to the piston, and ensures reliable operation of the automation is very dirty (groove larger cross-section), or reduce the rate of fire (undercut smaller section). The gate frame is formed integrally with the rod of the gas piston, to the rear of a vertical rack roller. The barrel is locked performed farmed out to the side lugs shutter their breeding produced a rack bolt. Reduction of the lugs, and the means unlocking the barrel shaped recess performed the bolt as it moves backwards.
Revertible mechanism with a back-and-mainspring mounted in a tube stock, and the trigger frame — the trigger mechanism capable of maintaining only automatic fire. Shot made on the rear sear in the shutter is open. A blow to the hammer, mounted in the bolt, bolt carrier has produced its own front wall rack when moving forward by the back-and mainspring. Flag opt blocked the trigger guard.
Sector sight, notched from 0 to 1000 m, had a mechanism for introducing lateral correction. Mushka was attached to the basis of the highest in the muzzle of the barrel.
To trigger the frame fastened wood butt and pistol grip. Form Butt kept him holding his left hand while shooting with the support. Wood forearm is made up of 2-cheeks with metal seat and let how to maintain it with his left hand, bottom-up and top draw with the shooting "from the hip" with a belt (such reception shooting on the move has been worked out yet on the DS).
Neotemnaya folding bipod is hinged on the muzzle of the barrel.
The design of the gun is widely applied stamping and spot welding. The outer surface of the rail gun parts protected oxide finish.
Dining patrons — from iron nerassypnoy tape an open-link to 100 cartridges and direct delivery of the cartridge. Tape is made of 2-pieces with 50 rounds each, connected socket. To one end of the tape is attached to the tip easy loading gun, while the other — falshzveno which supplies the last cartridge in the receiver. Round CLIP box ribbon was attached to the bottom of the machine gun. Box had a hinged lid and flip the handle to carry it separately. Mounting Bracket to the gun served as a guide to the outlet side of the spent case, the thrown down from the receiver. Carrying several boxes of ammunition calculation had a special bag.
The feeder belt lever-type mounted in a flip up and down the receiver was powered by a roller on the front bolt. Form liners without serving chimes permitted to use direct holder of the receiver into the chamber of the barrel. Receiver window protected spring-loaded plates. The magazine shaft in the stowed position lockable lid — the experience of war forced to pay more attention to protecting the receiver from getting mud and small particles.
Fire is small bursts — 5 shots or longish — up to 15 shots. When non-replaceable barrel keeping busy fire without cooling it allowed up to 300 shots. The machine gun had a good accuracy of fire: at a distance of 500 m the mean deviation of hits was 250-260 mm, 1000 m — 550-630 mm, which was about 1.5 times better performance DP.
The advantage smallest mass crotch cartridge can be judged from the fact that the weight of the cartridge box with a ribbon on the RAP 100 rounds of 0.4 kg less than the disk of an old gun shop DP with 47 bullets. With 300 rounds ammunition RAP weighed 11.3 kg — almost two times less than the DP with the same rounds of supplies. Not to mention the size of the smallest machine gun.
BASIC Properties RAP
Cartridge 7.62 x 39 (7.62-mm standard 1943)
Weight of machine gun without bullets 7,4 kg
Weight of machine gun equipped with a cartridge box 9,8 kg
Length 1037 mm machine gun
Barrel length 520 mm
The initial velocity 735 m / s
Muzzle energy of 2134 J
Effective range of 1000 m
Rate of fire 650-750 rounds / min
Combat rate of 150 rounds / min
Capacity of the tape cartridge 100
Weight ammunition box with ribbon 2.4 kg
The consistent improvement
During production RPD underwent modernization of operating experience:
— facilitated by the gas chamber, there was an open gap between the pipe and the gas pipe, which required extended piston bolt;
— on the muzzle of the barrel are threaded mounting sleeve for firing blank cartridges or nozzles for cleaning guns. In normal conditions thread is protected by a small clutch;
— modified handle reloading: brand new pen with the shooting remained motionless, had a folding arm. This reduced lateral dimensions of the machine gun and eliminate the cut-receiver;
— on the lower surface of the coated plates sight additional scale for ease of installation sight in prone or standing up out of the trench. Handwheel screw pillar moved right to the left, modified mount front sight;
— Flag Guard provided the tooth, preventing the movement of the bolt back when the fuse: in machine guns of early editions of such a shift bolt led to its seizure;
— slightly changed affiliation to the machine gun.
RAP served as the basis for a number of experimental works. So, it was practiced option krivostvolnoy choke tube with a curvature of 45 degrees — such deflection nozzle caused a wide enthusiasm in the 40-50's for the creation of subtle structures and support fire weapons tanks and armored vehicles (for firing a "dead zone" around the machine). Along with the fine-tuning of the RAP in mass production Degtyarev in 1946-1948, he worked on a single machine gun fire from a leading bipod or with a light machine: RAP was placed on a light tripod machine from duralumin alloy (which has overtaken these zabugornye work) with a circular cartridge box with a ribbon on 100 rounds or square — with 200 rounds of ammunition. But for one machine gun was insufficient ballistics of the crotch of the cartridge. Samples were made to use duralumin alloys and in the design of the RPD, but tests revealed a large range of GAU wear, deteriorating their technical condition and operational life.
RAP, as well as a number of other samples of Russian guns, widely spread in the countries of the socialist camp and the developing world. He was or is so far in the armies of more than 30 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Copies of the RAP produced in China under the designation Type 56 and Type 56-1.