Part 5. E. Guy Debord: Society of the Spectacle
If Herbert Marcuse and Roland Barthes recognized academic science are included in the curriculum and are revered and studied by students and professors, it is still one major theorist of the "new left" — Guy Ernest Debord little known domestic intellectuals. Most likely, the cause is the fact that, unlike Marcuse and Bart, who, for all his radicalism, remained still life typical armchair scientists, Guy Debord — a professional revolutionary, a hero of the Western counterculture and the political vanguard.
He was not satisfied with writing critical articles and personally participated in the student revolution of '68, to his credit several controversial shares representing certain mix of political action and Performance (the most famous — antichaplinovskaya demonstration in Paris), and finally, he is the creator and leader of the Situationist International (SI ), aims to cultural revolution in the West, which has cleared the way for a political revolution. They are members of the SI were in the forefront of the revolutionary students in May of '68, seized the University of Paris and declared it independent from the government de Gaulle republic — "people, an autonomous Sorbonne." They are members of the SI wrote and sent on behalf of "the People's Committee of Occupational Sorbonne" famous telegram to the Central Committee, which stated that humanity becomes happy only when the last capitalist will strangle the guts of the last bureaucrat bureaucrat. Finally, the ideology of the SI, and was one of the origins of Western counterculture, since it is known that the founder of the first punk band "Sex Pistols" was a member of the SI.
For all its scandalous revolutionary aura Guy Debord, indeed, a serious social philosopher, who created one of the most profound concepts describing modern capitalism — the concept of "society of the spectacle", as set out in the book of the same name.
Modern capitalism, by Guy Debord, has moved into a new phase of development in which the dominant spectacle and performance. In the play there all the turns — the political debate in Parliament, acts of terrorism, the sale of discount stores. The play powerfully invades life, distorts her, filling her senses, that is, ideology and begins to pose as life itself. The viewer who looks news program on inertia continues to think that he was told about the real news, while in fact — it is nothing more than a specially mounted and thoughtful play with their regular subjects (plane crashes, terrorist attacks, the amorous adventures of TV stars). Of course, life does not consist of all of this, but the trouble is that the people in the society of the spectacle is not distinguish where one ends and reality begins Performance, Performance here is total so that it start to believe even those who create it.
The play has a special "magic" effect, it is as if hypnotized person turns it into a passive observer, deprives him of the language of choice, thoughts, offering him their language, their choice, their thoughts. Moreover, one should not think that we have in mind only the TV — The performance is also, for example, the architecture of the modern city (for example, especially "loaded" for the promotion of the sacred capitalist discourse structures — such as bank buildings). The play, by Guy Debord represents the apogee of Marx capitalist alienation, people here do not lose wealth, as in the economic exploitation and of itself, the creative essence that makes him a man. The play turns a man into a passive, obedient object manipulation, into a thing, into a commodity. And killing people, making it one of your characters, performance reaches its true purpose — self-creation and self-preservation, because the performance by Guy Debord, there is an endless monologue of praise of capitalist society.
Defeat The play, according to Guy Debord, it is possible only with the aid situations, the avant-garde of the action, born out of the liberation of the creative energy of man. You can hear the echo of one of the slogans of the revolution of '68 — "Freedom to the imagination". A typical situation — a political performance, but in an ideal situation should penetrate all spheres of life and become a foundation of the new matrix, truly socialist society (like all the "new left" Guy Debord believed the Soviet system is not socialism, but a special form of totalitarianism, hiding behind communist slogans ). Human life is free, anti-bourgeois society, by Guy Debord, is building relationships with other people not by the laws of the Spectacle, and on the creative logic of the situation. Communication is no longer bargaining and becomes creativity, people turn out in irrational rational individualists artists. Company run by a board composed of free, creative individuals — that the social ideal of Guy Debord.
Regardless of the political feasibility of its program, it is thought that his analysis of modern Western society is very fruitful and can satisfactorily explain many of its phenomena.
Part 1. "Another West" Western intellectuals against capitalism
Part 2. Antonio Gramsci: the theory of hegemony
Part 3. Herbert Marcuse: neterroristicheskogo totalitarian society
Part 4. Roland Barthes: unmount the mythology of capitalism