Part 4. Roland Barthes: unmount the mythology of capitalism
Another prominent theorist of the "new left" was a French philosopher, literary critic, one of the "pillars" of the Western structuralism and post-structuralism Roland Barthes. Business of his life he believed the destruction of myths and mirages of bourgeois propaganda, for which he developed and designed equipment and methods.
But if the first half of his life, or so-called "structuralist period" Bart has kept in touch with Marxism and believed in the liberation of the people by the communist revolution, after May 68 th, he goes to the post-structuralist position and comes to a very pessimistic conclusion about the "naturalness lack of freedom ", which was expressed in their scandalously famous phrase" language — is a fascist "(meaning that even speaking in a language the person censored by the language, he is not free to express whatever he can only say "Data Definition Language").
The only "area of freedom" for Bart late period is a game cheating totalitarian language by changing the angle of view, the slip of the discourse in the discourse. In place of the political revolution comes "The Revolution Text" permanent blasting propaganda discourse that becomes an end in itself and not intended to place another dominant discourse, for example, the communist — and that Bart was going in the same direction with the French postmodernists — Derrida, Deleuze, Baudrillard etc.
But we are interested in here are more early Barth, it was then formed his "new criticism of ideology", which is inconceivable without modern semiotics.
The classical theory of ideology, founded by Marx argued that ideology is nothing more than a "false consciousness", a system of ideas imposed by one part of society to society and take root because of the nature of existence of this society. It is interesting in this case that it was this, "school" interpretation of the ideology of embracing advocates of a liberal society — Popper, Aaron, and do not put it through even the likeness of critical analysis, lay the foundation of his concept of "the end of ideology."
This may seem paradoxical, but it is ardent critics of Marxism are the great dogmatic Marxist than the Marxists themselves, who, starting from the realities of modern capitalism, seek to adjust and develop some outdated Marxian definition. So, we have seen that from the point of view of Marcuse is a clear 'open ideology "is present only in the military and police totalitarianism, a liberal totalitarianism also uses a more sophisticated, irrational forms of ideological pressure is here crumbling old notion of ideology as a system of ideas. In fact, the analysis of these hidden, irrational ideologies and engaged Barth, who came to the same idea independently of Marcuse and even, apparently, before it — studying modern Western literature and language.
The central concept of the concept of Bart — a myth that is the most detailed in his famous book "Mythology". Under the myth Bart realizes there is not the archaic stories and sign systems designed to preserve the existing political order, or to create a "psevdofyuzisa" (ie, the presentation of the fragile and volatile, artificial established social order natural, the natural order of things). And it does not necessarily have to be a rational scheme or verbal tests. Bart — one of the founders of modern semiotics, the science of signs, which aims to discover the "laws of language" in any sign system, whether it is clothing, architecture, art, literature, etc. So Bart pointed out that "ideologically loaded" and drawings are on posters, it is also a kind of text, but on the Rights of the words here are "iconic signs" — the images by which and along with the slogan, and made an impact on the viewer, the imposition of him a certain sense, perspective and understanding of the idea (in one of his classic works — article "Rhetoric of the image" Bart reveals the ideological "second bottom" seems to be quite harmless … advertising tomato; any modern Russian, analyzing commercials that are daily and hourly show on TV can see the same thing, particularly revealing, for example, advertising "Mirinda").
Roland Barthes and developed a special intelligent technology to unmount these myths are based on the structuralist concept of the text, which states that the new, underlying, and thus the mythological meanings promotional test result from the collision, the special configuration of its elements. Accordingly, to eliminate the sense of propaganda can break the connection parts of the system, dissecting and comparing the elements of the test.
Another important contribution to the theory of Roland Barthes's ideology was his concept ideologized language itself. Myth or that Bart is the same ideology not only occur when creating the tests of a special kind, they are rooted in the word, or more precisely, in its connotations, evaluation, illogical, the social part of the value. Thus, it appears that the language — it's not just a tool for the expression of thoughts, which is "neutral" in nature, with which you can make and ideological pressure and criticism of ideology does! — The language itself ideological. It followed that win any ideology, using her tongue is impossible to criticize in her language she only gets stronger. That is, in its own way Bart came to the same conclusion, as Marcuse: liberal totalitarianism in society, and there can not be real, not fake opposition — in this case, for the reason that here, across a variety of parties and opinions sway only one language or one and the same ideological matrix, which are strung all — from advertising chips to the party discussions.
Research Roland Barthes initiated the whole school of the critique of ideology or "discourse analysis", you are the most representatives of the incident which France 2 half of the twentieth century were Pesho Michelle and Patrick Serio.
Part 1. "Another West" Western intellectuals against capitalism
Part 2. Antonio Gramsci: the theory of hegemony
Part 3. Herbert Marcuse: neterroristicheskogo totalitarian society
to be continued