Neo or update anachronism
Marx said about Napoleon III: the case that the same events occur in the history twice: the first time they have historically real value, the second — the nature of caricature, the grotesque transformation of living attitude in the legend. Likewise, cultural consumption can be defined as the time and place of the cartoon consumption, parody memories of what no longer exists more — that "consumed" in the first sense of the term (over and passed.) Tourists who go by bus to the Great North, to relive the gold rush, who listen to the praise and maul Eskimo tunic representing local flavor, consume in the form of a ritual that was a historic event, forcibly busy as a legend. In the story this process is called restoration: it is — the process of denying creationist stories and updates of older models. Consumption is entirely saturated with this anachronistic substance. ECCO offers on their winter bonfire and barbecue stations. These masters of gasoline, "historical liquidators" wood fire and all its symbolic value to you again portrayed him as a woody neoogon ECCO. Here are consumed at the same time enjoying a mixed complex of the car and on the prestige of the deceased, the death that is associated with the vehicle and that the revived car. You should not see this as a simple nostalgia for the past: through a "live" shows the level of historical and structural definition of consumption — glorify the signs on the basis of things and denying reality. We have seen that pathetic hypocrisy of the media in covering various incidents aimed at glorifying with all signs disaster (death, murder, violence, revolution) tranquility of everyday life. But the same pathetic flash read signs everywhere: the exaltation of very young or very old, unique emotions in connection with the marriage of blue blood, massmediyny anthem of the body and sexuality. Everywhere we are witnessing a historic expansion of certain structures that mark in some way marked by the disappearance of their real consumption and your cartoon revival. The family broke up? Her praise. The children are no longer children? Create a cult of childhood. Old people are lonely, do not have your own? Imbued with a collective fondness for old age. And even clearer: exalt the body, even to the extent that his real opportunities atrophy and it is more and more subject to the control system and the urban, professional, bureaucratic coercion.
One of the characteristics of our society in terms of professional skills, social skills, personal way — it retraining. It is for everyone, that if he does not want to be relegated to the background, distanced, disqualified, he must accept the need to "update" their knowledge, their skills, their general "an operational baggage" in the labor market. The concept of re-used today especially to the technical personnel of enterprises and more recently to the teachers. It, therefore, seems related to the continuous progress of knowledge (in the exact sciences, technology marketing, pedagogy, etc.), to which must normally adapt all individuals, "not to interrupt the running." But the term "re-training" leads to some reflection: it inevitably reminds of the "loop" mode, for here one must also be "in the know" and perepodgotavlivatsya yearly, monthly, seasonally, part of his clothing, and cars. If he does not, then he is not a true citizen of the consumer society. However, it is clear that we are not talking in this case about the continuous progress: fashion is arbitrary, mobile, cyclic and adds nothing to the intrinsic properties of the individual. It has, however, the nature of the deep compulsion and as a sanction ensures the success or social oblivion. You can ask yourself, does not hide a "refresher knowledge" under the guise of scientific same type of rapid, involuntary, arbitrary reconversion that fashion, and if it does not operate at the level of knowledge and the identity of the same "controlled obsolescence," which the production cycle and fashion imposes on material things. In this case we would not deal with the accumulation of scientific rational process, and the process of social, irrational, the process of consumption, similar to all the others.
Medical retraining, "chesk-up». It is assumed bodily, muscular, physiological re-training: "President" for men, mode, beauty care for women, holiday for all. But you can (and required) extend these concepts to the phenomena of more extensive "new discovery" of the body is the physical re-training, "new discovery" of Nature in the form of the village, reduced to the size of the sample, fringed with huge urban system, bordered and employee "shelter" in the form of green spaces and natural Reserves framing or secondary residences — a "new discovery" is actually a re-training of Nature. This is not an original special presence of nature, located in symbolic opposition to the culture and simulation model, Soup of the signs of nature, which was put back into circulation, in short — retrained nature. If not everywhere is the case, there is a clear tendency for it. Let her call arrangement, the prevention of the landscape, the environment, it is always a question of the nature of the retraining, convicted of his own existence. Nature, as well as knowledge of the event and is subject to the system the principle of relevance. She to functional change as fashion. It has a medium value, therefore, is subject to the cycle of renewal. It's the same principle, which is now mastered professional field, where the value of science, technology, skills and competence deterred retraining, that is, the pressure of mobility, status and career profile.
According to the organizing principle of the whole being built today "mass" culture. All acculturation (eventually even the educated people of this does not escape or elude) have the right not to culture, and cultural training. It means "to be dedicated to", "to know what is happening", update every month and every year their cultural arsenal. This means feel pressure amplitude short, constantly moving, like fashion, and the component absolute opposite culture, understood as:
1) inherited wealth works, thoughts, traditions;
2) The continuous practice of theoretical and critical thinking — critical transcendence and symbolic function.
Both dimensions of culture are equally repulsed cyclic subculture made up of ingredients and outdated cultural signs, cultural relevance, covering everything — from the art of cinema to weekly encyclopedias — and retrained component (recycled) culture.
Obviously, the problem of culture consumption is not related to the actual cultural context, nor with the "cultural public" (and false problem "vulgarization" of art and culture, the victims of which are at the same time the practice of "aristocratic" culture and the champions of popular culture). The essential is not something that only a few thousand or a million are involved in this matter, and that the culture of the car of the year, as the nature of green spaces, condemned to be only an ephemeral character, because it is made, deliberately or not, in the rhythm that today is versatile production rhythm — to the rhythm cycle and reprocessing. Culture is no longer set for long-term existence. It remains, of course, as the universal authority as an ideal standard, and even more so, the more it loses its meaning substance (as well as nature never been so glorified as since its widespread destruction), but in my reality, my way in production is subject to the same call of "relevance", as material goods. And this, again, does not apply industrial diffusion culture. That Van Gogh was exhibited in department stores or Kierkegaard sold over 200,000 copies, has nothing to do with this. Meaning of works depends on the circumstances, that all values are cyclical, ie, they are subject to communication system itself due to the same process sequence, interleaving, modulation combinatorial as the length skirts or television transmission (see below «Medium is Message»). It thus culture as pseudo-events in the information psevdoobekt as commercials, can be made (it is virtually se) based on the medium itself, based on the Code of reference. This procedure is similar to a logical "simulation models" or that can be seen in operation in a gadget representing only game forms and Technology. Eventually there is no more distinction between "cultural creativity" (in the kinetic art, etc.) and game (technical) combinatorics. There are no more differences between the "avant-garde creations" and "mass culture." Last rather combines content (ideological, folklore, sentimental, moral, historical), stereotypical themes, whereas the first combined forms, ways of expression. But in either case, working primarily with the code, with the estimated amplitude and amortization. It is interesting, however, to see how the system of literary prizes, usually are not respected because of academic decline — is silly, really, to crown book a year from the point of view of a universal, regained life, adapting to the functional cycle of modern culture. Their regularity, absurd in other times was comparable to the Market retraining, with the relevance of cultural fashion. They once celebrated book for posterity, and it was funny. Today they celebrate the actual book, and it effectively. They found their second wind.
Tirlipot and computer, or lowest common culture (NOC)
As for Mechanics Tirlipot, in principle, the study by asking questions of meaning verb tirlipoter — sort of the equivalent of the word "thingy", encompassing the fluctuating meaning, which is replaced by selective reconstruction of specific value. Therefore, in principle, an intellectual apprenticeship. In fact, much that, with rare exceptions, the players are not able to put these questions: ask, investigate, analyze — it is their hampers. They come from the answer (any verb that they have in mind) to bring the issue out of it, which is actually the formation of interrogative forms based on existing definitions in the dictionary (eg, "Does tirlipoter end of a thing?" If the master said: "Yes, in a sense," or even just "Perhaps," What do you think? automatic response: "stop" or "end"). This is precisely reception jack of all trades who is trying to screw one by one to see if it fits, it is the simplest method of applying a research by trial and error without a rational study.
As a computer, there is disclosed the same principle. It is not intended no training. Mini-computer puts you questions, and each question included a system of five responses. You choose the correct answer. Time is calculated: if you answer right away, you get maximum points, you 'champion'. And we are not thinking about the time and the time of reaction. The mechanism introduces the game is not an intellectual process, but the immediate reaction types. No need to weigh the proposed answers or meditate, to seethe correct answer, register it as a causative agent in accordance with the opto-motor circuit photoelectric cell. Know — is seen (cf. rismenovsky "radar" that allows you to move in the same way among others, maintaining or cutting the contact, selecting just the positive and negative attitudes). Especially not need analytical thinking: it punished the lowest points due to lost time.
If this function is not enabled learning (always pushed forward the leaders and ideologists of the games media), what is the function of these games? In the case of Tirlipot clear that it is a part, the content does not matter. For the enjoyment of party games to keep the antenna twenty seconds is enough to hear his voice, mixed with the voice of the head of the game, to keep the latter by establishing a dialogue with him, to enter into a magic touch with this warm and anonymous identity, the public. It is clear that the majority are not disappointed by losing his answer: they got what they wanted. As for the community, then it is more modern, technical, devoid of human feelings, a form of communication, that is communication, "contact". Consumer society really are not so distinguished lament the lack of ceremonies — radiofonicheskaya game is one of them, like the Mass or sacrifice in primitive society. But the ceremonial communication is not here with bread and wine represent the body and blood, and with the help of the media (which is not only convey messages, but are also the mechanism of emission, emission station, the point of reception and, of course, an intermediary between the producers and the public). In other words, Communication is no longer relying on a symbolic, it is relying on the technique: this is the communication.
In this case, no "culture" shared by all, that is not a living unity, the actual presence of (all that was symbolic and metabolic function of the ceremony and celebration), — it is not even the knowledge in the proper sense of the word, and a strange mixture of characters and relationships , school memories and signs of intellectual fashion is called "mass culture" and what may be called LCM (least common culture) in the sense of the lowest common denominator in arithmetic — also in the sense of "Standard kit", which defines the smallest common set of objects, which should own the average consumer to be a citizen of the consumer society. Thus, the NOC determines the smallest set of "correct answers", which is supposed to mean an individual has to obtain a certificate of cultural citizenship.
Communication mass excludes the culture and knowledge. There is no question that the real symbolic or didactic processes included in the game, because it would mean compromising the collective participation, which is the meaning of the ceremony — involvement that can not be done except in the form liturgy, formal set of characters, carefully devoid of any meaningful content.
It is obvious that the term "culture" is used here by mistake. This cultural broth, this "digest" (a set of coded questions and answers), this NOC is in the same culture, life insurance is for life: he is there to protect it from the risk-based and non-living culture glorify ritualized signs kulturalizatsii.
As an automated mechanism for questions and answers, but the NOC has a great similarity with the school "culture." All of these games are based on the archetype of the exam. This is no accident. The exam is the highest form of social advancement. Everyone has to go through the exam, at least in the form of radiofonicheskoy unreal, because to be examine today is an element of prestige. Question, therefore, a powerful process of social integration in the infinite multiplication of these games: you can imagine in the long run a society completely integrated in the mass media contest, social organization, resting entirely on their sanctions. The Company already knew in the history of an integrated system of selection and organization through exams: China's era of tangerines. But the Chinese system concerned only the educated minority. Now the whole masses involved in the endless game by twice the rate in which each could provide, or cause to move their social destiny. Thus, society would come to a saving of archaic cogs of social control, as the best system integration has always been a system of ritualized rivalry. We are not close to it. We can only say at the moment is very strong desire for examination of the situation — the double, because each can be examinees, but integrates both the examiner and the judge (as an instance of collective particle, called the public). Truly a fantastic split dreams: to be both one and the other. But it is also a tactic integration through delegation of power. Mass communication determines, therefore, the combination of the technical basis and the NOC (and not the number of participating mass). The computer is also the mass media, even if the game seems to be individualized here. This slot machine where the intellectual agility of the illuminating light spots and horns — a great synthesis between knowledge and consumer electronics — is still a collective instance that you programs. Medium computer is just a technical materialization of collective medium, the system signals "lowest common culture", which organizes the participation of each and every one and the same.
It should be noted again that the fruitless and absurd to compare and contrast on the value of scientific culture and that of massmediynuyu. The first is the complex syntax, the second is a combination of elements that can always decay into pairs of pathogen — the reaction, question — answer. Last illustrated vividly in radiofonicheskoy game. This scheme operates in addition to the said ritual performance consumer behavior in each of their actions, which are organized as a series of responses to a variety of stimuli. Tastes, preferences, needs, decision — the consumer is constantly impelled, "interrogated" and the need to account for parts of objects and relationships. In this context, similar to buying radiofonicheskuyu game: today it is not so much an independent act of an individual in order to meet their specific needs, as in the firstthe answer to the question — response, which includes the individual in the collective ritual consumption. This game is the extent to which each item is always offered in a number of options to encourage the individual to choose between them. The act of purchase — it is a choice, it's an expression of preference — just as there is a choice between the different answers proposed by the computer: the buyer plays answering the question that is never directly related to the use of the object, and indirect, related to the 'game' options object. This "game" and authorizing its choice characterize consumer purchaser as opposed to traditional consumer.
From the book by Jean Baudrillard The Consumer Society