Home — Konsumeristskie body (from the English. Consumer — the consumer)
An ideal example is konsumeristskogo body mass media image of physicality that amassed a main idea of what should be the epitome of Man era of high-tech and effective medical supervision. This — the body phantom. It lives mainly on the screen, but that does not lose its properties existence. Before our eyes, it can break down into a series of separate bodies, and then re-assembled into a coherent whole, the unity of which more than conventional. As if in an ancient poem of Empedocles in front of us on the jet sweep speed of the eyes, white teeth, glowing skin islands. Flashed tired muscles and weary varicose veins, immediately becoming soothed and healed. These wonderful transformation provided narration to work in the editing room. But we do not think about it. We deal only with a body that shines with brilliance. This is the body of dreams, but there's no mystery. It's all on open display, and even forced upon our eyes. Baudrillard writes in case of "an excess of reality"1
We would like to draw your attention to another property of the mass media of the body. It is not simply imposed our eye, but carries a message about the redundancy of Life, which is embodied in it. As a way it attacks not only the eye, but also the brain. It addresses the audience thought of the possibility of the embodied being, the possibility of complete liberation from decay and ill health. In this sense it is the most provocative, because prompts to action, to imitate, calls for the implementation of certain recommendations for the care of our own body. Such a mass-media heavy body is a remarkable instrument of control.
It should be noted that the body successfully imparts mass perception of new hygienic ideal. What does it stack up? From a series of quite distinct values that correspond with the new standards of consumption, developed in the last century Western culture. We turn our attention only on some of these values.
First of all, clean skin. Under the old economic order to maintain the hygiene conditions of the bodies were severely limited. Even in wealthy families were washed as infrequently as possible, maintaining hygiene, change of clothes, and the active use of perfumes2. Something has changed in the middle of the XIX century, when the rapid development of light industry. According to Michelet, in France, in the home of poor people come cheap cotton and other fabrics. "It was a kind of revolution .., little noticed, but played an important role"3. Life of the vast majority started improving, and hygiene standards are gradually revised. However, almost up to the middle of the XX century, neatness and cleanliness were associated only with clean clothes and an apparent lack of foul-smelling odors. Only since the mid XX century pure leather desk norm. By this time, most of the homes western cities there were private baths. Until now, they had the privilege of the wealthiest. In the pre-perestroika Russia until recently it was believed that the body wash once per week — is the norm. In recent years, these standards have changed decisively. Presence in apartments hot water can take a shower every day. In the market of detergents and shampoos gels ousted former soap that has been adapted for a rare use.
Modern hygienic ideal body assumes as a reference not only clean, but also fresh skin, flavored with the latest perfumes. The duty to smell nice for everyone, but, above all, men and women, the leading business lifestyle. The freshness of the skin — a new attribute of the new middle class. At the same time elegant and refined aromas of former times superseded functional smells: "density" and "attractiveness" give way "determination" and "vigor." The very way we store and spray smells changed. It is particularly true for the men, for whom the market is now a rich selection of bottles with built-in atomizer. But the women, who traditionally, using perfume, rubbed them drop by drop over earlobes and neck, chin, and now with the spray irrigate almost the entire body. The smell of the body and emphasized the individuality expressed his erotic nature. Aroma of fresh signals functional consumability body as an agent of business relations. Fresh skin in women is now unthinkable without women's sanitary napkins. They are now as an essential attribute of the female body, like the smell of deodorant. Fresh skin — thanks to the natural deodorizing odors.
Another standard — moderately tanned leather tanning distribution over the entire surface of the body. This standard began to come to life very recently. Until the time of Gabrielle Chanel (the twenties of the XX century), the symbol of wealthy classes had pale untanned skin. Tan and deep tan considered attributes the lower strata of the population. Furthermore, dark skin was membership of the colonial countries and in the minds of the Europeans was associated with slavery. With the development of factory production, when labor of the vast majority of people began to occur in enclosed spaces from the sun, pale skin began to contact the factory work and the fact that it is accompanied — tuberculosis, malnutrition and various diseases. On the contrary, tanning was considered a sign of a status of idle classes. Body with tanned skin began to "be done" on the beaches of the Riviera, the Canaries, Bermuda, at fashionable resorts of the southern seas. In this case, such an interpretation of a tanned body was characteristic only for people from the Nordic countries, in the south of the same tan even today remains a symbol of the lower classes. By the end of the XX century the fashion included mild sunburn. Much of this was due to medical reasons, identified as harmful solar radiation overdoses and started talking about the harmful properties of ultraviolet light. In addition, the accessibility of the many resorts in the current bourgeoisie led to the search for new distinguishing traits of his body. Tan now prefer to receive moderate doses. It is applied to the skin together with the prevention cream. And it shows that the owner of Sun seriously pays attention to their health and aware of the harmful consequences of irrational treatment of your skin.
Finally, the last significant property of the skin to the body — and to make the lack of elasticity of sagging and wrinkles. Elastic smooth skin — this requirement hygiene and privilege of a wealthy class. Jean-Marc Subiran reports that "Americans do not enter into a business relationship with a businessman whose face is covered with wrinkles"4. Elasticity and smoothness imparted by means of exercise and well-balanced litany. At a certain age stage to the usual dietary methods are added and cosmetic surgery. Plays the same role as cosmetics. Body with elastic skin — a sample of health and security.
Modern hygienic ideal draws attention not only on the skin but also on body hair. The stereotype of smooth skin is transformed into a stereotype of the hairless body, combined with the well-being of healthy hair on his head. The image of a photo model, the pressures of the consciousness of the vast number of women causes them to be fought with the vegetation on all parts of the body. Medical technologies merge with cosmetic techniques, demand appears to hair removal. Men are free from this stereotype to a greater extent, but they follow the modern telekanonam. On the screen they are pursued by a healthy and smiling face, whose clean-shaven cheeks and totally devoid of the slightest hint of carelessness. On the contrary, a healthy head of hair on his head — the most desired trait. It is designed to satisfy the desire of professionals from hair salons, but also medical experts when it comes to hair transplants. By the end of XX century transplantation of hair has become a reality. Mandatory characteristics of healthy hair — their elasticity and thickness. Norm and pathology revealed hair is now not only the usual look, but also under the microscope. Developing a whole therapy to preserve life in the hair. Vibrant hair — are those that are subject to regular care and disciplined).
Commercially consumed the body should have a white-toothed smile. Its designed to provide the latest dentists ¬ cal technology. In addition to the traditional methods of dental care medicine appealed to bleaching and aesthetic prosthetics. In the course of filling materials and new ways of painless treatment. Bad teeth are no longer removed, exposing them in almost all cases the restoration. In addition to the mechanical strength, valued aesthetic white teeth. Meet this goal more and more slime toothpaste and chewing gum that are released to the market with the same recommendation to the leading dental associations (for what else they need!) And private health professionals. Dentist advertising a regular preventive agent — a permanent character screen. Despite the possible insincerity of his telesovetov, we often tend to trust him. Our desires commands charming image toothy mouth.
Up until the mid XX century medical techniques appearance correction has not yet been developed. However, already in 1835, Pirogov predicted this opportunity. In his lecture in St. Petersburg "On plastic surgery in general, about rhinoplasty in particular," said that the condition for operations to correct facial defects must be the art of knit fabric and perform their transplant5. Yet the main reasons for the development of cosmetic surgery are changes in the public mind, expressing the demand for such services and the affordability of these technologies.
People believe in what the beauty and health of the body are achievable. Over consumption of Life is now willing to pay as for any other commodity.
For cosmetic surgery body — this is the map, which is applied to a network of arbitrary values. But unlike Hugo komprachikosov6 cosmetic surgeon writes in the body is not ugliness signs, and the signs of beauty. The most consumed surgery — facelift, skin resurfacing and rhinoplasty. In addition, women are turning to correct the shape of the breast, and the men to a hair transplant. Among the common surgical procedures also mikroliposaktsiya (removal of excess fat). With it comes the most obvious Rebuild bodily landscape. Between the prosthesis and transplants cosmetic surgery more often preferred the first. This and more profitable, and less expensive. In the light of these new opportunities to think about the body as a natural datum is simply impossible.
Cosmetic surgery, deftly reshapes the body, derailed many of the usual values. It used to be like this: Men's corpulence was considered a sign of material well-being, a person with wrinkles are "talking" about courage and determination, the forehead with a widow's peak — a great intelligence and good breeding. Now, these stereotypes are annihilated. On the threshold of XXI century the main male ideal of striving to be young, or at least youthful appearance. Wrinkles should be blotted out, folds of fat removed, unattractive pigments in the skin is completely removed. The magic power of signs, as birthmarks, scars, warts began to grow dim in the glow of youthful, flawless physicality.
Yet the body of which it was said, there is still a project, a phantom, living mainly on the cover of the magazine and the TV screen. To whom these techniques are available recycling appearance? Those who have already stepped into the world konsumeristskoy culture. As long as that is the lot a few. At the end of XX century in the Russian cosmetic surgery is not done for medical reasons, and for aesthetic reasons. Argued that the salvation of health they have no relationship. Therefore, as a rule, the patient takes care of all the costs of their implementation. But was not so in the past when the most expensive ways of taking care of his own body, initially belonged to only the most wealthy classes, and then extended to the rest? None other than Foucault in his three-volume "History of Sexuality" has shown that the practice instensifikatsii bodies have a historical tendency to spread from the upper classes — the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie — to the lower strata of the population.
In conclusion we draw attention to the following pattern. Mass media body image, which is generated by konsumeristskoy culture, carries a complete idea of the richness of life Immortal Man. Clean, fresh, soft tan, taut skin, lush and healthy hair, straight white teeth — all the signs of the body, which knows no death. There is no error. All that could be evidence of the mighty power of decay is carefully devizualizirovano. Coverage appear only numerous forms of life that are embodied in every pore, every cell in this image. Here reigns supreme norm against which no longer exists any more of Pathology. Digitized and placed in the video archive, the body is able to live forever.
1. About Jean Baudrillard seduction / / Ad Marginem '93 Yearbook of post-classical research laboratory of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, 1994. S. 332.
2. Ilyin VI Consumer Behavior. Syktyvkar, 1998. S. 154.
3. J. Michelet people. Moscow, 1965. S. 36.
4. Subiran J.-M. Cosmetic Surgery. Why? How? What for? Rostov n / D., 1995. S. 367.
5. NI Pirogov Coll. Op.: In 8 vols, 1957. T. 1. S. 100.
6. See: V. Hugo's The Man Who Laughs. Saratov, 1979. S. 22-34.