3. Accusations of blasphemy and sacrificial killings
The two main sources of anti-Judaism were at one time charges of usury that emanated from the small people and merchants, and the charge of deicide, invented and tirelessly repeated church groups who did not doubt the collective responsibility of the people, when they had crucified Christ. This accusation was formulated by the IV century. Tertulenom, Origen, and the higher clergy and from the time of the Crusades until the XVII century. grew and shirilos, getting to the theater, iconography, and countless sermons catechisms. In the economic anti-Judaism, the manifestations of which were spontaneous and were local in nature, it brought a theoretical basis, if an urgent mention of Judas thirty srebreniki. This accusation was systemic, systematic and dogmatic. The endless chain of persecution of the Jews was a logical consequence of it. God damn people that he wished that at the time of sentencing Jesus Christ and who is doomed to punishment. Persisting in his sin, he multiplies the original sin pogreshenie bitterness. He deserves consecutive sentences, which will last until the end of time, and the persecution of the Jews is one, then the other place gave rise to the legend of the Wandering Jew-wanderer.
The Jewish people-deicide continues to wish his death. This explains the ritual piercing wafers (communion bread) and pouring the contents on the ground holy chalice. The belief that the Godslayer destroy the holy gifts, appeared at the time of the Second Crusade, and for the first time had legal implications in 1243 in Bielice near Berlin. Accused of blasphemy some Jews of both sexes were executed. In 1290, in Paris, is a miracle, which then becomes a stereotype: the poor woman, being in distress, yielding to the entreaties of the Jewish priest Jonathan and brings him after Communion at St. Mary's holy gifts. He rips apart the wafer, and it starts to bleed. His whole family goes to Christianity, and he remains in the same faith. He will be executed, and in a house where there was a miracle, soon satisfied chapel. Next to settle the monks, who are the successors of the rite of Holy Communion. After eight years of bloodshed erupted in Bavaria. Reting population rebelled against the Jews because of the desecration of the Host. The city has killed all the Jews for a long time then in Bavaria gangs massacred all the Jews, do not agree to accept Christianity. Never before had the whole area is not the Israelis were responsible for the crime imputed to one person. It was the first genocide of the Jews in Christian Europe. Collective extermination of the Jews because of the desecration of the Holy Sacrament was also observed in Bavaria in 1337-1338 gg., In Old Castile in 1417, in Berlin in 1510, where 38 Israelis were executed, and the rest were expelled from Brandenburg.
In these outbreaks of violence is sometimes difficult to understand the role of the church. But it is safe to say that the allegations of desecrating the sacred gifts contributed to the development of the cult, as noted already in Paris in 1290 In 1369, in Brussels, in the same chapel was discovered missing the Holy Sacrament. The Jews were accused that they want to desecrate them in the coming Good Friday Easter holiday. But the guests began to bleed, and the crime was solved. Behind this was followed, the death penalty, expulsion of the Jews from the city, repentance, even greater splendor of the holiday of Corpus Christi, the construction on the site of the synagogue, which was committed blasphemy, Chapel and the Chapel of Saint-Gyudyul to store sacred gifts. Bull of Eugene IV, at the same time confirming the crime and its opening in 1436, came out with an obvious delay. During the Plague of 1530 in Brussels was made an appeal to the miraculous gifts of the Holy, and the epidemic ceased. As a sign of thanksgiving in July of each year, the city held a procession, a tradition which lasted four centuries, from the XVI to the XIX century, in the Netherlands, many works of art — paintings, tapestries, stained glass, engravings — depicting scenes Brussels piety, which is a typical example of indirect distribution anti-Judaism. Acknowledgment of responsibility of the church can be found in Italy in the XV. It has been noted that there is anti-Judaism was developed later than in other countries. There were not afraid of witches and killed, and if they killed the Jews because of sacrilege, that is not enough. However, the most remarkable artwork on this subject is in Urbino and written by Uccello (1397-1475 gg.). Panels consistently portrayed "Miracle guest" — Israeli priest buys cachet in indebted to him a woman, and then shows his futile efforts to burn it, miraculous transformations holy bread, which begins to bleed, the arrival of the soldiers and the execution of the culprit. So, the cycle was made in 1468, commissioned by the Brotherhood of the Holy Eucharist.
Militant Church, tries in the early modern period to strengthen the impact on the population believed that Judaism is a constant war against Christianity and blasphemy is one of the manifestations of this feud. Valencia canon Moline describes in his communiques 1493 following case: Pastor of Ivry Jean Langlois' venerable preacher, "has long lived in the Papal States, in Avignon, where Jews were allowed to settle. They are his "seduced" and forced to "surrender" of the Christian faith, publicly destroying the body of our Lord. What was he to do at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, a city that was considered impregnable because of "the most famous in the world" Theological faculty. Having failed to make a sacrilege on the Feast of Corpus Christi (note that the newly sacrilege timed for this holiday), the day Langlois during service in the chapel of Notre-Dame snatched from the hands of the priest holy gifts and threw them to the ground. He was arrested, and he stated that he had acted out of conviction in his right mind, he does not believe in the Holy Trinity and that he expects, like the Jews, the second coming. The famous ascetic Standok, called for help, could not get it back "from the gloom of darkness to the light of truth," Langlois with his tongue cut was burned alive. Church apologists anti-Judaism was just necessary: in the absence of the Jews (they have not lived in Paris for over a hundred years old) Church has demonstrated its victory over neoiudeyami.
These facts represent only a fragment of the heavy dossier. Accusations of blasphemy committed in Poland in the 1450's, of course, as a consequence of sermons Capistrano. In France, they are a source of religious scenes of the theater, where the Sacred Mystery of the Host now has become a stereotype. It featured a Jewish moneylender, his Christian owe, which gives him cachet. "I was seized with a desire to crucify her, put to the torch, crush and raze to the ground." She begins to bleed, but remains intact. Jewish wife and children, seeing this, were baptized. He did not persist. At stake, he asks you to bring the Talmud and appeals to the devil. In the former College of Saint Tremere in Carhaix has three wooden panels at the end of the XV., Which reproduce, apparently, the plot of this mystery. On the left shows a Jew seducing a woman on the blasphemous act. On the right depicts the scene when a Jew with a dagger pierces the wafer, with a spear, then castigates her. The central panel reproduces the triumph of the Church and the Holy Sacrament.
You can list more than a hundred processes about sacrilege and more than one hundred and fifty cases of sacrificial killings. These figures are certainly underestimated, but they reflect a growing fear. Uniform fear, as both villainy are two sides of the same crime. Christian, usually an infant, slain by Jews in the Holy Week, Jesus Christ personified. This sacrifice is often portrayed as crucified. Of course, those who killed the Savior, again wish the death of all who believe in him. So there is nothing surprising in the fact that they can poison the wells. And if a Christian does not put their lives at risk by trusting the healer-Jew? Everything is connected in the analysis of the psyche of the Jewish enemies. "They are killers and murderers of children, and they should be taboo" (Zh.Sartr). Anyway, in a XII. charged with the sacrificial death was ready. It was formulated in 1144 in England about the murdered apprentice, whose body was found in the woods near Norrviken on Holy Thursday. History repeats itself three years later in Würzburg during the preaching of the second Crusade. In Maine, found the body of the murdered Christian, which led to the murder of several Jews. From now on, the idea of sacrificial murder ingrained in people's minds. This led to mass persecution of Jews — at Blois in 1171 38 death sentences in Bray-sur-Seine in 1191 about a hundred victims. In Germany, the XIII century. occurred about hundreds of massacres. Frederick II, by issuing the Golden Bull in 1236, was unable to remove the Jews from this odious charge, because the idea was already firmly lodged in our minds. In Bern in 1294 was the expulsion of the Jewish community. In memory of this event in the XVI century. Protestant city government erected a monument with a significant inscription "The well-eater babies." In Messina in 1347 Jews were executed, accused of committing a sacrificial murder. In the 1462-1470 years. Bavaria was agitated because of the case, such as that which occurred in Endingen and that was the subject of one of the most famous theatrical plays of the time.
And then later, in 1475, there was the death of the infant Simon of Trent, which caused a fire in northern Italy fear, fanned by preachers. The following year, again playing the scenario Feltre Simon of Trento. He warns parents to look after children with the approach of Holy Week. Chronicle for the years 1478-1492. Mantua Arena Portobuffolè (around Treviso), Vichensy Fano and full of accusations of sacrificial killings. Spain, where it grows at this time of intolerance, also does not remain indifferent to the idea. In the "Fortress of Faith" is a list of atrocities committed by Jews in different places. This list is provided with evidence, claim to credibility, further incited anti-Jewish sentiment in the Spanish society. In 1490, six Jews and five converts from Guarda, near Toledo, were accused of black magic: they allegedly crucified a Christian child, tore his flesh, "with the same cruelty and anger, as their predecessors have made to the Savior Jesus Christ" and mixed his heart to the holy bread. Criminals are hoping that this action will die from the Christian religion. Under torture, all but one pleaded guilty. However, the baby had no name and no face. Not one witness has said about the loss of a child's body was never found. It was a parody of a trial. However, now in Spain were brought honor "of the Holy Child of Guarda", just as in Germany and Italy came the cult of Simon of Trent. In the XIII and XV centuries. Pope, in particular Innocent IV, Gregory X, Eugene IV, Clement IV, Clement XIII, tried to eradicate the belief in the sacrificial killings perpetrated by Jews. But they are only partially able to slow down its growth and reduce cruelty processes. The driving force of the Church of its preachers were confident in black designs synagogue. For them it has become antitserkovyu, a refuge devil. Every Israelite was secretly a witch. At the beginning of the XVIII century. Cathedral in Sandomierz in Poland, which has embarked on the road of anti-Judaism, a huge mural represents the sacrifice of Christian babies.
Anti-Semitism in Europe from the Middle Ages to modern times
The role of religious theater, preachers and baptized Jews
Two sources of anti-Judaism