From the comments to the previous article:
… Good article. The official media bypass the topic of anti-Semitism in medieval Europe side and give the impression that Judeophobia — it's just a brief flash in the history of the West and is associated with a frenzy of individual characters, who headed a particular political system. It's funny, but the Jews themselves have convinced themselves that all matter in Hitler … as you wish, but if I wanted to be a Jew in Europe in the year since the 2038th.
Conclusion. New threat: converts to the faith
Yet the enemy, who, it would seem, was banished, reappeared under a different guise. These were converted to the faith. Are they turned to Christianity? It can be assumed that many forcibly baptized Jews, secretly performed the same rituals of faith, that is, once again lapsed into heresy, or that by embracing the new faith, remained committed to traditional cuisine, do not eat pork, etc. They began to suspect of heresy. The enemy was even more dangerous than it has been less visible externally. Prior to this impending danger Isabella and Ferdinand sought by the Bull of Pope edition 1478 establishing the Inquisition, which earned two years later in Seville. Its leader for the whole of Spain was appointed in 1483 Torquemada, a zealous and inflexible Dominican, Judeo-Christian.
Despite calls from Rome to moderation, tribunals faith worked with such zeal that terrorized the population. During the seven years of cleaning 1480-1487 gg. 5000 the Seville converted Jews accused of returning to the old faith had been "reconciled" with the church, suffering the usual punishment and humiliation. 700 heretics were burned at the stake. Until the turn of Toledo in 1486 for four years, in 4850 it was reconciliations and 200 executions. In Aragon Inquisition brutality, especially in Valencia and Teruel, Zaragoza, aroused hostility to the new tribunal of the population. A total of Torquemada subjected, executions at the stake of about 2,000 people, mostly converted Jews. After the decree of 1492 on the expulsion of the Jews, they fled to Portugal, where, in turn, similar decree was passed in 1497 and was then that the events occurred which were discussed above: the people dragged dragged to the font to be baptized. Of course, those baptized at the earliest possible return to his former faith. Portugal is seeking permission from the pope to establish its Inquisition, which began work in 1536 with November 1538 by April 1609 it already had 105 autos. Portuguese Marranos then fled to Italy in Ancona, where they were granted admission by Paul III. But come the reign of Paul IV, and in 1556 the Inquisition fell on Ancona. 22 men and one woman were burned as repeatedly fallen into heresy, 27, had been "reconciled with the Church." 30 defendants, hiding, to avoid the process. The endless pursuit in the West led to the fact that in the XVI century. Jews began to seek refuge in the Ottoman Empire and in Poland, which has been open to them before the "great flood" in 1648
In the history of European anti-Judaism can be divided into two phases and the two mentalities. At first baptism was seen as a means of purification for the proselytizing of all the vices of the people, Godslayer. Subsequently, the virtue of baptism has been questioned, and in practice was considered to be a Jew is inseparable from the Christian heritage of the Israeli grehovodnogo. By this time, anti-Judaism, while remaining in the field of theology, it becomes radical. Hostility to the baptized Jews can be confirmed by the following figures: in Valencia during the depredations of 1391 g, seven, and perhaps eleven thousand Jews were baptized in order to avoid death. Ferrier credited baptism 35,000 Jews and 8,000 Muslims. It is difficult to express in figures other forms of renunciation, which took place in Spain in the same period. Finally, the 1492 decree of expulsion of the Jews resulted in the baptism of 50,000 people and the flight of 185,000, of whom 20,000 were killed path. Baptized Jews, like their predecessors unbaptized, settled mainly in the cities, the number of which has once again become the criterion of the "threshold", which primarily contributed to the birth of the Spanish anti-Judaism. Incidentally, the Jewish converts to the faith in the power of freedom derived from baptism, continued to occupy the same high position in society, as well as before baptism. This time they have exceeded the level of well-being, becoming advisers, financiers, tax collectors, married with the old Christian families, and the most zealous soon entered the higher clergy and occupied important positions in religious orders, staying meanwhile convinced that any treatment is on essentially a formality. Thus, renunciation baptized Jews opened new opportunities to achieve a brilliant career, what they could expect before. A sense of frustration and envy Old Christians, which mingled with inveterate hostility to Jews — tax collectors, can be explained by the first Spanish uprising against baptized Jews in Toledo in 1449 for the first time in Spain, the municipal government, relying on the "law of guns and civil laws," given all the crimes and the heresy of the baptized Jews decide that henceforth Jews are not worthy to occupy positions of responsibility, private and public, in Toledo and the surrounding lands. Thus was the first in Spain document the status of purity of blood.
As usual for this period of history, the individual events of local significance due to the preaching of the general climate of fear and the threat of Christianity grow to state and even international scale. After the incident in Toledo begins a discussion at the highest levels of culture between supporters and opponents of the status of the purity of blood. Since 1449 have been published numerous works, condemning segregation in Toledo. In his treatise, addressed to Juan II, Alonso Diaz de Montalvo bitter reproaches to the conversion of the Jews Christians who want to divide the Church. Department of baptized Jews — a heresy, since it would lead to a split in the Church. Our world is in Christ, reconciling Jews and Muslims. The rebels in Toledo — a "wolf Christ." In religion they are looking for profits. Even more important was the treatise "In defense of Christian unity" (also 1449), compiled by a baptized Jew Alonso de Cartagena, Bishop of Burgos and the son of Don Pablo de Santa Maria, the one being baptized, has written "The study of Scripture," and was also Bishop of Burgos. All human beings are descended from Adam, and it edinorodie was repeated in the new Adam, Jesus. God chose the Jewish people before Christ, our Saviour is born a Jew in order to reconcile them with the wrong. Baptized Jews are like prisoners in the war, which was released and allowed to return to his home. And no matter how old they were in captivity. In pursuit of their baptized brothers, old Christians Toledo acted as schismatics. And who denies the unity of the Church and leads to its split, that heretic. Also in 1449 Pope Nicholas V anathema anti-Jewish status Toledo, releasing a bull, the value of which will then be de-emphasized and challenged. In "Studies in the Scriptures," Don Pablo de Maria Site for seventeen years before the events in Toledo formed a tactic that is acceptable to the baptized Jews unleash repression on recalcitrant to save proselytizing. The same line of conduct in 1460 gives the abbot of the Order of Hermits of St. Jerome. Alonso de Oropesa, who Franciscans in an open letter asking for advice on how to counter growing influence of baptized Jews in religious orders. "The light of revelation to the Gentiles," was the answer Oropesa this embarrassing question because his order consisted of many of the baptized Jews. As Pablo de Santa Maria, he distinguishes between Jews and new Christians. First dangerous as incorrect, heretics and schismatics. But also undermine the confidence of the old Christians in one Church, suspicious of the Jews to receive baptism. Therefore it is necessary to protect the converted Jews from their former co-religionists. This means the insulation or the latest introduction to the Christian world, as far as possible "with love", and if it fails, a "punishment." The war in the rear has used an arsenal of soft measures the magical power of baptism. But are these measures were soft? Illustrative in this respect can be considered the doubts expressed by Alonso de Espina. Of course, the "Fortress of Faith" encourages forcibly baptized. But flamethrower product zealous Franciscan collected not only crimes of those who follow the precepts of Moses. It also contains a list of transgressions committed in Spain proselytizing Jews: the denial of the Holy Trinity, a secret celebration of the Holy Ark, the performance of the rite of circumcision and other Jews — baptized or not — depraved people, and new Christians inherited all the evil of their forefathers. Therefore there is no need to share the Jews, as recommended by the Pablo de Santa Maria, the faithful (who see Jesus as the Messiah of the Old Testament) and the infidels (denying Christ). It is necessary to distinguish between the crypto-Jews (baptized) and explicit followers of their faith. This is the basic idea of religious racism, explaining the nature of fear to see the Christian hail destroyed from within the eternal enemy, who became secretive and therefore more dangerous than before.
Later steps will be carried out, marking the milestone in the spread of the status of blood purity of the Renaissance in Spain. In the meantime, examine the arguments of opponents of baptized Jews in the XV century. Siege mentality manifested itself at that time very active. The documents drawn up by the Archbishop of Toledo Siliseo in 1547, requires him to drive out of the Diocese of New Christians. He dreamed specter of a new synagogue. All Jews, baptized or not, people are fickle, always ready to betrayal and treason. Therefore, St. Paul did not let the bishop baptized Jews. Such foresight is exemplary, given the numerous crimes and conspiracies, which are responsible for the Spanish baptized Jews. Many of them have adopted the Christian faith out of fear and now crave revenge. The conquest of the forces of the Church is the baptized Jews infiltrated the higher clergy. "In the Church, hardly anyone will be found, who would not be one of them. Spanish Church in whole or in large part, controlled by them. " Siliseo, among other things, requires the prohibition for Jews to practice medicine, surgery, pharmacology, since they want to kill the old Christians, and to enter into marriage with them. The extra vigilance can not hurt.
Status of the Church of Toledo came across resistance of the clergy, however was supported in 1575 Simancas, the noble representative of the city of Cordoba, who sought the Archbishop's dignity. In his work "The protection status of Toledo," he makes accusations have become classic, but it does with emphasis on the perfidy of the Jews in Jesus' time. From birth to death and everything in nature — the sun, the stars, the sea, spoke of his divinity. But the Jews put him to death every day and continue to crucify him. However, excessive arrogance has always been characteristic of this villainous people. Therefore, the baptized Jews want to take over the wealth of the Church and to introduce them to their own. What they despise manual labor, talks about their insincerity in baptism. Their true purpose — is to rob Christians of old, taking possession of their wealth. Cohesion baptized Jews, too, leads to suspicion. They are like a herd of pigs — a grunt and then others echoed her, and in a moment of danger close ranks to defend together. However, there are, in the opinion of Simancas, sincere converted Jews, but they have to go through this earthly purgatory and social exclusion. Over time, the hour when the new Christians can take all of the posts.
This introduction is not included in the product of evil "Chapel of Our Lady of the church against the Jews", drawn up in 1674g. Franciscan monks. The name itself says that the church is in need of defenders of the Jewish danger. But what's interesting Israelis are hazardous, were expelled from the country two years ago. In fact, the author does not distinguish between Jews and Jewish converts. The list of crimes committed by Jews (including the plague in 1348) is sufficient for the prosecution of baptized Jews. They inherited from their ancestors abiding hatred of Christianity. Suffice half, quarter, eighth, even some of the blood to be infected with this hatred.
But how could combine such a radical anti-Semitism and the baptism of the Jews? Effectively to the sacrament, it creates a new man? Replies were set. New Christians are punished not because they are spoiled by nature, but because they are apostates (Simancas) and although baptized, from parents to children passed evil tendencies of manners (and Kaspihon Fonseca). St. Thomas teaches that children are not responsible for the evils of the parents. But they may be temporary sanctions for not believing their predecessors (Porreno). Everything can be explained when the letter is not in the spirit, and when frightened. Enumerating some of the major events helps take a broader look at the time and figure out which shaft hatred rolled on the Spanish baptized Jews. In this sense, the chronological presentation of events is more significant than a detailed description.
|1467 —||As a result of unrest among the baptized Jews in Toledo renewal status in 1449.|
|1474 —||The massacre of the Jewish converts in Cordoba and other places of Andalusia. In Cordoba, new Christians are removed from all public posts.|
|1482 —||Shop masons Toledo forbids Jews to pass secrets.|
|1486 —||Hermits of St. Jerome (among whom were baptized Jews), after much hesitation choose to: a) the converted Jews to the fourth generation can not be members of the Order and the Inquisition should check it out, and b) the new Christians — members of the Order are deprived of all the posts and the right of preaching. Conflict with these rules will be excluded from the order. Alexander VI, a Spaniard by birth, having forgotten the Bull of Nicholas V, approved these rules, which were considered to be exemplary.|
|1489 —||At Saint Sebastian, fearing migration of new Christians in the Basque country, prohibit the conversion of Jews to settle in the province and get married there.|
|1496 —||The first action taken against the new Christians Dominican monastery in Avila.|
|1497 —||(And later) "The status of the Jews" (and in fact against baptized Jews to the college of San Antonio de Sagunto.|
|1515 —||Chapter of the Cathedral of Seville accepts the status of purity of blood, now the cathedral is closed to children baptized Jews heretics, it is approved by Leo X in 1516, Clement VII in 1532 and extends ban on "heretical grandchildren," Paul III in 1546 — by their third generation.|
|1519 —||Anti-Jewish status of the college of San Hilda-Fons in Alcala, compiled Cisneros, are not included in the document are no discriminatory measures.|
|1522 —||The ban on university degrees for all people of Jewish origin in Toledo, Valladolid, Salamanca.|
|1525 —||Franciscan papal permission to withdraw from all positions of descendants of Jews continue to not take them in order.|
|1530 —||Chapter of the Cathedral of Cordoba accepts the status of the blood confirmed only by Rome in 1555.|
|1531 —||Rome allowed the Dominicans Toledo excluded from the Order of New Christians.|
|1547 —||Chapter of the Cathedral of Toledo, primatskoy Church in Spain, at the insistence of Archbishop refuses to appoint canons without questioning on the issue of national identity. After the controversy and hesitation comes from the formal approval of Paul IV in 1555, and Philip II in 1556|
|1593 —||Fifth General Congregation of the "Society of Jesus" rule of the Order of the Christians of Jewish origin. However, Ignatius of Loyola, who died in 1556, it seems, did not share the prejudices of his countrymen about the purity of blood, and many of his assistants, such as Polanco, were Jews.|
Since the resolution of the Chapter of the Cathedral of Toledo has been confirmed and legally required formal proof of purity of blood, Spain for a long time from now on will be guided by the status that existed unchanged in the XVII century.
Thus, the doctrine was formulated and created the myth of the two main Spanish values — piety and honor. Tension, anxiety and obsessive atmosphere that prevailed in all layers of society, were the reverse side of pride and purity of race. Spain knew herself a fortress of Christianity, the rock against which the waves break on the evil and heresy. Her honor universal scale was due to the true faith. Everything happened as it should have happened in a country that has come too late to self-awareness and needed in a negative element — Jew to reveal itself. But she was going to have to re-invent it when former enemies were expelled or converted to Christianity. Without it, the country would have no inner unity. Being powerful but open to intrusion country, Spain could withstand numerous enemies only when the internal integration, which also contributed to its self-determination. By the way, until the final determination of nations in the XIX century. nation is unity in religion. To be, or to once again become a part of Europe, Spain had to go on the path of militant Christianity.
Why is militant Christianity of that time was certainly anti-Jewish orientation? Perhaps these measures were response. In the Renaissance, Jews were not at all friendly and peace-loving people. On the contrary, the Jewish civilization was an active, energetic and hook themselves supporters. The ghetto was not only a place of forcible conclusion of the Jews. It was their stronghold, whose walls are defended their faith and commitment to the Talmud. The intolerance of the Jews at the beginning of the XVI century. was much more than the Christian. And some more questions: why hospitable reception for Jewish settlers in Carolingian Europe, in Spain, the "three religions", in Poland, in the XVI. be hostile attitude towards them? Whose intolerance was the primary? Why in countries such as France, England, the Netherlands, who expelled the Jews, and in which there was only a small number of baptized Jews, the population continued to feel hatred for those who are already in the country did not have two or three years? There was already no threshold number of factors, which had great importance for Spain, nor envy of the wealthy and cultural stratum of the population. The answer to these questions are to be found in the public psyche.
There is a connection between the fear of ghosts and anti-Semitism, "the fear of ghosts is perceived as an innate sense characteristic of the human psyche. So there is nothing unusual in the appearance of the fear of dead people, who continues to be perceived as a living. " In another approach to the problem of anti-Judaism, it can be explained through the concept of "Oedipus complex." The Jews were perceived Christian world as "a good father" who was opposed to God the son. Hostility to overthrow Israel could express the conflict between the children who received the message of mercy, and their fathers, remaining faithful to the law of retaliation, "an eye for an eye", running from God the Father. Both explanations are complementary in the sense that it goes back to the main reaction of the militant church. Clerical culture, more than anyone else, and the people feared the Godslayer-and people-ghosts, and the threat of strict God-father. In the Renaissance were afraid of the Jewish threat "interested" Christians. They also feared the Turks and Moors all the enemies that are on the order of Satan attack the citadel of Christianity. So, ignoring the private definitions, anti-Judaism and the attitude to the Jews in the XIV-XVI centuries. can be defined as behavioral system. The threat was felt not only in Christian Spain. The Church, too, felt the instability and uncertainty of the situation, fearing both God and the devil, and the Father and the righteous Jew, embodying evil. If, before the XIV century. observed individual, local manifestations of anti-Judaism, later they were compiled, theoretically grounded, connected with religion and become so in anti-Jewish movement.
4. Proselytize, isolate, expel