1. Two sources of anti-Judaism
Experiencing excessive fear of the Turkish threat, while Luther struggled with the Jews, whom he initially wanted to attach to the gospel. Not by chance the two revelations were held simultaneously. In Western Europe, the growth of anti-Judaism, it is theoretically sound and logical conclusion, characteristic of the period, when the Church saw enemies everywhere and felt the crossfire cohesive enemy's strength. In the early modern period was inherent fear of Judaism religious circles, and the official culture was its breeding ground. Such an assumption is not intended to simplify this complex phenomenon. As before, and at the time of Hitler's anti-Semitism consisted of two components, which are complementary to each other. On the one hand, the hostility of the company or its part to the enterprising minority, is not amenable to assimilation and which exceeded the allowable limit on the number or well-being or for both parameters at once. On the other — the fear experienced by the adherents of Christian dogma, for which the Jew was the personification of absolute evil, fiercely hated, even after he was expelled. But it would be wrong to say that ideology reflects only a certain superstructure — theoretical generalization of the economic situation and the mood of the masses. This would mean a lean and narrow understanding of reality. At the beginning of the XX century. Hitler's racism has given a new dimension to German anti-Semitism and aggression. Similarly, during the XVI-XVII centuries. fear experienced by the militant church in front of Gide, in other words, religious racism — psychosis, which is comparable with the feeling besieged, — not only legalized, summarized and exacerbated hostility to Jews on the ground, but also caused the phenomenon of rejection, without which this ideological incitement, of course, would not be. We agree with the view expressed by Lee in "History of the Spanish Inquisition": "It is no exaggeration to say that the church was the main, if not the only one responsible for the violence against the Jews in the Middle Ages." To this we may add, in the period of the Renaissance.
Nevertheless, for a long time historians have noted only the common anti-Judaism. He really was, mostly in urban areas (from the bloody events tend to the XVI century.). The massacres took place in Germany and Catalonia during the Black Plague, Jews were victims of violence in Paris and throughout France under Charles VI (1380). These events reflect the attitude of the population, or rather a part of it, to the Israelis. Greedy bloodsuckers, poisoners Christians — such they were considered bourgeois and the common people at the end of the Middle Ages. They were the personification of incomprehensible strangers who are stubborn in their religion, customs and way of life that was very different from the customs and way of life of the people, sheltered them. This stubborn and suspicious commitment to the traditions of the Jews did in the critical moments of scapegoats. At the same time, quite often monarchs and nobility protected the Jews from the people's wrath. So it was in Spain and Germany during the plague in Bohemia in the XVI century., In Poland, in the XVII century. Pope is also quite a long time to treat them with compassion.
On the other hand, it must be noted that the cause of anti-Jewish statements are financial claims and envy, and religious accusations were only a pretext. Thus, for example, was in Venice end XIV c. After an exhausting war in 1378-1381gg. you had some way to pay tax to the government reinforced to revive trade agreements to attract new funds. In 1382, the Senate allowed the lenders, who were mostly Jews to settle in the city. Twelve years later, this resolution was withdrawn because "all personal property Venetians could go home in Israel." They are also accused of refusing loans if bail was not brought gold, silver or precious stones. The expulsion of the Jews from the city was not carried out, a large Jewish community remained in Venice. In Spain, the first persecution of the Jews converted to Christianity began in Toledo in 1449 was the instigator unknown vendor, but the reason was a sharp increase in taxes due to military spending. People's anger was directed against the rich merchants — baptized Jews. They were charged that they were the initiators of tax increases. In the XVI century. Prague artisans (mostly furriers) and most of the wealthy have repeatedly demanded the expulsion of the large Jewish community of the city. They are accused of taking money out of Bohemia, large mortgage interest, as well as attempts to set fire to the city. In general, started in the XII century. strengthening the role of the Christian merchants in the western economy caused an increase in the aggressiveness of the new merchant class against the traditional Jewish trading environment, which had to destroy or limit the narrow limits. In many cases, taxation, debt elimination, exclusion can be explained by purely financial interests. And for a fee, sanctions could be suspended, and the commercial activities of the Israelis, these "financial sponges," resumed. The financial difficulties of the royal treasury largely contributed to the expulsion of the Jews from England in 1290 and France in 1394.
Pogroms, anti-Jewish statements artisans and merchants for financial reasons are facts that can not be underestimated, but who do not speak the whole historical truth. It should also take into account that a) the relationship between Christians and Jews to pogroms were not always bad, and b) in their deterioration played a major role religious factor. It can hardly be an exaggeration to consider what is being said about Zh.Sartr: "The Christians themselves have invented Jew and thereby dramatically inhibited the assimilation of the Jews." Since the XVI century. religious factor is the main driving force behind the dominant Western anti-Judaism. The Jew has become one of the images of the devil.
Prior to the XI century. in the West, there is no evidence of national anti-Judaism. In contrast, in Europe, the Carolingian era the Jews were in a privileged position. Their communities enjoying great autonomy, multiplied. In a poorly developed economy in the late Middle Ages, they mostly carried out by international trade. Fairly well-known cases of appeal to the Jewish faith only became possible because of the enviable position of Israelis. Protected charters, they were free men who owned the local language and local clothes worn, they should be allowed to travel on horseback to carry weapons and to take an oath. Indeed, they have been integrated into the society that has accepted them. Since the Crusades, their situation has worsened everywhere except Spain, where the bad times came later. But their privileges in some places remained for a long time. Prescription Latranskogo Council (1215), to dress differently from Christians to Jews suggests that before their clothes are no different from other people's clothes. In France, from 1215 to 1370 solutions twelve councils and nine royal decree ordered the Jews to wear a yellow six-pointed badge, and this is also evidence of the difficulties experienced by the authorities with the introduction of this innovation. In Germany the custom inoculated slowly, as, indeed, and other innovations. Although since 1236 the Jews are no longer considered to be free men and serfs of the Imperial Chamber, the authorities continued to consider the legitimate custom Talmud, disinheriting young Jews who have renounced the faith of their ancestors. This civilization has long been closed, so her cleavage was slow. In XII-XIII centuries. the collision of two cultures religions region is experiencing the dual influence of mysticism and the teachings of Aristotle. Even in the Renaissance Pico de la Mirandola close contact with Jewish scholars and senior Christian ranks, particularly the pope, continue to use the services of doctors belonging to the nation-deicide.
Spain, which used to be so warmly welcomed the Israelis, in the XVI-XVII centuries. was to them the most intolerant country. At the end of the XIII century. them there were about 300,000, and they were scattered among the rest of the population. They went on a visit to the Christians and invited them to her, bathe together with them in the same public baths, and even in spite of the prohibitions in the same day. Christians invited to a circumcision, baptism and the Israelis. In the New Castile for the funeral of Christians usually invited Jewish mourners paid. Invalid in the crowd of the faithful present at Mass, and on the contrary, the Spanish Christians walked about in his sermon in the synagogue rabbis. The tradition of joint religious rites existed in the XV century.: In 1449 for spells plague Jews Seville, who carried the Torah lists, joined the religious procession — and this is with the permission of the Archbishop. In the XII century. in Spain, Jews were tillers and entire rural communities. But much of the Jewish population still lived in cities, doing crafts, or as a rich bourgeois. King lenders were Jews. Being the urban elite, they were also the intellectual elite, they have translated into Castilian language writings of Arab scholars and briefed them educated Christians. This explains the superiority role in the XV and XVI centuries. converted Jews played in the cultural life of Spain. So, medieval Spain "three religions" was tolerable because of scattered, country. Growth, albeit belated, bourgeois relations and religious identity, then the conquest and missionary responsibility, which appeared in Spain after the conquest of America, the success of Islam — all helped to turn Spain into an impregnable hospitable, closed country that hate foreigners.
At the other end of Europe, Poland is also a long time, and it is up to the middle of the XVII century. Remained open to Jews space. As a result, many of persecution Jews arrived here from the West. In Poland, the development of new economic relations and Christianity took place a few centuries later than in the West. Therefore, in the early modern Jews persecuted everywhere in the Christian West, found in Poland a happy lot. In Poland, in the XV century. their number is closer to 100,000 and increasing all the time. In 1565 the papal legate in Poland noted with surprise unusual for European status of Jews in this country:
"In these places, the Jewish population density is high and they are not so despise, as in other countries. They are not humbled and are not limited in the choice of occupations. They own the land, engaged in trade, studying medicine and astronomy. They are rich not only considered respectable people but sometimes occupy high positions. They are not required to wear a distinctive sign, they are even allowed to have weapons. Anyway, they have full civil rights. "
An important observation: in fact, in the fragmented Polish Renaissance lives of Israelis was a "golden age." They were not limited by space ghetto, as in Spain in the XII., Bankers, king and nobles were Jews, they set taxes and duties, own mines and forestry, among them are large landowners. In the cities, they make up the bulk of the middle class of artisans and merchants. Country synagogues flourished, and some of them — true works of art. Since the end of the XVI century. Polish Jews began to enjoy unprecedented administrative autonomy. The Council of four countries (Great Poland, Little Poland, Podolia and Volyn), consisting of representatives kagalom existed until 1765 and was going every year on the occasion of the Ljubljana Fair. All the Jewish community to uphold its rulings. Since the activities of the Council and helped streamline tax collection, the Polish rulers supported him. By this time the situation of Polish Jews began to deteriorate. In 1648, Khmelnytsky Orthodox Cossacks rebelled against the Polish gentry and their managers-Jews. They're swept away and destroyed in its path. This was followed by the conquest of the country by the Swedes and Russia. Explosion of anti-Jewish violence Cossack Khmelnytsky marked a split in the History of Polish Jews. From now on, the population began to treat them with hostility.
A certain relationship between economic and demographic factors and harassment, persecution, beatings, forcible conversion to Christianity, which marked the history of the Jewish people.
"Pastor's rebels", mostly peasants, because of hunger to leave their seats and fled to the south of France, to 1320 plundered 140 (?) Israeli communities. Looting in Germany 1348-1349 gg. were the result of an epidemic of the Black Plague. The expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492) coincided with a period of stagnation in trade during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, and continued in 1509 and possibly in 1520 Similarly, the repression of Jews in Venice in 1570-1573 gg. fall to the downturn of economic development (1559-1575 gg.) due to the Turkish war 1570-1573 years. Such parallels suggest, in turn, the question of why the Jews are always the scapegoats? We are again confronted with the problem of thought to the impact on public opinion of Christian preaching. In the West, during the Carolingian, in Spain, the "three religions" in Poland "golden age" of religious tolerance prevailed and there was no anti-Judaism as such. On the other hand, it must be noted that anti-Jewish sentiment rose sharply during the religious frenzy, and violence against Jews occurred frequently during Easter. It is necessary to do justice: to disapprove of the papacy and has long hampered the growth of anti-Jewish sentiment. They first appeared in 1000, the year, but the final break and the beginning of Jewish persecution occurs during the first Crusade. On the Rhine, in Rouen, and other areas of France were the Crusaders, who considered "unfair to leave the homeland of Christ's enemies, while they themselves are coming up with weapons to fight against the infidels." In 1146, this argument has been repeated Abbe de Cluny: "Why go to the ends of the earth to do battle with the Saracens, while living among us wrong a hundred times more guilty before Christ than the Mohammedans?" In the time of the Second Crusade the first time there are cases of prosecution in the sacrificial death of Christian babies and desecration of the holy body of the Lord, that is the real crime — deicide. During the Black Plague on the Rhine pogroms were organized samobichevatelyami repentant Christians who thought they were God's chosen ones. Soon, however, the church has banned this type of repentance. However, the ecclesiastical authorities themselves indulged spread rumors that Jews poison wells with water. In 1267, the Councils of Breslau and Vienna have ordered Christians not to buy more provisions to the Israelites out of fear of being "vile poison." Similar bans have been issued as at the beginning of the XIV century. in Bavaria and Switzerland. Finally, the fear of the Jewish threat grew and intensified with the deepening of the crisis of the Church, which began the Great Schism and continues during the Hussite wars, the Turkish conquest and division of the Catholic Church. It became increasingly anti-Jewish tracts prescription conclusions and persecution of the Jews. In Spain, for example, the conversion of the Jews were forbidden to hold positions of responsibility. Jews began, mostly for religious reasons, internal enemies. You can spend one more parallel connected with the previous one: during the XIII-XVII centuries. the spread of Christianity was accompanied by increasingly fierce unmasking "of the people, Godslayer." "In fact, writes Isaac, — the catechism was the distributor of the ideas of anti-Judaism and contempt for Israel."
If the earlier anti-Judaism was explained by economic reasons, and the persecution of the Jews were a convenient means of taking possession of their property, it is now to be made to the history of certain amendments. These factors certainly played a role on the ground in a given period. But the Spanish Inquisition arrested Jews or converts, who were not rich at all and that she was in a prison nurse. Evidence of this can be found in the archives of Cuenca. Similarly, it is impossible to explain the workings of witches only one desire take possession of their houses and land. In fact, the persecution of witches help to understand the motives of Jewish persecution, and vice versa. In both cases are prosecuted and neutralize improvised Satan.
See also Anti-Semitism in Europe from the Middle Ages to modern times