From the comments to the previous article:
… Good article. The official media bypass the topic of anti-Semitism in medieval Europe side and give the impression that Judeophobia — it's just a brief flash in the history of the West and is associated with a frenzy of individual characters, who headed a particular political system. It's funny, but the Jews themselves have convinced themselves that all matter in Hitler … as you wish, but if I wanted to be a Jew in Europe in the year since the 2038th.
4. Proselytize, isolate, expel
Nevertheless, there was a means to escape from the power of Satan descendants of Judah, to convert them to Christianity. The most zealous of the clergy had high hopes for a cure through a magical virtue, which was considered baptism. Holy water from the soul of a Jew exorcising demons, who overnight became harmless and nothing to worry about.
An angry mob believed this naive concept. The proof of this is somewhat randomly selected facts. Chronicler of Würzburg tells of the crusaders in 1096: "Countless crowds from all lands and all peoples arrived in arms to Jerusalem and forced the Jews to baptism, destroying all those who rejected it." In 1391 in Valencia, the crowd broke into the Jewish quarter, shouting: "Jews or baptize beat!" Later members of the city council of Perpignan denounced Juan I of Aragon: "Let the Jews accept Christianity, and all the turmoil will end." The following year, in Sicily, the Jewish community of Monte San Giuliano was asked to be baptized at gunpoint. Who refused were killed. In Lisbon in 1497 on the eve of the Passover the children were forcibly taken away from their parents and taken to the font. A few weeks later, the parents had threatened to follow them. Algarvsky bishop condemned by such a procedure, describes these events:
"I've seen people dragged by the hair to the font. I saw the father of the family, with his head covered in a sign of mourning, his sons were baptized and called on God to witness their common desire to die together, according to the law of Moses. I saw with my own eyes what the Jews were doing even more terrible things ".
The complaint was the exception. In any case, at the time it was not considered blasphemous farce, and a spell from which expect a sudden religious conversion. Therefore, the aim justifies the means. The decision of the Catholic rulers of the expulsion in 1492 pushed the 50,000 Jews to renounce the very last hour (percentage of refugees was more dramatic.) Baptism preparation preceded the adoption of Christianity, it was more desirable than a sudden communion. Therefore, the Jews were ordered to attend services in a church or synagogue, specially designed for this purpose.
The idea was born, it seems, in the XIII century. and comes from the mendicant fraternity. In the XV century. Ferrier puts business in a big way: with the consent of the authorities synagogues were converted into churches, and the Jews, under penalty of fines, had come to his sermons. At the time, he was credited tens of thousands of baptisms. In 1434 The Council of Bale summarizes the methodology and directs the Jews, to education, to attend Christian sermons. Demanded the same in 1516 facing a Jew Pfeferkorn.
Of course, because of the inertia in the field implementation of this program has encountered a number of difficulties, though it ended in the days that followed the Reformation of the Church. Bull of 1577 and amendments thereto, made seven years later, enjoined the Jews of Rome and the papacy sent on the occasion of their representatives to Christian sermons, which were to convert them to the faith. In 1581, Montaigne could be present in Rome for one such incendiary sermons, which are usually read by converted Jews and their native language.
Expenses paid by the Jewish community. Despite the brutality of such techniques, the authors of expectations. They believed that Jews are spiritually fixable. Therefore, a large number of medieval mystery lives of saints, views miracle acting, "dispute" between the Church and the Synagogue included scenes of renouncing the faith of Israelis under the influence of grace descended upon them. Disputation in Tortosa (1413-1414 gg.) Is a vivid illustration of mentality, which looked at the renunciation of their faith once chosen people and was ready to take it to the Church without any restrictions. All sorts of measures were undertaken to achieve this goal. Benoit XIII has collected the most learned rabbis of Aragon to participate in a dispute with a reversed Jose de Lorca. Scientific debate took place in the presence of about two thousand people, many of whom came from far away. At the end of each round, the Jews present (I do not if they were substituted) stated their conviction and willingness to be baptized. From January 1413 on November 1414, the year of "renunciation" in Tortosa 3000 converts were baptized. The success was impressive, albeit partial. The question was what to do with the rest of the Jews.
They should be maximally isolated from new Christians to not induce a return to the old errors. For this basic reason of concern added side considerations: to protect Christians from Jewish black magic, no show, in order to avoid ridicule Jews, Eucharist, etc. The policy of apartheid takes tangible form at the end of the XII century., And XIII, in particular with solutions III and IV Latranskih Councils (1179 and 1215 years.). The latter expressed the desire to end the conversation of Christians with Jews (or Saracens). To stop the "terrible things", the Jews now have to wear a distinguishing them clothes that do not reside on the same land to Christians not to leave the house during Holy Week, not to occupy positions of responsibility: These instructions were performed at the beginning rather sluggish due to a climate of tolerance that prevailed in Spain but gradually expanded their scope.
In France, in the XIII Synod status. forbade Christians to recruit Jews servants, to share a meal with them, bathe with them in the public baths. Overall, 17 of the 40 councils, gathered in the kingdom to 1195 by 1279, taking the anti-Jewish decisions. Again in France revived prescription Jews wear a sign: from 1215 to 1370 twelve churches and nine royal decrees made a decision on a hexagonal yellow stripe, which was then compulsory for Jews in Italy and Spain. German Jews had to wear yellow or red head ostrovidny ubor.V medieval Jew can be identified by a sign or a headdress, he had to constantly pay shameful exactions as if buying their right to life, to take an oath in the humiliating position, he was executed by hanging head down, he became more and more incomprehensible alien, not susceptible to assimilation. Of course, he had his own customs, way of life and religion. But the church and under the pressure of the state by the ever-increasing isolation contributed to his alienation and quarrelsome. Cathedral in Bala in 1434 g, forbids Jews to attend university and treat Christians. Since the XIII century. churches and preaching tirelessly urge Christians to refuse the services of healers Jews. But both before and after 1434, many kings, the pope and the individuals do not comply with the ban. But there is a distrust of the Jewish medicine designed to kill the body, and especially the Christian soul:
"It is better to hurt, if it is God's will, than to be treated banned diabolical means. Call the doctor-Jew — it's the same thing that warmed by a snake on his chest, nourish the wolf in his house. " It appeals to the clergy of Frankfurt in 1652 Five years later preachers Halle expressed even more emphatically: "It is better to die in Christ, than to recover from a Jewish doctor and Satan." Hebrew was considered the best medicine.
Code of Laws of the Cathedral of Bale was a milestone in the history of anti-Judaism in the sense that he has compiled published in different places and at different times of the ban, adding to it some innovations: the prohibition of Christians to communicate closely with the Jews, to seek their assistance as doctors, servants, nurses, to settle in the same house, prohibiting Jews to build new synagogues, hire Christians to work, settle in new places without permission, to hold public office, to lend at interest, and even to study the Talmud.
These measures, performance was mixed in time and space, were adopted on the initiative of the Spanish delegation and represented a kind of ex post facto justification of pogroms in 1391, of Ferrier, who really initiated the creation of the Jewish status, adopted by the authorities of Castile in respect of the local and very strong Jewish community. For the Jews of the city were added to the above restrictions is another. Now they had to live on the reservation. The Dominicans of San Pablo gave them the following year the territory that has been certified by notarial deed. Jews settled on eight streets around the two areas. The block was surrounded by a wall and had only one exit gate that night locked up and the key was given to keeping guard. Jews have long been settled usually crowded, not for the first time in the history of the Jewish Quarter of the prison took shape. Then were surrounded by a fence Jewish neighborhoods in Piedmont — Vercelli and No-Ware in 1488, and in 1516 in Venice, where they became known as the "ghetto."
Venice has long hesitated to choose his attitude toward the Jews. Decisions on the expulsion of the Jews in 1394 and at the beginning of the XVI century. not been implemented. Despite complaints of preachers and hostility of some officials in the city remained a considerable Jewish colony. In 1516, trying to reconcile religion and commerce authorities shall take their decision on the establishment of reservations — the "new ghetto" in the Spanish sample. At night it locked up, and the Christian watchman guarding the gate. In 1541, the Lebanese Jews also settled in the adjacent block, which became known as the "Old Ghetto." In 1633, these settlements to add a third 'newest ghetto. " In total, they represent the three separate blocks with the highest population density, with houses, reaching a height of seven floors.
In the middle of the XVI century Rome should do the same. Until now, the Israeli colony enjoyed the patronage of the Pope, but this favor mingled with hostility. Thus, the Roman Jews, at least in 1312, were required to pay a special tax to pay for carnivals. In 1421 Martin V has extended this tax on all the Jewish communities of the papacy. In addition to region 1466-1469. Rome appears to arrange custom during carnival races. In six races alternately participated Jews, asses, teens, children, and old buffalo. As you can see, the Israelis were here in great company. Since the beginning of the XVI century. they had to run without shoes in a shirt that all the time shortened. For the amusement of the audience, they had to be almost naked. One can cite the following comparison: in the XV century. in Ferrara during the feast of St. George — the patron saint of the city — took part in the race prostitutes and naked Jews, in Padua in 1517-1560 gg. during the feast of Santa Marina participated in the race street girls and the Jews. Ambivalent attitude of the authorities towards the Jews, and so you can confirm the fact: during the reign of inoffensive and tolerant Leo X Raphael in the "Triumph of David" (1519), which adorns the walls of the Vatican, in defiance depicts the Scorpion, a traditional symbol of the Jewish synagogue on the national flag.
But in the middle of the XVI century. duality relationship is no more. Roman Inquisition publicly burn the Talmud, which officially approved by the bull Julius III. The Talmud was regarded as blasphemy and desecration meeting of the Christian religion, as well as an obstacle to his conversion Israelis. From now on, the Roman authorities resolutely prohibit the Talmud. In 1557 the Inquisition also prohibits Jews have all the religious books in Hebrew, except for the Bible. Since 1559 the Talmud added to the list of banned books. He who in 1553 initiated the ban Talmud, in 1555 he became Pope Paul IV. This harsh personality connects closely reformation of the Church and anti-Judaism. He has a strict policy of protecting Catholicism, which has always stuck to the preachers. Do not take more than two months of his rule, as there is ominous bull "As is too absurd":
"It is absurd and obscene that Jews, condemned by God for his sins to perpetual slavery, under the pretext that Christians treat them with love, and the government allowed to live among others, may be so ungrateful that instead of saying thank you insult them, and keep the hosts where they adhere to be servants. We were told that in Rome and other places of their boldness comes to the point that they settle among the Christians near the church, do not wear insignia, renting homes in affluent neighborhoods nearby areas in cities, villages and towns where they live, acquire and own property , hire Christian servants and nurses, as well as other servants, commit to my shame and contempt other Christian misdeeds. "
For this categorical statement followed by tough action: in Rome and other cities of the papal Jews must live apart from Christians in neighborhoods or on the streets, with only one entrance gate. The city should not be more than one synagogue. The Israelis do not have to own property outside of settlement areas, and what is already owned, must sell. From now on they will be wearing yellow hats, they will not have Christian servants. In the Christian holidays, they will rest. They will not have close relationships and transactions with Christians. Their bills they will guide in Italian or Latin. Pledge, under which they were given a loan, may be sold only one and a half years later. They will not trade with grain or other products unfit for food. The poor Christians are not addressing them, call them "masters."
As soon as the paper came out, begins the conclusion of the Jews in Rome, Bologna and other cities. In the ghetto, at bargain prices they sell the property, which they held in different places. Then followed a period of calm during the reign of Pius IV. With the advent of Pius V bitterness resumes. Deciding not to expel the Israelis from the papal lands, he decided, in 1569, for their sorcery, magic and divination to limit their space two ghettos — in Rome and Ancona. So it has been finished with the Jewish communities in Camerino, Fano, Orvieto, Spoleto, Ravenna, Terracina, Perouse, Viterbo, etc. Roman ghetto was overcrowded and impoverished. But it must have been for their money created de Loyola House catechism intended for candidates baptism. Pius V died at 1572g., And his followers were less strict Jews. But the Roman ghetto were mired in poverty to Pius IX. Meanwhile, thanks to the efforts of missionaries and bishops continued to spin the wheel of history. Elsewhere in Italy, where he remained Jewish communities, ghettos: in Alexandria (1566), the Duchy of Urbino (1570), Florence (1570), Verona (1599), Padua (1602), Mantua (1610), Casale (1648), Reggio (1669-1671 gg.), Turin (1679).
Of course, the creation of the ghetto could not solve the problems faced by the authorities in respect of the Jews: it was just a bad compromise. Achieve isolation of the Jews, especially in the afternoon, it was not possible. It was not possible to minimize the communication of the two parts of the population within the same city. Therefore, since the end of the XIII century. in different cities and countries, the authorities have resorted to drastic means — exile. The decision on expulsion is taken in England in 1420 and in France in 1394, in Austria in 1420, in Fribourg and Zurich in 1424, in Cologne in 1426, in Saxony in 1432 and during the XV century. in various German cities. The reason for these decisions were the envy of the bourgeoisie and artisans, and the fear of Jewish moneylenders. Often, however, the religious factor is also a difference. The decision in 1394, France has made "devout" king, who feared "bad influences of Jews to Christians." The decision was motivated in Cologne "defense of the honor of the Lord God and the Holy Virgin Mary." In any case, religious motives, that is, the fear at the highest level, the pernicious influence of Jews to those who turn to the new faith, were the dominant factor in making decisions about the exile of the Jews by Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain and Sicily in 1492, the king of Portugal 1497, Karl XIII and Louis XII in Provence in 1495 and 1506's., Charles V in the Kingdom of Naples in 1541, Pius V in 1569, against the papal Jews who refused to live in the ghetto in Rome and Ancona. Under the pressure of the Counter-Reformation of the Jews fled to the Republic of Genoa in 1567, in Milan in 1591, of Lucca in 1572 in the Spanish edict of 1492, which served as a model for future documents, clearly expressed the ideology of fear experienced by the lords, rulers and the higher clergy.
"We became aware of the inquisitors and others that trade Jews and Christians caused them great damage. Struggling Jews endeavor to seduce (reversed) Christians and their children, warning them about the upcoming Jewish holidays, providing them with the sacred Jewish books, matzah on Passover and skoromnoy food, urging them to live by the law of Moses. Suffers and belittled our holy Catholic faith. We have thus arrived at the conclusion — the only effective tool that can put an end to this evil will be complete rupture of relations between Christians and Jews, and this can be achieved through their expulsion from our kingdom. "
Do not tolerate a fifth column within the Christian hail — this was the goal.
3. Accusations of blasphemy and sacrificial killings