XV century engraving depicting the scheme Jews of ritual murder of a Christian child Simon of Trent. The artist has signed the name of every Jew and portrayed the infamous signs — round yellow patches.
2. The role of religious theater, preachers and baptized Jews
Religious theater, at least in the cities, has been a powerful tool of anti-Jewish catechism. Mysteries and morality, especially in the XIV and XV centuries. Give viewers plenty of reasons to hate or ridicule Jews. The charges against them are particularly common in dramas about Christ. The Israelis appear in the foreground in the following stages:
1. The dispute with the infant Jesus scribes;
2. The expulsion of the Temple;
3. Temptation of Christ the Pharisees;
4. The Council decided to execution of Christ;
5. Judas' betrayal;
6. Arrest of Jesus;
7. Jesus before the supreme priest;
8. Agony of Christ before his execution;
9. Jewish council on Friday morning;
10. The Crucifixion and the crown of thorns;
11. The Road to Calvary, and the erection of the cross;
12. Attempts to prevent the Jews of Christ's resurrection.
Scene after scene manifest the qualities of the Israelites as blindness, hatred and cowardice. They were lost in the wilds of the Talmud, Jesus was showered insults and blows. Of course, they suffer all sorts of physical and moral shortcomings and defects stigmatized. They are "ferocious wolves", "poisonous scorpion", "snobby old lion", "evil mad dog", "they are" traitors and cowards "," sinner "," perverted offspring, "in a word," fiends. "This is the text" Mystery of the Passion "Arnoux Krebana (up to 1452). looked these scenes and hearing such accusations, the audience fell into the temptation to settle accounts with local Jews, if they have not been driven out of the city. In 1338 the city government of Fribourg-en-Brisgau were forced to prohibit the introduction of certain anti-Jewish scenes. in 1469 in Frankfurt house guarded by the Israelis during the presentation of the Mysteries.
In the religious Jews accused the theater, not only in scenes of "Drama of Christ" (pictorial image which is shown in the pictures I. Bosch). "Games of the destruction of Jerusalem" focus on God's punishment of the people-the Godslayer. "Games of the Antichrist" Jews are waiting for the coming of the false Messiah, who, in their opinion, will revive the former glory of Israel. In the "Games of the Day of Judgment" all Jews go to hell. The same can be said about the "Allegory of Death." "Lives of the Saints" are also a wide field of anti-Jewish sentiment. In "Mysteries of the Assumption of the Virgin" (published in Paris around 1518), four Jews dared to touch the coffin of the Virgin Mary, for that blind. Two of them are baptized and receive their sight. Two others persist and kill each other. The scene goes back to biblical legend, it was reproduced in the "Golden Legend" and existed in several versions. Here's another one: in front of the funeral procession of the Virgin is St. John with a palm branch. The Jewish priest tries to stop the procession. Archangel Michael with his sword cuts off his hands, which miraculously remained at the tomb of the Virgin Mary. Deprived of arms, a Jew prays for forgiveness. Not without the intervention of St. Peter the dead come to life and brushes are attached to the hands of the victim. In another embodiment of the legend accusation falls not on one but on several Jews. These stories are presented as a theatrical mysteries, and in iconography. So, the picture of the Flemish masters of the late XV — beginning of XVI century, which adorns the altar in the chapel Kerdevo Erg-Gabéric (about Kemper), is a miracle of the Virgin during her funeral, when the severed hand again rooted in their hands. In "Mysteries of the father Theophile" states that as a priest, stripped of his rank, shall enter into an agreement with the devil, with the mediation of one (or several) of the Jews. But, thanks to his repentance, he escapes. In "The Legend of St. Sylvester" holy twelve opposed the Pharisees who killed the bull. Holy resurrects him, making the sign of the cross. The dispute is only a special case of the general opposition of Christians to Jews, which seemed a religious theater. Often abstract and theoretical, these disputes have occurred without the judge can not be said about other forms of religious controversy of the era, the effects of which were almost always persecution and violence against the rabbis and their followers.
Comedy somewhat late to the ridicule of the Jews. Since the XV century., Especially in the XVI century. Appear cartoons Jewish moneylender. Anti-Judaism permeates from the religious to the secular theater. Vile and despicable Shylock would not be possible and would not be real to the viewer if the mystery at the time did not contain all sorts of insults at people cursed by God.
When in 1386 were published «Conte de la prieure», it's been about a hundred years after the expulsion of the Jews from England, and the staging of "The Merchant of Venice" by Shakespeare separates from 1290 for more than three centuries. In France, the viewer looked mysteries, most often in the eye has not seen Israeli. Flemish XV in prayer. calls to arms against the Jews, while they are almost extinct in most parts of the Netherlands since the plague: "When the Lord God finished his act, he was betrayed by Judas and sold to Jews, his false brothers. God punished them, and scattered around the world. Punish them — just cause, and we will crush them, and against the Jews, I call: "Call to Arms".
A century later, Ronsard regrets that Titus had not destroyed them all:
"I do not like the Jews, they crucified Christ, the Messiah, to atone for our sins. Great Tit, the son of Vespasian! You should have been destroying their city destroyed and the people, giving them the time and opportunity to seek refuge in other countries. "
So Christian culture feared enemy who was not, but that somewhere there and continued to threaten. He was hated because they were afraid. And how not to be afraid when he killed the Lord God?
Religious thought was conscious and powerful source of anti-Judaism. She joined all the particular manifestations of hatred toward Jews. The main role in the making of a new mentality is given an itinerant preachers — especially the mendicant monks, and in a more general sense — the part of the clergy, is aware of its responsibility for the purity of dogma. Since the XIII century. and especially since the Great Schism of Christianity pursued the development of an eternal ghost of Israel.
Historical documents of different ages and nations agree that the figures are directly or indirectly linked to the emergence of the Church of anti-Jewish sentiment. In Spain: Holy Thursday in 1331 in Girona about thirty clerks and apprentices under the leadership of the Canons invaded the Jewish quarter and tried to set fire to it. In the Server during the Black Plague in 1348 was mayhem, and in the two years before the events of the local Jewish community appealed to the authorities to remove a Franciscan monk, embarrassing public anti-Jewish sermons. In 1348, in June in Barcelona senior clergy were instructed to calm preachers who fiercely opposed the Israelis. '43 Later, during the Great Schism, a series of riots in the blood flooded Spain. Since 1378 the archdeacon of Seville Martinez d'Esiha, the spiritual mentor of the Queen Mother, denounces the Jews, despite the royal prohibition.
As a new prophet, he declares: "I can not deny myself the sermon and said about the Jews that the Lord God said about them in the Gospel." And further: "The Christian harmed or killed a Jew who does not take any trouble to the king or queen, quite the opposite." In 1391 on the occasion of the death of John I of Castile and the Archbishop of Seville hawkish tone of his ranting growing. June 6 crowd burst into the Jewish Quarter, and its residents are faced with a choice — either converted to Christianity or death. Starting in Seville, the fire spread throughout Spain. In Valencia, the crowd attacked the residents of the Jewish Quarter, shouting: "Martinez is coming! Pogrom or baptize! "Zaragoza main troublemaker was the nephew of the archdeacon. A Christian witness shows that people broke into the Jewish quarters "as if it was during the holy war under the leadership of the King." Soon Aragonese land also became the theater of anti-Jewish actions. Opponent of violence and forced baptism was a Dominican Ferrier, who traveled through Spain and parts of Western Europe at the beginning of the XV century. However, he was convinced that the Antichrist was already born and until the Day of Judgment all Jews must convert to Christianity. So he rushing things and wants to worship in synagogues, not the Torah, and the Cross. With the support of the new government, he obliges the Jewish community to attend Mass, "paying a thousand florins." He initiated the creation of the first Jewish ghetto in Spain and the anti-Jewish legislation of the concerns that the treatment had not been seduced by the persistence in the old faith. For Spanish Jews of that time, he was a real scourge. Seeing him, they hastily fled, and not in vain, as Christians, understanding the Dominican preaching somewhat simplified when it passed to the form of action. In September 1412, King Ferdinand learns that after preaching maestro Christian Ferrier covered "false impulse," forbid Jews to buy even basic necessities and threaten their safety on the streets. Three years later, he commanded the authorities of Zaragoza: "We have learned that because of the preaching of the master Ferrier, in particular, because he dreams of excommunication to those who know the Jews, some people do not properly attempt to harm them and conspire against them . We require you to take all measures to the Jewish community and every Jew in our city was not harmed, and they have not been subjected to violence, and it is during Holy Week. "
The importance of this document can be assessed only taking into account the fact that Ferdinand was one of the admirers of Ferrier.
Lisbon riot in April 1506 (Easter) was played on a typical scenario: during a service at the Church of St. Domingo will shine in the form of a crucifix crowd exclaimed, "Miracle!" One of those present doubted this and suggested that perhaps it is only light reflection. Immediately decided that he was facing a Jew, was killed and burned. Two Dominicans left the church with a crucifix and began to incite the people shouting "Heresy, heresy." The riots lasted three days and was worth about two thousand lives. It was rare for the XVI century. mayhem. King returned to Lisbon, ordered the execution of two monks — troublemakers. But they managed to escape and they were not executed. 36 years later, they were seen alive.
Indeed, the government designed to protect the Jews, never appeared on the front line of the fight. Church led an attack on two fronts: in common with the sermons and in the circles of educated people through scientific treatises which, by the way, were used as arguments in his sermons. In Spain, were released two works that have contributed to the growth of hatred for the Israelis. This is the "Dagger of Faith", written by a Dominican Raymond Martini at the end of the XIII century., And "Fortress of Faith" — Franciscan author Alphonse de Spina (about 1460). The first of these books, apparently served as a theoretical source of evidence that the Jews — the people of Satan. Second Treatise, similar in content to the "Hammer" was re-released 8 times in the next fifty eight years, including three times in Lyon. Since the beginning of the treatise the author tells the reader about his intention to provide them with a "weapon against the enemies of Christ." Then follows a chronological listing of the crimes of the Jews. "Their offense was fifth in 1267", "their seventh — in 1420 in Vienna." Ritual murder and magical spells that's the main content of the book "Black Series". About the Talmud it says that this collection of "heresies, pride and perversion, directed not only against the evangelical law, but against the divine nature, against the Holy Scriptures, finally, against nature itself. That is why the Jews will suffer punishment. " In the "Fortress of Faith" future marked the arrival of the Antichrist, who will rally round the Jews and will be worshiped as a god. Therefore, they certainly should be paid to the true faith and baptized all their children.
Italy was one of the western countries, which in the Renaissance did not show hostility toward the Jews. But there mendicant monks tried with some success to impose the spiritual and the secular authorities control program against Israelis. Should expel the Jews, and if this is not possible, to brand their special hallmark on clothing and separated from the Christians. The Franciscans attempted to create a non-interest pawn shops that will compete with the Jewish moneylenders. Their tireless efforts of the first pawn shop was established in Perouse in 1462, then in Treviso, Udine, Pisa, Florence (1496) — only about thirty. Zapevalov anti-Judaism in Italy were de Capistrano and de Feltre, both Franciscans. The first (1386-1456 gg.) Heralded the arrival of the Antichrist and the end of the world. Always at the forefront of the fight in Italy and in Europe, he consistently fights against the renegades, the Hussites, Turks and Jews. This innate inquisitor, pursued by apocalyptic visions, is a typical case of psychosis danger hanging over Christianity. In the 1453-1454 years. in Silesia, he puts the baby scene of sacrifice that ends burning Israelis. He even manages to limit the privileges for a certain period of Jews in Poland.
De Feltre appears in Jewish history in 1475 preaching of Trent, which was still hospitable city for the Israelites, he, in his own words, "barks at the Jewish money-lenders, and promises his flock that unusual events will take place at Easter. He also warns that the Jews have the custom of the Holy Week to commit a crime against children. Indeed, Holy Tuesday a two-year baby, Simon disappears, then it will find a recessed. Were arrested all the Jews of the city. Nine of them under torture have pleaded guilty and were executed. The rest banished from the city. In vain Sixtus IV enclitic said that the charges do not have sufficient evidence, and imposed a ban on the honor of the murdered child. At the funeral, however, a huge crowd gathered under the leadership of the mendicant friars. Northern Italy was thrilled. Texts and images from the history of Simon of Trent spread throughout the country. In 1582, he was beatified. In Venice, Ferrara, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Pavia authorities were forced to ban preaching. In subsequent years, the anti-Jewish statements erupt in Brescia, Pavia, Mantua, Florence, and some of them are directly provoked sermons de Feltre, which is ultimately just a typical example of a zealous adherent, blinded by the danger hanging over Christianity. His teacher was Bernardino of Siena, more moderate and founder of the cult of the Sacred Heart. But he hated the Jews for two reasons: they are loan sharks "deprive Christians of earthly goods", "their doctors endeavoring to deprive Christians of life and health." Of course, that came to power in Italy in the XV., The monk had to take certain measures against the Israelis, and that makes Savonarola in the city, where they have so far been safe. He imputes to them blame the fact that for 60 years they have cashed in on the 50 million florins, and make a decision about their exile. They will return to the city back together with Medici.
In the Empire is also obvious focus of the anti-Jewish clergy, imbued with its mission, and humanists who are concerned with the revival of the Church. An ardent Franciscan Geiler, Brant, Renanus, Celt, Erasmus — all of them hostile to the Jews — moneylenders, haters, idlers who confuse the society of the human race. " At the initiative of the conversion of Jews Pfeferkorna Dominicans of Cologne in 1510 offering to burn all the books in the Hebrew language. Humanist Reuhlin, by contrast, stands up for literature in Hebrew, but offers a burn works that offend the Gospel. It is also not very favorable to the Jews:
"Every hour they defile God, commit abuse and blasphemy as the son of his Messiah, Jesus Christ. They call him a sinner, a sorcerer and a gallows. Believe fury St. Virgin Mary. Considered heretics His apostles and disciples. And we — Christians we are stupid for them "infidels". "
In this context, stands with his doctrine of Luther. In the beginning of the reform efforts, he cherishes the hope to convert Jews to Christianity. The product of "Jesus Christ was born a Jew," published in 1523, replete with understanding and courtesy towards the Jews. Catholicism, paganism and fraud alienated them from the true faith. Church penyaya them usury, accusing them of "using Christian blood to get rid of bad breath," and God knows what else in sins, prevents them to live and work together with us.
"If we want to help them, we must act according to the laws of Christian love, and not by the laws of the Pope." But Luther was soon changed course — the Jews do not want to go to a different faith. Moreover, it is known that the Protestants in Bohemia was the rite of circumcision and the observance of the Sabbath. Finally, the purification of faith and Judaism are incompatible. In 1543, Dr. Martin Luther published a pamphlet of 200 pages of "Against the Jews and Their Lies", followed by the output of another, even more acute work. Both works are hysterical to disgust.
"Christ did not have a toxic, evil and vile enemies than the Jews … The one who allows them to rob, steal, blaspheme and curse, he crawls in front of them, worship them down the aisle and can be proud of their charity, for which Christ will reward him in the day of judgment Hells fire. " When Judas hanged himself, "the Jews must have sent their servants with silver dishes and gold vessels to collect the stool, and then eat and drink this abomination. That is why they are so well see that in Scripture have seen something that did not see either Matthew or Isaiah. " "How much joy and jubilation to the Lord and his angels when burst Jew"1.
What was the reason for such sarcasm? Luther, of course, expresses sentiments of German artisans and bourgeois, envious of the Israelites — moneylenders, idlers, to the strangers "who would not have to possess nothing, and become masters in our land." But the main claims of the religious character: "No people do not persist treated to the true faith, the Jews." "For 1,500 years, they are persecuted and harassed, but they did not want to bring repentance." Wandering people falling from one slavery to another, causing Luther grim delight, and he explains the curse of the Lord's punishment:
"Look at the suffering of the Jews for nearly fifteen hundred years, and the worst they can expect in hell … We need them to tell us why they were rejected by the people of God, why do they have no king, the prophets, and of the Temple. They can explain it only for his sins. Never anger of the Lord was not so smashing, both in relation to this people. "
Because the Jews hated the true God, then they are "children of the devil" capable of all sorts of "miracles." In the face of Luther found his greatest enemy — Satan, the mastermind of the pope and the leader of the Turks. This is the core idea of the threat to Christianity that was so popular in religious circles in the early modern period. Christian Castle is besieged on all sides by the onslaught of Lucifer. But Luther's anti-Jewish attacks without the support of the Crusades against the Turks could no longer resist the forces of evil:
"Oh, God! I'm too insignificant to make fun of these demons. I would like to do this, but they are better able to mock me, and their god — the great master to mock, and his name is the devil and evil spirits. "
But interestingly, Luther calls to fight against the Jews with the same weapons as the Turks — prayer, as far as the enemy, which, like the Papists and witches dwelt within Christianity. They need force against the action:
"In order to eradicate this doctrine nadruganiya, it would be put to the torch all the synagogues, and what is left after burning, sprinkle ashes on the ground and that there is not tile, not a single stone from their churches … And on pain of death, to forbid the Jews, as we have on our land, to worship their god, pray, learn and sing. "
Luther will provide Nazis reasoning and program of action. But during his lifetime, "Against the Jews and Their Lies", etc. (which will be released under Hitler million copies) works have been reprinted. In Switzerland, the reformers denounced the brutality of them. In the XVII and XVIII centuries. in the United Provinces and England, Protestant countries, the Jews were able to regain the status of tolerance. For Luther the Jews, like a drop of water reflects the mood of minds most of the clergy of the XVI century. Together with Paul IV (1555-1559 gg.) And Pius V (1566-1572 gg.) Anti-Judaism goes back to the papal throne. First, as a cardinal, advised Paul III established the Inquisition (1542). Second, before becoming pope, he was the inquisitor. On board must limit their living space of Jews living in the ghetto mandatory in Rome and Ancona, bringing the Jewish community on the Tiber to the state of poverty, which continued to remain so until the XIX century. The Jesuits, the conductors policy dad at their core, are often throughout Europe hostility to Jews. One of them, Hendrik Bliss, while preaching in Prague in 1561 requires their expulsion from the city. Famous Polish preacher end of the XVI century. Jesuit P.Skarza tirelessly spreading the wonderful story of Simon — baby of Trento — and serves the public prosecutor at the trial desecration wafers.
The role played by some converted Jews, once again confirms the theological aspect of anti-Judaism. Charges against former faith and those who remained faithful, neophytes are trying to justify their appeal to the new faith. In 1392 Henry IV of Castile convey that in Burgos Jews are afraid to stay in their homes for fear of new Christians "who are persecuted and mend a lot of evil." In 1413 Benoit XIII, starting grand Tortossky "dispute", believed that he will end the massive repudiation of the Jews, the lofty mission of defense of Christianity against the charge of fourteen rabbis he entrusted the reversed Jew de Lorca. A baptized Jew from Tortosa lawyer Caballero de la released in 1450 with a significant treatise called "the cause of Christ against the Jews, Saracens and infidels." For 18 years prior to that date other renegade Pablo de Santa Maria issued against his former religion very dramatic piece entitled "Study of the Scriptures." Don Pablo was the first rabbi of Burgos and later became a bishop there. He explains the persistence of the Jews in the old faith of their well-being in Spain, so they refuse to believe in the Savior. They do not think of regret that their ancestors betrayed Jesus to death, they continue to pollute it. This is another in a series of crime such as the daily lies, theft, corruption and homicide. Don Pablo welcomes the persecution of Jews in the 1391g., Which became vengeance for the blood of Christ, and Jews showed their errors, contributing to renounce them. At the end of the century converted Jews were among the first to require establishment of the Inquisition in Spain. Fearing restrictions following the introduction of the status of the purity of blood — and soon the question arose — Jewish Christians were supporters of the exposure and punishment lzheobraschennyh. Fear spurred their diligence. Throughout European history, the activities of Jewish converts damaging to the Jewish community. In 1417 and 1466 years. the dukes of Savoy charge is reversed to find and destroy the Jews in the entire country of the book in Hebrew. German renegade Pfeferkorn in 1516 requires the prohibition of usury, which is compulsory for Jewish presence in the church and the destruction of the Talmud, which was the cause of his dispute with Reuklenom. Apostate, Italian preacher Paolo de 'Medici, a native of Livorno, published in the 1617 brochure, which reappears in the sacrificial death of charge. For fourteen years, he travels to Italy, loudly accusing Jews.
Anti-Semitism in Europe from the Middle Ages to modern times