Russian aviation industry offers a new generation of aircraft projects
In our country the main plane is projected twenty-first century — the MS-21. This is our first airplane, the wings of which are almost entirely made of composite materials. In the future, composites will be widely applied in all planes — military and civilian. We are currently testing several prototype fifth-generation fighter. For the fighters of the future is created missiles also a new generation.
This and many other correspondents of "RG" talked with the president of the United Aircraft Corporation Mikhail Pogosyan.
Michael Aslanovich, the world market today win those who propose not a separate product but a family of aircraft. The production of any aircraft to bid? And how widely the new aircraft will be used composite materials?
Mikhail Pogosyan: Of course, the presence of family of aircraft puts business in a more advantageous position. The range passenger aircraft, which is manufactured by the companies UAC, is composed of the An-148 for 75 people and "Sukhoi Superjet 100" — from 90 to 115 seats. In 2015, we plan to begin flight tests of aircraft MS-21, which will take on board from 150 to 200 passengers. We need to close the gap that exists between 115 and 150 seats, then we will have a full line of aircraft. In this segment, we are working on the possibility of using a composite wing, so those facilities that are being created by MS-21 in Ulyanovsk and Kazan will be loaded by us and the production of systems for airplanes under the NG. Priority programs — MS-21 and the further development of the family, "Sukhoi Superjet 100." I want to stress composites will be implemented very well in all future vehicles.
Today, everyone is taken to reason about the state of the Russian aircraft, balloons in the estimates from positive to negative and back again. I would like to get an expert opinion from the inside: the lives today modern Russian aircraft?
Mikhail Pogosyan: Assessing the Russian aircraft industry today, you need to clearly and without unnecessary illusions to understand our starting positions. Financing aircraft construction in Russia began in the middle of "zero." For more than 10 years, since the beginning of the 90s, the industry, in the literal sense of the word, "survived" as she could, and the industry — this is a huge company and more than 100,000 employees. With the profits from the export of military orders, have traditionally worked only "dry" and "Irkut".
As a result, at the time of the consolidation of enterprises, the KLA had inherited from the era of the 90 large number of distressed assets with huge debts. Contrary to popular belief, more than 130 billion rubles of the total industry funding went to pay off debt and restructuring, and not on the reform and development of new types of equipment.
Unlike our Western competitors, whose efforts are focused solely on the creation of a new product on the basis of well-functioning infrastructure for decades, we are c parallel development of new techniques needed to start an ambitious program of technical re-equipment of enterprises, switch to digital design and modeling, to update the base of the poster. And we did it. Only in re-equipment program has been invested more than 30 billion rubles. Today we come to the unification of machinery equipment for all companies UAC, so that plants could operate on several programs. In addition, Ulyanovsk and Kazan construction of two modern factories for the production of advanced composite structures and build on their base units wing MS-21 and subsequent products. In addition to the segments of the military and civilian aircraft received a new impetus, and transportation. Work is underway to consolidate and control programs within the KLA. We are moving to a unified procurement systems and equipment, system unification after-sales support, along with financial institutions are working to create a system of financing sales.
Thus, in 2012 the volume of production enterprises KLA reached almost 180 billion rubles. For comparison, six years ago, this figure was 2.5 times smaller. We went out on the production of a hundred planes a year. Moreover, more than twenty of them — civilian aircraft. Military equipment continues to dominate, but we go into mass production and civilian aircraft. This year, the need to produce more than 120 military and civilian vehicles. The annual growth rate of the order of 20 percent.
Tell me, how do you assess the rate of growth in the aviation industry? After all, in absolute terms, we are very far from the leading players in the market? Can I speed up?
Mikhail Pogosyan: Is the global experience of the aviation industry. Take Europe. Aircraft Corporation "Airbus" was created in 1970. However, only about fifteen years later came A-320. It was only after 2000 that became the best selling aircraft in the world. Thirty years it took to create the breakthrough model and its successful promotion on the world market! And it is in Europe, not experience those shocks that hit on our industry in the 1990s. Brazil created the "EMBRAER" in 1969, and the first commercially successful product ERJ-145 appeared only in the 90s. Breakthrough for a family of E-Jets in the early 2000s. Similarly, it took almost 30 years. On the one hand, the Europeans, who had experience in the aviation industry. On the other hand, the Brazilians did not have this experience. Result is the same — about 30 years to go to a stable position in the global market, which once again proves that miracles do not happen. Today and "Airbus" and "EMBRAER" — a successful company.
By the way, at the A300, the first aircraft, "Airbus' first customers were Air France and Lufthansa, at that time, the state airline of the participating countries the main cooperation.
We have over 10 years have created a new liner. The project is the first Russian regional jet was launched in 2001. In the "GSS" on the basis of KB "Dry" we have assembled the best designers from around the aircraft size. In 2008, the first "Sukhoi Superjet 100" took to the air. In January 2011, the certificate of type IAC. And then began commercial operation. A year later, received an international certificate EASA, and in 2012, the type certificate has been validated, that is recognized as valid, the aeronautical authorities of Mexico, Indonesia and Laos. The aircraft is operated in the three countries will soon begin delivery to Mexico.
We have exactly the same way as all the aircraft manufacturers in the world, go through the difficulties of the initial phase of operation, gradually overcoming them. And frankly, I do not understand why if the glass of water half full, we almost always say that it is half empty. During the six years of the KLA, we just could not physically create a full-fledged integrated structure.
I — not a storyteller and not going to tell everyone that in 20 years we will surpass "Boeing" and "Airbus". But I am quite sure that enter the top three players we can.
Given the range of problems solved by a corporation, we have good growth rates. As I said earlier, about 20% per year. This year we plan to go to the rescue of more than 200 billion rubles, while in 2014 this figure
should be closer to 300 billion rubles.
Do we have time to find its niche in the world market?
Mikhail Pogosyan: Yes. At the current rate of growth in the air travel market formed a situation where the appearance of another player is quite logical, if not the only possible solution. With the growth of passenger traffic and the increasing demand for new aircraft. Major airlines quickly update and extend the parks. As a result, all existing aircraft with new leaders formed mainly by large air carriers and take years. And the possibility of expansion, even if it is a industry leader, is not unlimited. However, the market there are new airlines have required a new, modern, reliable, but not as expensive liners. Start promoting our products to the world market, we can not just with those carriers. It is no secret that having a portfolio of proposals range of different aircraft seating capacity, but with a unified system of after-sales services and sales financing, you will be in a better position than competitors with a single product.
On-designed from scratch in the new Russian passenger "Superjet" says a lot. Him and scolded, and praised. What does it mean to you personally in this car, and it has become a landmark for the domestic aviation industry?
Mikhail Pogosyan: In the "Sukhoi" we created, basically, combat vehicles, although the subject of civil aircraft have been worked since the late 90s. We clearly understand that the global market share of military aircraft in total has declined steadily. Now it is only 25% of the market, while in the late 70's — early 80's for military equipment accounted for more than 60% of the market. Entering the market of civil aircraft strategically essential if we want to develop further. And the discovery, in fact, programs to create a regional airliner was preceded by a lot of work on the analysis of the market and search for a possible segment for the implementation of a competitive project. "Superjet" was for our entire company first passenger airliner. To do this, we have created a new company to design and manufacture of civil aircraft. For the first time in the domestic aircraft development, production and after-sales service are concentrated in a single center of responsibility, as in the whole world. Airlines do not have to, as it were, rushing from the developer to the manufacturer to find a solution will inevitably arise in the operation of problems. For me it is — a very important stage in the work.
For 10 years we have not only created a plane, we have developed a new model of product creation. By the way, before the "Superjet" aircraft and was not perceived as a product. The aircraft was created in KB. Now we live in an open market and the old paradigm is not suitable for the new realities. The sample program SSJ100 we actually worked out this new model of creation liners. As I said earlier, we have completely switched over to digital design and modeling, re-equipped factories, set up a new base of the poster. An example of this project, we studied the realities of today's market: to work in international cooperation, to create a system of after-sales service. We were first brought to the creation of technical aspect of aircraft carriers, we went to the international market. In this simple way does not, of course, there are problems, because you are changing not only the creation of a model airplane, you change the mentality of people from Moscow to Komsomolsk-on-Amur, and it sometimes — the hardest. But I can safely say no other way.
By the way, you are often criticized for the fact that you have almost closed the aircraft such as the Tu-204, Tu-334, some other projects, taking all the money in the "Superjet".
Mikhail Pogosyan: The last decade of the twentieth century was a time of transition Western aircraft to a new level. And if Russia is not running a modern design, and continued only on obsolete products, to date, we just lost to the domestic aviation industry. I am convinced that we were obliged to make a breakthrough. And we made it!
I cited the example of A-320. Thirty years, Europeans have waited for stardom. And we? The project is the first Russian regional jet was launched in 2001. In 2008, the first "Sukhoi Superjet 100" took to the air. In January 2011, the certificate of type IAC. And then began commercial operation. A year later, received an international certificate EASA, and in 2012, the type certificate has been validated, that is recognized as valid, the aeronautical authorities of Mexico, Indonesia and Laos.
We were distracted by civil aviation, we turn now to the battle. What is the situation with the implementation of state defense order?
Mikhail Pogosyan: Since last year, the volume of deliveries under the state program of armaments for the first time in the last 20 years have exceeded the volume of exports. In the past year, we have 35 aircraft defense ministry. In 2013, we construct and give the customer some 70 aircraft for various purposes. This is a combat-Yak-130, Su-30 and Su-35, Su-34 bombers. Work is continuing to test fifth-generation aircraft.
In parallel, doing a lot of work with colleagues from the Corporation "Tactical Missiles" by adapting modern air attack on the products that supply the Ministry of Defence. I am sure that by 2020 we can produce the required number of machines to upgrade the existing fleet of seventy percent.
At the beginning of our conversation, you talked about the development of the air transport segment. How is the program of the IL-476?
Mikhail Pogosyan: It is planned to deliver 39 aircraft Air Force transport aircraft, an upgraded version of the Il-76. Have already begun testing. Planned to conclude contracts for the various versions of the aircraft — tanker, various specialized systems in the interests of the Defense Ministry and other law enforcement agencies.
Hopefully in the near future and will take a decision on the light military transport plane. UAC is already out with their proposals. Work is underway to upgrade and repair of aircraft An-124. They are, we are together with the Ukrainian colleagues.
In many Russian Air Force MiG-29. Will there be modernized and updated?
Mikhail Pogosyan: This year will begin deliveries of MiG-29K, which will then be used on the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov". These aircraft will complement the ship's Park Su-33, which are now in the ranks. In addition, the planned delivery of the latest MiG-35. I think that as soon as the contract is signed. It is planned to carry out major repairs and modernization of almost the entire fleet of MiG-29, which is in the Air Force.
How are the tests of fifth-generation fighter?
Mikhail Pogosyan: In accordance with the approved schedule. Today pass the test of six aircraft promising aviation complex tactical aircraft (PAK FA), on the basis of which will be set up final shape of the fifth generation fighter. Four planes are flying, one is a comprehensive groun
d stand, and one plane passes a static test.
Before you pick up a new car in the air, carried out a large amount of bench research. On the ground with the help of super computers are modeled all possible situations in the air. This approach significantly reduces the cost of the test cycles and in flight. Along with working successfully moving aircraft aerodynamics testing of complex avionics. The task of the immediate future — start docking of the onboard equipment with the air attack.
A distinctive feature of the fifth-generation fighters — low visibility. If not issue a big mystery, how can this be achieved?
Mikhail Pogosyan: how you can achieve the creation of special forms, and the use of special coatings that reduce the level of infrared radiation. And here we, together with the Academy of Sciences and branch institutes produced quite promising results. This year, we have to complete the pre-test and produce aircraft for the full passage of state tests. Overall, I think: the very development of the project up to its complexity, the problems that go beyond our understanding, no.
Who do you feel is more — a manager or designer?
Mikhail Pogosyan: Once upon a time in 27 years I was the youngest teams in the bureau chief of "Sukhoi". Design work I really liked. But for more than twenty years I have been organizational, managerial work. Yes, I am — a manager, but my rich engineering experience always helps me.
Who do you think should lead the aviation industry: engineers or financiers?
Mikhail Pogosyan: As I said, my engineering experience helps me a lot at work. The plane — a high-tech, complex product, so steer Aircraft Corporation, is not having the engineering knowledge is very difficult. At the same time, now without a good knowledge of modern economics is simply impossible to successfully manage even a small business, not to mention a large association.
We studied our human potential, evaluated its level. Paradoxically, those who are well versed in the technical aspects are not sufficiently effective in the modern production management, and good managers are not sufficiently effective in solving technical issues. For a person with an engineering degree became the leader, to the optimal combination of engineering knowledge and management. Choosing an effective leader should always take place on a strictly individual.
What is important for us? Managers need to understand how to create a plane, and engineers — to work efficiently within cost constraints. For example, we can not bring the price of fifth generation fighter to the value of the U.S. — more than $ 150 million apiece.
Michael Aslanovich and last question: how do you feel about the criticism?
Mikhail Pogosyan: reasoned criticism I perceive, is ready to give reasoned answers. But in general, I continue to work 16 hours a day, because I believe that, despite all the problems, we are on the right, I'd say the only possible way of development. Implementation of the ambitious goals that we have set for ourselves — it's a big job. That's all.
Sergei Ptichkin, Natalia Yachmennikova
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