In October, the Polish tribunal will hear the case of German newspaper «Die Welt». A couple of years back in one of the articles of its creators used the phrase "Polish concentration camp." Since the fall of the Polish side is going to condemn and discredit the "brazen" Germans. Just as strongly as the Yankees this summer. Used for U.S. President Barack Obama, the phrase "Polish death camp." Polish Foreign Ministry and its head Radek Sikorski claimed an apology and sent a note of protest to Washington, bluntly accusing the U.S. president of "ignorance" and immediately expressed his regret over his "incompetence"! Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk said that the Poles are deeply offended when confronted with the "arrogance, ignorance and bad intentions" who "distort history."
Americans take a back seat and for some reason seems to be excused. Most likely, as the Germans arrive. Although there might be just the answer, and even to declare officially that the distortion of history, in turn, leads to arrogance, ignorance and bad intentions of requirements like to apologize for historical fact.
Polish concentration camp was invented not journalists did not Obama. This phrase was used officially for more than 90 years ago. In Polish, Russian, Ukrainian and Russian documents. To see this, it is quite acquainted with the great Polish-Russian collection of documents and materials "The soldiers in Polish captivity in 1919-1922 gg." (New York, "Summer Garden", 2004. — 912 pages), which allows to understand the event of death in the concentration camps of the 10-s of thousands of Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German, Jewish and even the Baltic prisoners.
Polish camp, officially called "concentration", which became the camps for these people to death, as it was being openly even in the then unreleased Warsaw press existed in the "bourgeois" and "socialist" Poland. In the first half of 1920. in their massively died in the main Russian and Russian prisoners. In the second half of the 1940s. — German (in the main ladies and old people). Concentration camps, made in 1930. (More commonly known camp in Bereza-Kartuzskaya) first for the Ukrainian nationalists, Communists Belarusian and Jewish merchants were for Russian and Germans are not so disastrous. By its own specificity. Here people are not destroyed in the main on the physical level, but mentally (it's not a metaphor, the future Nazi executioners came here specifically to learn from such experiences.) Because we turn to the Polish death camps in force in the 1920s and 1940s, and is fully consistent with the definitions of the U.S. President.
First 1920s. Second, the Commonwealth has done for Russian and Russian prisoners of a large "archipelago" of the 10-s of the concentration camps, stations (in the documents of the time and often There is the phrase "concentration station" for prisoners), prison and fortress bars. It is situated on the territory of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania and comparable existed long — about 3 years old. But during this time had to kill 10's of thousands of human lives. More lethal concentration camps were located in the area of Poland. Even in those days the press, including the emigrant, was published in Poland, one hundred percent dependent on those authorities and, to put it mildly, do not feel sympathy for the Bolsheviks, directly and openly wrote about them as "death camps." In this case, not only for the Russian Red Army, and, for example, for the "white" Latvians.
A couple of examples.
Concentration camp in Strzalkowo (Strzalkowo, Stshalkovo, Stzhalkovo), located in the west of Poland between Poznan and Warsaw, was listed as the worst. Appeared at the turn of 1914-1915. as a German camp for prisoners of war from the front lines of World War II. After the First World camp, it was decided to eliminate. But instead, he ran from the Germans and the Poles began to be used as a concentration for the Red Army. As the camp became Polish (from May 12, 1919) mortality prisoners in it for the year increased more than sixteen (16) times.
After the conclusion of the Riga peace treaty concentration camp was also be used for the maintenance of internees, including the Russian White Army, the so-called fighters Ukrainian People's Army and the forces of Belarus "father", Ataman S.Bulak-Bulahovicha. Indicates a Red Misha Ilyichev: "Winter came 1921, and the worst guesses come true. People in the camp died like flies. When the time is not rising even hand write those izymatelstvah and the atrocities committed by the connivance of the Lieutenant Malinowski (deputy commandant of the camp — approx., NM). The prisoners were deprived of all some clothes and were considered the lucky ones who have had back pain for a piece of the mattress. By order of Malinowski each barrack continuously "aired" and us, naked, held in the yard of 10-degrees below zero for several hours. In the barracks, the people themselves were packed like sardines on the mud floor or litter, no grass, no chips. Virtually all golodovali, many were sick with dysentery, typhoid. No measures were not taken Lieutenant Malinowski, on the contrary, he is sadistic, morally depraved, were pleasing to our suffering hunger, cold, illness. In addition, Lieutenant Malinowski was walking through the camp, accompanied by corporals who had in the hands of Stitching wire whip, and if anyone did not like him, he ordered to lie down in a ditch, and corporals whip. When broken moaned and begged for mercy, Lieutenant Malinowski took out a gun and has targeted him. To get lunch almost every risk of being beaten at the exit of the kitchen husky-corporal, especially for this delivered. If you watch (posterunki) prisoners were shot, Lieutenant Malinowski gave them credit for 3 cigarettes and 25 Polish brands. Not once could follow such things — the mass led by Lieutenant Malinowski climb on machine-gun towers, and from there fired on the defenseless people, cornered like a flock of fence. The prisoners heard shots and litsezrev killed, fled in panic to the barracks. Then the guns were working on the door, at the windows of the barracks. "
That happened in Strzalkowo indicate not only the documents, and the press of publication. For example, "Courier New" from January 4, 1921 outlined in a controversial article then the shocking fate of the order of several hundred Latvians. These fighters are led by commanders defected from the Red Army and fled to the Polish side, so this makarom return home. Polish military they were made very welcome. Before they were deported, "interned" in the camp, they were given a certificate stating that they voluntarily defected to the Poles. Looting has already begun on the road. Latvians took off his shoes and stripped, except for underwear. But it is a trifle in comparison with periodic izymatelstvami which they were exposed to a concentration camp. It all started with 50 strokes of the whip Stitching wire, with all this, the Latvians were that they — the Jewish mercenaries and the living will not go out of the camp. More than 10 people have died of infection from blood. After that, people were left on the 3 day or without food, forbidden to go to get water under the terror of perdition. Two were shot without any reasons …
e largest of the camps, Strzalkowo was designed for 25 thousand prisoners. In reality, the number of prisoners sometimes exceeded 37 thousand. Number is rapidly changing, as people died like flies in the cold. Now the Polish government officially acknowledged the death in a concentration camp eight thousand people.
Second largest Polish concentration camp, located near the town of Tuchola (Tucheln, Tuchola, Tuchola, Tuchola, Tuchola, Tuchola) may rightfully stipulate Strzalkowo in the title of the worst. Very little or very fatal for people. Since 1919, the Poles began to be used, concentrated there fighter and commander Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik forces, civilian hostages and those sympathetic Russian authorities.
In the Russian Federation State Archives has a memoir White Guard lieutenant Kalikin passed through this camp, "Back in the Torne about Tuchola were in charge of all sorts of fears, but the reality is eclipsed all expectations. Imagine a sandy plain near the river, fenced with 2 rows of Stitching wire, inside which the regular rows of dilapidated huts are located. There was not a tree or a blade of grass, just sand. Not far from the main gate — huts made of corrugated iron. When you pass by them NIGHT MODE, you hear a weird, plaintive soul sound, like someone crying softly. The afternoon of sunshine in the barracks unbearably hot, Night — cold … When our army to intern, then the Polish Minister of Sapieha asked what will happen to her. "With it shall be dealt with as required by the honor and dignity of Poland," — he answered proudly. Neuzh the same for this "honor" was needed Tuchola? So, we came in and settled Tuchola steel barracks. Came the cold, and were heated oven is not for lack of firewood. A year later, 50% is here ladies and 40% of boys fallen ill, priemuschestvenno, tuberculosis. Many of them were killed. Most of my friends were killed, and hanged himself. " This was written by a White Guard, an ally.
Red Army soldier VV Valuev, recalled how at the end of August 1920, he and other prisoners "were sent to the camp Tuchola. The wounded were lying there, not tied up for weeks on their wounds bred worms. Many of the wounded died, every day were buried 30-35 people. The wounded lay in the cool barracks without food and medicine. "
Emigre newspaper "Freedom", which was published in Warsaw, to report in October 1921, that at that time in the camp Tuchola killed 22 thousand people. A similar figure of the dead and the chief causes well-known "dvuyki» — II Department of General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces (military intelligence and counterintelligence) Lieutenant Colonel Ignacy Matuszewski (excerpt from the document attached to the article). According to the memoirs of local residents Tuchola referred to Polish journalists, back in the 1930s. then there was a huge number of sites, "where the land sinking beneath his feet, and from it protruded human remains» (Miecik I. Pieklo za drutami / / Newsweek Polska, 27 wrzesnia 2009).
These are just some of the vast amount of evidence relating to the Polish death camps for the Russian. The Polish side has yet to officially recognize the death of their "16-18 thousand" prisoners. According to the views of Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian scientists, researchers and policy makers, in reality, this figure may be about 5 times more.
Now, with regard to the Polish concentration camps for Germans.
From 1945 until 1950 the Poles entered into the German population inherited the lands of the former East Germany (GDR occupied areas, calling themselves Germans Central or Central, Germany — Mitteldoychland) in special camps for the evicted and deported. They officially called Concentration, ruled the Polish security apparatus and were intended for the needs of the so-called verification. Interestingly, they found that a significant number of prisoners and, verified as Poles, who, for example, in Gliwicach accounted for 70% in Opole Povet — 90% …
These so-called camp second category appeared on the basis of orders of Silesia and Dabrowski governor June 18 and July 2, 1945. On the ground, they organized on the basis of orders povet authorities, taking the decision to develop the logged concentration camps. (Attached to the article the translation of the 1st of these protocols show on the basis of capabilities and solutions nemodlinskogo elder Vladislav Vedzicha). So it was in Lamsdorf-Labinovichah, Stadt Grottkau, Kaltvassere, Langenau, Potulitse at Bromberg, Gronowo under Fox, Sikave under Lodz …
In numerous concentration camps and the bullpen made by the Polish authorities on the ground he presented to Stalin eastern Germany (actually on the ground in Poland, most of which was already occupied by of the Red Army in 1944, many Germans were obliged to live in jail and labor camps before the end of the war), killing After 1945, many thousands of people — in the main ladies, children and the elderly (most of the guys were kept in the camps of the first category — POW, controlled by Russian NKVD, in the sense of survival to them lucky anymore).
From a report in the British Foreign Office: "The concentration camps were not eliminated, and fled under the control of new owners. In most cases, management of producing the Polish police. In Swietochlowicach (Upper Silesia) those prisoners who have not died of starvation or were beaten to death, must NIGHT MODE night stand by a neck in the water until they die »(Raport RWF Bashford do Brytyjskiego Foreign Office z 1945). From the memoirs of a concentration camp prisoner Zgoda: «There was absolutely no difference between what experienced prisoners who went to bondage and torture — under the sign of the" dead head "under the sign of the SS or the Polish Falcon. Everyone who survived etched in my memory sleepless nights with them not to forget the horrors of … »(Gruschka Gerhard. Zgoda — miejsce grozy. Gliwice.1998, p.72, 75)
A couple of examples.
The camp in Lambinowicach (Labinovichah or Lamsdorf). He wore a formal title "concentration camp for Germans» («obozu koncentracyjnego dla Niemcow»). He started working with the end of July 1945 on the basis of annotations governor Silesia and Dabrowski (instrukcje Wojewody Slasko-Dabrowskiego Nr 88 Ldz. Nr. WPr-10-2/45 from 06/18/45). First commander — Ch.Geborsky, according to the surviving prisoners, transformed it into a "camp of repression."
Concentration camp consisted of 6-8 huts, each of which was designed for approximately 1,000 people. Around — Stitching series wire and towers with machine guns. Prisoners were inmates Surrounding villages: Kuznia Ligocka, Lipowa, Jaczowice, Grodziec, Ligota Tulowicka, Wierzbie, Przechod, Szydlow, Magnuszowice Wielkie, Jakubowice, Klucznik, Przedza, Oldzydowice, Lambinowice, Wesele, Szczepanowice. The fact that they will be deported, these people have learned a few hours before the conclusion of a concentration camp. Witness recalls Jan Staisz, the leader of the village blacksmith Ligocka: "Then we gathered in the school yard, where we moved to Lamsdorf, located 12 km. On the way, the soldiers and civilians of Poles thrashed those people who could not walk or go out of the column. On the way to the camp we sang in Polish churchyard anthem "Under your protection." Upon arrival in Lambinowic we were mercilessly beaten guards of the camp, then we have arranged in the barracks »(Nowak Edmunt. Cien Lambinowic. Opole. 1991, p. 82-83).
< br>As a Polish concentration camp in Lambinowicach-Lamsdorf illumine lasted until 1946. According to estimates of the German side, "the violence by the Poles" in just 14 months, died there 6488 Germans. The highest mortality rate in the middle of the prisoners was the result not only disgusting food and typhus epidemics, and frequent (especially in the initial period) of violent abuse, beatings and torture. There have been murders. Ladies and women were raped. One of the catastrophic accident was the first fire in October 1945, during which the watchmen opened fire on the prisoners with machine-gun fire.
Zgoda concentration camp in Swietochlowicach. He was one of the worst and deadliest for German prisoners. He began work in February 1945. The commandant S.Morel.
Witness recalls Eric von Calsteren: «What every day we had died it was quite an ordinary thing … is perishing, they are everywhere, in the sink, the toilet, and about drug … and when wanting to go to the toilet, then snuck between the corpses, because if it was the most natural thing »(Gruschka Gerhard. Zgoda — miejsce grozy. Gliwice.1998, p.73-74). From the memoirs of Gerhard Gruschka, while 14-year-old prisoner, "… as often Morel and his utility from the police or the Security Service found about the" diversity "means life for themselves prisoners of the block number 7. For example, the day the German surrender, NIGHT MODE, a group of policemen with sticks and whips drove the prisoners along the streets of the camp to the washroom. There we have poured out water cannons, and then wet and merznuschih marched onto the parade ground. One of the policemen was growling "lie!" And all the other mass coursing through our bodies. Those of us who could not pressed into the ground, pushing the boots on their heads, necks, backs. Then came the "get up! 'Started hitting us again and drove to the barracks, washroom … In the hot days of summer unspeakable torments inflicted worm eggs in the open wounds of the prisoners subjected to torture. After some time out of their hatch small white worms that have caused terrible suffering of prisoners of the camp expanded … full, the unusual atmosphere of hopelessness and [y] Rain. When the day passed through the barracks, there was no one available drug which would not lay unhealthy fever. Also lay on the floor exhausted prisoners. Their cries and groans were intolerable, as well as a strong stench of urine and feces. No one could escape from the hordes of lice that were multiplying rapidly … »(Gruschka Gerhard. Zgoda — miejsce grozy. Gliwice.1998, p.45, 50, 51).
From the memoirs of a concentration camp in Swietochlowicach-Zgodzie: «… the number of bodies was huge … Watchmen started beating everyone: if you do not salute if you do not read as in Polish:" So, I beg of Pan ", if not picked up all of his hair in a hairstyle, if you do not lick your blood. Drove the Germans in dog kennels and thrashed them if they did not want to bark. Prisoners were forced to thrash each other: jump feet lying on his back, hit in the nose with force, if any prisoner tried to ease the blow, the guard stated: — I will show you how to do it — and thrashed so much that at one point in 1st of battered busted glass eye. German women were raped — one 13-notch pregnant — and trained their own dogs, so that the team «Sic!» They cling prisoners in the genitals … »(Sack John. Oko za oko. Gliwice.1995, p.178).
September 13, 1946 Prime Minister of Poland B.Berut signed a decree on the "separation of persons of German nationality of the Polish people." According to this decree, ethnic Germans were to be interned with the terrain of eastern Germany, which has become thanks to the generosity of the Stalinist western Poland, Austria and Germany. But economic Poles own decree in no hurry to do, does using gratuitous labor in the concentration camps the Germans. Deportation, despite the decree is always postponed. And in the meanwhile the camps lasted violence of the German ladies and old men. So, for example, in a concentration camp in Potulitse period between 1947 and 1949, the year of hunger, cold, disease and abuse watchmen lost half of the prisoners …
Final deportation of Germans in Germany and Austria was started only in 1949 and now completed very rapidly — by 1950. This was justified, except for the rest, and foreign policy factors. Estimates of the number of Germans killed since 1945 in the Polish concentration camps and during the deportation vary — from 400-600 million to more than 2.2 million official German authorities based on the fact that out of the 9.6 million Germans living in the inherited Poland territories, killing about 440 thousand. With all of this are not considered "missing" and the loss of the middle neimevshih German citizenship in September 1939.
From the report number 1462 of 02/01/1922 II Division Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Army (military intelligence and counterintelligence) I.Matushevskogo lieutenant colonel in the Polish office of Minister of War, General K.Sosnkovskomu
Of the available material Division II … should come to a conclusion — these facts escape from the camps are not limited Strzalkowo, and occur in all other camps for both the Communists and the internment of white. These shoots are called criteria, which are the Communists and the internees (lack of fuel, clothes and some clothes and bad food, and the long wait out in Russian). Especially famous camp in Tuchola who interned called "death camp" (in the camp died about 22,000 Red Army prisoners) …
From the minutes of the organizational meeting on July 14, 1945 povet and city officials g.Nemodlina
The participants agreed on the basis of these representatives povet eldership, council g.Nemodlina, povet commandant, public police commissariat MO in Niemodlin, povet commandant UBP, povet kom.P.P.R. Secretariat, Municipal and Repatriation management, due to the impossibility of solving problems by other means of settlement on the territory of our povet — the creation of concentration camps for Germans (in the original — stworzenie obozu koncentracyjnego dla Niemcow — approx., NM).
He was elected to the punitive camp prisoners of war (in the original — karny oboz jencow wojennych — approx., NM) in Labinovichah that can easily accommodate approx. 20,000 people.
Camp Commandant proposed [appoint] Ac. member of the MO Geborskogo Czeslaw.
Resolved: povet commandant MO immediately notify the police commandant Province them of the step and ask for help and the respective instructions. Povet commandant MO appeal to the Voivodship prison management at the commandant's office of the Provincial UBP in Katowice on sending well-trained personnel without delay jailers of 50 people for the camp.
Commandant povet UBP tell them of the power stage and will endeavor about sending abstracts and assistance in this area.
Secretariat povet kom.P.P.R. send a letter notifying Voev. kom.P.P.R. the decision has requested steps to acquire weapons and assistance in the form of annotations, and the intervention of other powers.
The camp will be ready to receive the first batch of prisoners not later than 25 July 1945.
In Niemodlin created auxiliary well-equipped camp (500 people), which will serve as the entrance point of labinovichskogo camp.
Working with the purpose of organizing and implementing the above goals begins with the current day or (14 July 45).
Rely on the abstract Wojewody Slasko-Dabrowskiego Nr 88 Ldz. Nr. WPr-10-2/45 of day or 18/06/45.
Details of the campaign will be decorated in a clear summary and representatives worked out the above-mentioned authorities.