Polish uprising of 1863-1864. Part 2


Teran Ludwik Mieroslawski from Poznan defected from the border with the Secretary Krzhivosondza Kurzhinoy and several officers, adventurers from different nations. Soon he was joined by some 10 people prefer students from Warsaw and the coming small rebel groups. Forces detachment grew to 400-500 people. February 7, this group met at the edge of the forest with a group of krzhivosondzskogo Olonetsky regiment commander Yury Schilder-Shuldnera (three and a half company of infantry, 60 Cossacks and 50 border guards). Russian squad just scattered the rebels were captured baggage, correspondence dictator, weapons and horses. Mieroslawski himself managed to escape and teamed up in the village with Troyachek Melentskim (Melenetsky), under whom there were about one thousand people.

Melentsky was a wealthy landowner from Poznan, a Prussian officer, was acting aggressively and recruited into their "team" is not only local residents, and volunteers from Poznan. February 9 united Polish gang were defeated in Troyacheka squad Schilder-Shuldnera. It is not able to kill the gang, because of Kalisz and directed Łęczyca Russian troops were late to the place of battle. Mieroslawski after 2-defeats left the Kingdom of Poland and returned to Paris. Schilder-Shuldner for winning 7 and 9 February 1863 received a nominal high favor and a golden sword with the inscription "For Bravery".

Melentsky, after fleeing dictator Meroslavskog not moved to Prussia and continued military action. Adding to discover a gang Garchinskogo arriving from Poznan, his group has grown to one thousand people. But on February 18, Russian troops crushed him to the Prussian border, where the gang Melentskogo was captured by Prussian troops. Right at this time defeated other small rebel groups, arrests, and the leader of the rebels in the province of Kalisz Rutskiy committed suicide during the arrest.

Langevich. Rzhond received the message that Teran fled, 8 days was expecting from him. Announcements were sad for the insurgency. There was a question about choosing a new dictator. At this time, in the middle of the rebels had acquired immense popularity one of the "warlords" Marian Langevich. He served in the Prussian army, after being fired, he taught at the military school established Mieroslawski. Garibaldi was a member of the expedition. During the Polish uprising was appointed manager of the Sandomierz province, organized a revolt in southern Poland. After an unsuccessful attack on Szydłowiec, Langevich saw the shortcomings of its own squad, he decided to take his organization and January 14, went to a place Wąchock (near Suhodneva) in the dense forest. Langevich managed to gather and organize meaningful squad — three thousand people with five guns. He even had his own printing press, with which he was promoting thoughts of rebellion and made for an advertisement.

Against Langevicha January 20 from Radom made detachment of Major General Mark. January 22, Russian troops occupied Wąchock, but the forces Langevicha advance received the news of the Russian movement Sventokrzhizhskie and retreated to the mountains. Mark, having lost the Poles came back to Radom. January 31 from Kielce, obtaining information about the concentration of rebel forces in the mountains of the Holy Cross, was the Russian squad, which was run by the commander of the Smolensk Infantry Regiment and the military chief of Kielce, Sandomierz and Opatovskogo counties Xavier Csenger. Russian soldiers have made the 40-km heavy night shift and frisky attack broke the Poles. Was captured by the Poles in the camp and camp office Langevicha. Poles retreated to Małogoszcz.

Polish uprising of 1863-1864.  Part 2 The battle of Małogoszcz — 12 (24) February 1863. On the way to join the gang Langevichu Kurovskiy, Frankowski, and in the Małogoszcz — Ezioranskogo squad. As a result of force Langevicha up to 5 thousand people. Langevich Małogoszcz decided to form a reference point from which they could have an impact on adjacent areas.

The Poles have settled Małogoszcz followed by: the very forces Langevicha standing in the village, the squad Ezioranskogo held high the cemetery, the other Polish troops — between them. The coming Russian troops at that time stationed in Kielce — Colonel Csenger, Chęciny — Lieutenant Colonel Dobrovolsky and Endrzheeve — Major pigeons. It was decided to storm the enemy on February 12. Decided to hit the enemy from three sides: from the north stormed Csenger column (3 companies Smolensk regiment, a squadron of dragoons, with 2 guns) from the southeast tower stormed Dobrowolski (3 companies Mogilev Regiment 1 Squadron, with 2 guns), from the south — column Golubova (3 companies Galician shelf). As a result, the main Russian forces were to attack from the south, dropping defeated the Poles in the north-east to the garrison of Kielce, or to the west — to Czestochowa, occupied by Russian troops.

The attack was unexpected for the Poles, they did not have time to move on. Only in the afternoon Langevichu said that Russian troops come from all sides. Poles had to prepare for a fight. On the heights to the east of the village arranged Grodzinskiy shooters who had a reserve kosinerov. Forested eastern hill took Chakhovsky squad, and the village itself Langevicha force. Cavalry Ezioranskogo with 2 guns as formerly occupied by the cemetery.

Dobrovolsky, decided not to wait for the approach of other teams and finish one thing. Because at 10 o'clock in the morning, without waiting for his comrades, under the cover of the Cossacks and Dragoons built a military order, opened artillery fire and went to the offensive. Grodzinskiy forces went to the counter-attack, but were repulsed. In turn, forces coming Dobrowolski was stopped flanking fire from the edge of the forest (right). As a result, Dobrovolsky was surrounded on three sides and was not broken just because of a weak organization of the enemy. Dobrovolsky decided to repeat the attack against the center of the enemy at that time came column Golubev and not stopping stormed Małogoszcz. The village was not adapted for defense, and speed the coming of the Russian troops and started a fire made the situation worse. Part of the Polish forces wavered and ran. Golubev, pursuing the enemy, joined the left wing Dobrowolski. At this time the company of Mogilev knocked off the top shelf of force Grodzinskiy and forced him to flee. Ezioransky, saving the infantry, cavalry ordered to produce their own counter-attack, which was reflected in a huge loss for the Poles. But she was saved from total defeat infantry and has permitted the rebels to withdraw from the battlefield and relaxed compared to the other cross-sparing shines.

Rearguard managed by experienced Polish fighter Chakhovsky, who took the wooded heights and restraining forces Dobrovolsky and Golubev. About 12 hours came column Csenger and almost immediately overturned the Poles, and seized two guns, servants and part of the cover of the Polish were killed. With the coming of darkness pursuit was stopped. Russian troops have lost this battle — 6 people wounded. The loss of the rebels were bolshennymi: 300 dead, 800 the wounded, about 1.5 million fled after ceasing to be an organized force.

After a day or two — Feb. 14 at the village of Evin Colonel Csenger again defeated the enemy and captured the train Poles, one gun. February 20 Langevich Pyaskovoy was knocked out of the mountain, the castle of Count Myshkovsky. February 22 Langevicha squad arrived in Goschu, near the Austrian border. Then his unit was rein
forced by volunteers from Austria, up to 3 thousand people. February 25 Langevich appointed himself dictator, rzhond supported this decision. It should be noted that among the rebels was no unity. Reigned distrust, selfishness, intrigues and quarrels. "Warlords" fought for power, strength, made a feeble to obey you. "White" fought "red."

But Langevich as a speaker is not able to organize resistance. February 28 hearing of the approach of Russian troops, he retreated and 4 March reached Hrobezha, near Pińczów. From there he was under pressure Csenger squad stepped Grohofisk. March 7 Teran crossed Nida and destroyed over a bridge. Then the squad was divided, part of the Poles went beyond the Vistula and the other rebels fled to the Austrian border, near the village Chernyahovo. Under pressure from the pursuing Russian troops, March 9, fled to Galicia, where they were detained by the Austrians. Langevich crossed the Vistula even earlier, throwing its own party. He was arrested the Austrians. He spent some time in the slammer, and then was released. His life Langevich graduated from the Ottoman Empire, where he tried to form in the Turkish Army Polish legion.

Polish uprising of 1863-1864.  Part 2

Marian Langevich.

Acts Chakhovsky
One of the more able-bodied middle of gangs, was Chakhovsky squad. 67-year-old rider Chakhovsky was beautiful, a good shooter. He has participated in the rebellion of 1830-1831. In his own part, he maintained strict discipline and not above the fiercest action. At the same time, it was inhumane to the prisoners who were subjected to savage torture. Hung farmers during the stops that were not enough, in his opinion, hard working. Specifically, he commanded the vanguard Langevicha and warned him of the approach of the troops of General Mark. He was ambushed and abducted by Russian troops. After the defeat and flight Langevicha Chakhovsky have left at least 300 people, who formed the core of the new gangs. The energetic "field commander" stand in Radomski department almost 3 months. March 24-25, he forced himself to join the gang Kononovich (over 500 people), Grelinskogo (450), April 3 — Lopatskogo (250), and later the formation of grown up to 2 thousand people.

April 4 Chakhovsky he persecuted group of major Ridiger. Grelinskogo squad under cover of darkness separated from Chakhovsky and 5 April was defeated at the village of Brod. The remains of the gang back together with Chakhovsky that as punishment disarmed them and "armed" with sticks. April 24 at village Rzhechnev gang squad Chakhovsky overtook Colonel Nasekin. The Poles were scattered, despite the anger of an old soldier who shot himself in the fugitives. But by May 1 Chakhovsky scored latest gang, but his subordinates Kononovich Jankowski and do not want to be under him, and of constantly quarreling among themselves. After the collision with the Russian troops on May 2, Jankowski went beyond the Vistula and Kononovich — for Pilica the Warsaw department. By May 13, Chakhovsky had under his command 450. May 14, he had an affair in the woods with a group of hrustsevskom Colonel Bulatovic of Radom and suffered huge losses. At the end of May Chakhovsky was absolutely crushed by Colonel Suchanino and injured, went to Krakow.

Strengthening of the Polish Group of Russian Forces. By the end of February 1863 the Russian troops won a decisive victory everywhere, it was clear that the rebels can not withstand regular Russian army. But broken in one place, the rebels raised a rebellion in the other, and the war continued. By mid-March the Russian troops again inflicted a military defeat the rebels, but activists and survived the revolt continued. It was necessary to work on the "cleansing" of the Polish Kingdom of politically active conspirators. It turned out that the troops is enough to crush the rebels, but not enough to maintain the universal order and tranquility. The troops were needed to fight gangs, as garrisons in major populated Fri and objects of Railways and the border police of the obligations and control of civilian authorities.

Because of the Warsaw district were oriented more troops: 2nd Guards Division (arrived in March), two Guards Cavalry Mounted Regiment with battery (arrived in February), 10th Infantry Division, and seven of the Don Cossack regiments (started arriving in March). In addition, as the suppression of the uprising in the western region in the Kingdom of Poland was transferred the 2nd and the 8th Infantry, 3rd Cavalry Division.

The uprising in the South West region

In the South-Western Region Empire in late April, the Polish gang infiltrated the Volyn province, and then in the province of Kiev. They came from Galicia. In Podolia Polish insurgents actually was not, it was due to the lack of significant woodlands. In Kiev military was surrounded by 45 thousand Russian troops, which was not enough just to eliminate minor rebel forces that were leaked to the region, and to assist in the oppression of the Polish gangs in Lublin and Grodno provinces. In addition, local communities, treasured bruise on violence and oppression on the part of the nobility of the Polish reign, to fully support the troops in the elimination of armed groups. Campaigning rebels, "gold certificates", which called on the people to revolt and promised them land and tax exemption, did not operate. Priests refuses to read them, and farmers are not listening.

Countless more Różycki was gang that has been collected m Polonnoye in the Volyn province. 5-10 and it was defeated on May 17, defected to Galicia, where the Poles surrendered to the Austrian authorities. The following sample of strong Polish gangs invade Volyn province of Galicia in m Radzivilov (June 19) and Zhdzhar (October 20) were unsuccessful. All the rebel groups and the groups were swiftly defeated Russian forces acted swiftly, the local population did not have any support to the rebels, but instead adopted a very proactive role in the extermination of bandit groups.

Polish uprising of 1863-1864.  Part 2

To be continued …

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