Port Arthur — a victory or a defeat?

At the end of the 19th century Russian Empire sent its expansion into the Maritimes area of Far East. Weakened China could not resist the effects of assertive Russian north-eastern lands, and the empire quickly established his control of the controversial yet expanses of Primorye. The only worthy adversary remained unsafe and Japan. Back in 1855 on the Treaty of Shimoda came into the possession of the Russian Federation the Kurile Islands, and the territory of Sakhalin recognized common but in 1875, 18 of the islands of the archipelago had to be transferred in exchange for full ownership of Sakhalin.

Port Arthur - victory or defeat?

Advances in the development of the Far East have made it necessary presence in this part of the country's military forces, by 1885 its population then was less than 18-thousand. To make the region more easily accessible to the frisky transfer reinforcements imperial authorities began actively building a railway fabric of the region. Already in 1891, construction began the famous Trans-Siberian Railway. Back in 1860 Vladivostok was founded, and in 1899 started programm to create a military naval base at Port Arthur. Empire, at first, to motivate the development of trade in the region, which was scheduled to perform a warm-water ports. The presence of the Russian Federation in territories claimed by Japan, A controversy in foreign relations with the latter.

In general, the Japanese policy since the Meiji Restoration was pretty aggressive. It was established control over Korea, are also busy areas of China. Economic and technological breakthrough, sponsored for the most part the forces of England and the United States, has made it quite a strong military power. It is interesting that in 1902 between the British Government and the Japanese authorities was signed treaty of alliance, which obliges Britain to provide military support in the event of war by Japan with 2 states and more than once. The presence of this contract generating debate about the role of Montenegro, which has declared war on the Land of the Rising Sun since the start of hostilities in the Far East. It is seen that a significant focus assist that country in the confrontation and did not have, unlike England, intensive supplying the new Japanese army. Referring to the designated event, modern scholars have concluded that the decision to declare war on the part of Montenegro was adopted with the active assistance of the United Kingdom. If we talk openly, the Russian Empire was at war with a coalition that apart from the Land of the Rising Sun also included England and the United States. And one or the other power characteristic of puzzles to solve their political blood fighter third countries.

In Russian books Russian-Japanese war is presented as a shameful defeat the corrupt imperialism. But given as evidence of the defeat of a very obscure facts and evidence, and with certain circumstances so called crushing defeat of the Russian Federation in general does not agree. In particular, a lot of questions is renting a military naval base of Port Arthur, General Anatoly Stessel, then declared a coward and a traitor. It is seen that Russian historians have characterized biased attitude to everything that concerned the tsarist and his actions.

In late July, the Japanese armies were on the outskirts of the sea fortress, in which there were about 50 thousand people and military sailors. At the head of the defense was General Stoessel, who has received an order to leave fortress from Kuropatkina. But Stessel asked for permission to stay and defend Port-Arthur. And the first paranormal event official theory: a coward and a traitor volunteered to defend fortress from the army, greatly outnumbered the forces he commanded. Then in court resounding indictment against Anatoly Mikhailovich fall apart and it will be only from the three formulations. He is accused of inaction on the activities of Lieutenant-General by the name of Fok, Insignificance breach of obligations and surrender of the fortress without a valid reason. At the same cowardice and treachery of the sentence does not mention, not a lot of requests for court-martial convicted before the king for a pardon. Against the background of the order Kuropatkina the surrender of the fortress without a fight, and other evidence of complete exhaustion defending sentence looks, to put it mildly, absurd and unfair.

Port Arthur - victory or defeat? Especially confusing against the loud statements about it shameful surrender of Port Arthur looks ritual seppuku Legs Maresuke. The commander of the army favorites, evaluating the results of the siege of the fortress, immediately wanted to do for myself hara-kiri, as evidenced by numerous sources. Naturally, there is a desire to ask the prosecutors' corrupt tsarist "on grounds such intention. And even after the ban on the ritual in the address Feet of monarchs, glorious victory, as it is called, still has reason to commit suicide after the death of the ruler legs. The answer is very simple: taking Port-Arthur can not quite be called a victory. It's faster, defeat the Japanese army under the command of bestalantnym Maresuke.

Calculation Feet was instantaneous capture of the fortress in the first assault. But to break the resistance of the Russian soldiers failed. Throughout the day or the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun shot at Port Arthur on the best and only the end of the day or dare storm. As a result, Russia's bloody battle left a progressive strengthening and took refuge in the fortress itself. Despite the fact that the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun With years of success, and no one took the redoubt Syaogushan and Dagushan, fortune the result of the first day or can not be called. The losses were very substantial and according to the Japanese side, which cause severe doubt on the reliability were about 1200-1300 people.

Maresuke already in the first day was the same must consider the necessity of subsequent attempts to capture Port-Arthur. The number of Japanese army melted away at the sight, surge capacity and economic power might last only a year of combat. At the time of the storming of the fortress of reinforcement required other parts of the Japanese army on a more principled position. But the legs stuck to his own and attempted first assault, as a result of which the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun have suffered tremendous loss. In fact, half of the besieging army was destroyed. The siege dragged on like that was inexcusable mistake Maresuke. Replaced in order to turn away from further attempts, disastrous for the Japanese themselves, commander sought reinforcements and sent the remaining soldier to die. Trying to repeat the actions of Japanese commander of the war of Prussia and France, associated with taking a Car, failed miserably.

Second assault, repeated in a month, took about 6 thousand Japanese and did not give significant results. Fortress heroically held. Third assault was undertaken for 18 September, but again did not bring long-awaited victory. It must be said that the Russian fighter lost a lot less than the people of the country of
the rising sun, but were in the criteria of the siege. Food is actually completed, medicines and ammunition was not enough, people were dying under enemy fire in combat, as has spread from scurvy. New loss is not suspended Legs, and the siege lasted. At this time the battles were fought at Shahe, where army Maresuke could be a great support. 4th storm lasted from 13 until 22 November, but in the end the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun just managed to take the strategically important Highest Mountain. It is, in fact, was the key to the Port Arthur, because here the attackers can coordinate attacks its own artillery.

But the surrender of the fortress there was only on December 20 after the military council Stoessel. If we turn to the protocol, it is possible to understand how the situation was weary of the besieged. From forty thousand combat-ready fighter, according to various estimates officers remained between 10 and 12 thousand half-starved and exhausted soldiers. Where did the Japanese in the reports and the trial transcript did the figure at 23 thousand prisoners? It's very simple. In 1-x, not counting the 10 thousand soldiers and officers in the fort were more than 10 thousand patients and the wounded, who surrendered along with his brothers-in-arms. In-2, these Japanese are very unreliable, because their reports are very often "sin" under-reporting of victims with his own hand, and to overestimate the enemy. Falsification was present in a war with the Chinese.

Port Arthur - victory or defeat?

Can you name the surrender of Port Arthur after 329 days of siege and fierce fighting Russian forces defeat and betrayal on the part of Stoessel? The answer specific — no! General made the only right decision, because well aware that the fifth storm will last for a fortress, and the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun, so long to achieve victory, inhuman. The man then branded as a traitor and a coward, was able to take responsibility for the delivery of Port Arthur in order to preserve the life of their own fighter, any of which deserves to wear the title of hero.

Russian-Japanese War — historically important point, which was presented to us as a shameful defeat of the tsarist, is quite different and deserves attention and discussion in the community. This is another attempt to discredit Russia in the eyes of its children, you want to stop.

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