Genghis Khan made a stately great Tatar empire many times overshadowed place of Napoleon Bonaparte and Alexander the Great. And she fell under the blows of external enemies, but only due to internal decay …
By joining in the XIII century, isolated Tatar tribes, Genghis Khan was able to make the army, which was not equal either in Europe or in Russia or in the Central Asian countries. Not a single ground force since nothing compared to the mobility of its troops. And its basic principle has always been an attack, even if the primary strategic objective is to defense.
The messenger of the Pope in the Tatar yard Plano Carpini wrote that the victory of the Mongols depend almost everything is not so much on their physical strength or size, but on the stunning strategies. Carpini even recommended a European military leaders to follow the example of the Mongols. "Our army should operate on the model of the Tartars (mongolov. — Comm. Aut.) Based on the same formidable military law … Army in no way should be conducted in a single mass, but individual units. On all sides should be dispatched scouts. And our generals should keep troops in the old days and NIGHT MODE alert, because the Tartars always alert, like devils. " So what's all the same wing of the invincibility of the Tatar army took from the beginning of the techniques of martial arts its military leaders and ordinary?
Before starting any military action, Tatar rulers at the Congress (the military council. — Comm. Aut.) The most exhaustively developed and discussed a plan future campaigns, as determined place and time collecting troops. Spies in the order of mandatory mined "languages" or are in the camp of the enemy, traitors, supplying those commanders detailed information about the enemy.
During the life of Genghis Khan was the supreme commander himself. The invasion of the country in the grip he usually produced by several armies, and in different directions. From the team he pursued a plan of action, from time to time by making the amendments. After that, the performer was given complete freedom in the decision target. Genghis Khan himself was only when the first operations, and making sure that everything is in accordance with the plan, provided the young leaders of the glory of military triumphs.
Approaching the fortified towns, the Mongols were collected in various districts of the supplies, and as needed arranged next to the city a temporary base. The main forces are usually kept coming, and emergency housing set about the preparation and conduct of the siege.
When meeting with a hostile army was inevitable, the Mongols or try poruha the enemy at one time, or when the suddenness not count, sent forces around the 1st of the enemy flanks. Such a maneuver was called "tulugma." In general, the Tatar commanders never acted on the template, trying to extract the highest benefit from certain criterion. Most Mongolians threw a feigned flight, with consummate art of trying to cover his tracks, almost disappearing from the eyes of the enemy. But until then, until he loosened care. Then the Mongols were taking the new spare horses, and, as if out of the ground appeared before the surprised enemy, made a quick raid. Specifically, this method in 1223 on the river Kalka were defeated Russian princes.
Sometimes that in mock flight Mongol army dissipated so that bowed enemy from different sides. However, if enemy was ready to fight back, he could be released from the environment, so that later on to finish the march. In 1220 a similar way one was destroyed by the armies of Mohammed Khorezmshakh that the Mongols deliberately released from Bukhara, and then trashed.
In most cases, the Mongols stormed under the cover of light cavalry several parallel columns, stretched out on a broad front. Faced with the main column of the enemy forces detained or position, or retreating, while others continued to move forward, stepping on the flanks and rear of the enemy. Then the column approached, the result of this is normally a complete encirclement and destruction the enemy.
Stunning mobility Tatar troops, allowing to seize the initiative, gave Tatar commanders, not their opponents the right to choose as the place and time of the decisive battle.
For the greatest advance ordering of combat troops and quickly dispatches them to follow the orders of the maneuvers Mongols used signal flags dark and pure white flowers. And with the coming of darkness signals were flaming arrows. Another tactical development of the Mongols was the introduction of a smoke screen. Small groups set fire to the prairie or housing, which allows you to hide the main movement of troops and gave the Mongols so desired the advantage of surprise.
One of the basic rules of the strategic pursuit of the Mongols had broken the enemy right up to complete destruction. In the military practice of medieval times it was new. The then knights, for example, was considered demeaning themselves to pursue the enemy, and such views persisted for many centuries, right up to the era of Louis XVI. But the Mongols had to make sure not only that the enemy was defeated, but in the fact that he was not able to gather new strength, regroup and poruha again. Because he just destroyed.
The Mongols were fairly typical method of accounting enemy losses. After each battle special detachments cut off the right ear of each corpse lying on the field of battle, and later collected in bags and counted the exact number of dead enemies.
As you know, the Mongols chose to wage war in the winter. Favorite method to check whether the bear turned on river ice weight of their horses was there to lure the local population. At the end of 1241 in Hungary at the sight of the exhausted by famine refugees Mongols left unattended cattle on the east bank of the Danube. And when they were able to cross the river and take away cattle and Mongols realized that coming could begin.
Each Mongol from the youth of early preparing to become a warrior. The boys were taught to ride almost no earlier than walk a bit later mastered the subtleties of bow, spear and sword. Commander of each unit selected based on its initiative and bravery in battle. In his subordinate squad he took sole authority — his orders were carried out immediately and unconditionally. Such a ruthless discipline did not understand none of medieval army.
Tartar warriors did not know any tiny frills — no
food, no shelter. Having acquired over the years of preparation for the military-nomadic unprecedented endurance and stamina, they did not actually need medical care, although since the time of the Chinese campaign (XIII-XIV century) in a Tatar army always had a staff of Chinese doctors. Before the battle, each soldier wore a shirt from a strong wet silk. Usually, arrows pierce the fabric, and she was drawn into the wound along with the tip, greatly hindering its penetration, allowing doctors to simply remove the body of the boom, coupled with the cloth.
Actually consisted entirely of cavalry Tatar army was based on the decimal system. The largest unit was tumen, which included 10 thousand soldiers. In tumen were 10 regiments, each with 1,000 people. Regiments consisted of 10 squadrons, each of which was 10 teams of 10 people. Three tumens were army or army corps.
In the army acted unquestioned law, when someone in the battle of the 10-ka escaped from the enemy, executed the entire top-10, and if the Sotk ran the 10-ka, executed all the hundred, if running weaving — all executed a thousand.
Soldiers of the Light Brigade, constituted more than half of the troops, had no armor except for the helmet, armed with a bow Asian, spear, scimitar, light longish spade and a lasso. Power Tatar bows bent almost all yielded great English, but each Tatar trooper had with myself for at least two quivers of arrows. Armor except the helmet, the archers had not, but for them, and they were not necessary. In the puzzle of the Light Brigade were: intelligence, camouflage, support the heavy cavalry shooting and, eventually, the pursuit of fleeing enemy. In other words, they had to hit the enemy from a distance.
For close combat troops used the heavy and medium cavalry. They were called Nuker. Although initially nukers learned all kinds of combat: could storm the helter-skelter, using bows, or in close order, with spears or swords …
The main striking force of the Tatar cavalry troops was languid, its population was less than 40 percent. Cavalrymen were languishing in the proper disposal of a suit of armor made of leather or chain mail, shot, usually from defeated enemies. Languid cavalry horses were also protected by leather armor. These warriors were armed to the distant battle — with bows and arrows, for a close — with spears or swords, sabers or swords, battle axes, or clubs.
Friendly heavily armed cavalry was crucial and could change the entire course of the bout. Each rider had a Tatar from one to several spare horses. Herds have always been specifically for the order and the horse could rapidly change on the march, or even during the battle. At these low, strong horses Tatar cavalry could take up to 80 km, from the same carts, Ram, and throwing guns — up to 10 km a day.
During the life of Genghis Khan in the wars with the Jin Empire Mongols in almost all borrowed from the Chinese as some elements of the strategy and the strategy and military equipment. Although at first his own conquests of Genghis Khan army has often been powerless against the strong walls of the Chinese cities, after a couple of years, the Mongols developed such a fundamental system of the siege, which was almost impossible to resist. Its main component was large, but the mobile squad, filled with throwing machines and other equipment that is carried in special hidden carts. For the siege of the caravan Mongols gained the best Chinese engineers did their powerful base Corps of Engineers, which proved highly effective.
In the end, none of the fortress was no longer an insurmountable obstacle to the promotion of the Tatar army. While the rest of the army was moving on, leaguer squad surrounded a fundamental strength and proceeded to assault.
The Mongols borrowed from the Chinese and skill during the siege of the fortress surrounding her fence, isolating from the outside world and depriving the ability to make sallies of the besieged. Then the Mongols stormed using various siege weapons and kamnemetnye machine. To make a panic in the ranks of the enemy, the Mongols cracking down on the besieged town of thousands of flaming arrows. They were shooting light cavalry straight from the castle walls from a distance or from a catapult.
At the siege of the Mongols often resorted to violent, but very effective for their tricks: they drove in front of a huge number of defenseless prisoners, forcing the besieged kill their own fellow citizens to get to the attackers.
If the defenders rendered angry resistance, after the decisive assault on the city, its garrison and inhabitants were subjected to total destruction and looting.
"If they were always invincible, then this should have been the courage of strategic clarity and tactical plans of action. In the face of Genghis Khan and his generals the art of war have gained one of the highest peaks of their own "- so wrote about the Mongols French commander Rankin. And, apparently, he was right.
Intelligence acts Mongols used everywhere. For a long time before hiking up to the minute details of scouts studied the terrain, weapons, company strategy and mood of the army enemy. All this intelligence gave the Mongols decided advantage over the enemy, who sometimes know about themselves even less than it should be. Intelligence network of the Mongols was stretched across the whole world. Spies are usually operated under the guise of merchants and traders.
In particular, as the Mongols succeeded in that at the moment is usually called psychological warfare. Stories about the ruthlessness and barbarity torturing nepokorlivyh spread them intentionally, and the same again for a long time before the war to crush the enemy any desire to resist. And let such propaganda was a lot of truth, the Mongolians are very happy to have used the services of those who agreed to cooperate with them, especially if some of their ability or skill can be used for useful things.
The Mongols did not turn away from any fraud if he could afford them achieve dignity, reduce their victims to increment or loss of the enemy.