Muscovy, or Russia … has remained almost unknown in Europe, while it was not the king of the throne of Peter. The Muscovites were less civilized than the inhabitants of Mexico, with the opening of its Cortez. Natural-born slaves of the same barbaric as they themselves are the rulers, they eked out of ignorance, not knowing any arts or crafts, and being ignorant of the use thereof. The ancient sacred law forbade them under pain of death, to leave the country without the permission of the patriarch, that they had no opportunity voschuvstvovat yoke of their oppressors. This law is quite consistent to the spirit of this nation, which is in the depths of ignorance and wretchedness neglected kinds of intercourse with foreign powers.
Voltaire — The largest French Enlightenment philosopher. 1732.
People are aware of themselves as a people only compared themselves with other people ("other"). First of all, to those nations that have the greatest impact on their fate. Since the XVI century. for other major Russian steel peoples of the West in general — Western civilization. From the west came the invaders now, is a major threat to the existence of Russia. To the west is Russian treated with rapt attention, taking over many of their ideas, technologies and social institutions. With regard to relations with the West in the environment of Russian was a continuous dialogue and long-lasting conflicts arose, so that there were even two philosophical trends — Westerners and Slavophiles.
Self-awareness has never included a Russian hatred of the West as its core. From this complex has kept Russian history — in all the great wars with the West Russian asserted their independence, and in the two Patriotic wars won great victories. This strengthened and Russian core, and that multi-ethnic nation, which developed around this core in the XIX and XX centuries.
Except for the part of the intelligentsia in the Russian consciousness was not an inferiority complex in comparison with the West. Yes, there is much in the West than to be admired, but there is also a spiritual chasm that emerged from his departure from the orthodox view of man. Russian philosophers have even seen in the tragedy of Europe. Russian nationalist KN Leontiev, most Westerners than Slavophil, expressed deep thought: "And I want to cry … not on behalf of the whole of Russia, but much more modest, right out of my face and on behalf of the few sympathizers me:" Oh, how we hate you, modern Europe , for what you have killed herself all great, elegant and holy and destroys and us poor, so your precious breath contagious! "
But this criticism with compassion, which the West of Russian thinkers never asked, so leave it.
For us, more important is the fact that Russia and the West was ethnicized his significant other. National and civilizational identity of Europe in many ways pushes away from the image of Russian (all Russians), and Russia. This image was drawn, except for short periods of history, black paint. So there russophobia West — a wide range of negative feelings and attitudes toward the Russian, from fear to hatred. It is present as an important element in the major ideological currents of the West and just has a great influence on the attitude toward Russia and the Russian and in the public mind, and in the units of the elite and the ruling elite. Since the West is at the same time, "significant other" in the formation of the Russian national consciousness, this factor can not be ignored, it is an important quality of the "environment" in which there are Russian and Russian.
This factor should be studied, monitor its evolution, to try to influence it according to our national interests, but to treat it rationally, as well as to other environmental factors. Do not give vent to emotions and even more come out of emotion in the development of their facilities and specific solutions. Offended by russophobia, to dislike her media, the more turn away from their "cultural products" — is silly.
Western russophobia has about ancient history and deep roots. This is a large and complex ideological concept, part of Eurocentrism — underlying the western world the doctrine that the world is one civilization. This civilization — West (not geographically, but culturally). It originates from ancient Greece and Rome (Antiquity) and has been in its historical development, the only correct way (the "high road of civilization"). The rest of the people ("barbarians") behind or deviated from this path.
Any kind of phobia — fear and hatred of the other — are the early Middle Ages an important tool in shaping the identity of the peoples of the West. It was the first phobia to those from whom came the call ("Barbarians at the threshold"), and to those who are oppressed and suppressed the West — and therefore expect a threat that for the time concealed under the guise of humility.
Why "Russia as a mirror" so angered the West?
Russian culture is rooted in Christianity. Early in the ground and began russophobia hatred of Eastern Christianity (Orthodoxy), from which from VII. began to move away Western (Catholic) church. In 1054, Pope Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Kirulary betrayed each other anathema — a formal split occurred (schism). Anathema — it's not falling out of the two kings. In the Middle Ages, she spent the spiritual frontier.
But the divergence of the two great civilizations began earlier — the division in the IV. the Western and Eastern Roman Empire. Heiress East, the Byzantine Empire and Russia considered itself (in the spiritual and religious meaning of Moscow at the time of formation of the Muscovite state was even called the "Third Rome").
In the XVIII century. all Eastern European nations designated term "Scythians" as historian Herder not borrowed from the ancient name of the barbarians "Slavs". The Slavs were still long for western Europeans Scythians, barbarians East.
Systemic clearance of the West Slavs lasted four centuries — from the bloody campaigns of Frankish king Charlemagne (VIII century.). In the chronicles, who wrote his company abbots, Slavs was referred to as frogs and worms. Head of the western world history textbooks about how Albert the Bear and Henry the Lion was purified from the center of Slavic Europe, reading scary. Although the Moravians, Wendy and Serbs have already been baptized, they were destroyed as pagan. Stopped the head of Alexander Nevsky in the north and the Mongols in Hungary in the XIII century.
Christianity was declared pagan heresy, and the Normans ravaged the coast of the Byzantine Empire and the Balkans, following the St.. Augustine do with the Gentiles as well as Jews by the Egyptians — to rob them. In the XII century. launched a crusade against the Slavs, and then put in a big way. The most important for Russian history became IV Crusade in 1204 — against the Byzantine Empire, the Christian state.
Thus, one of the first sources of Russophobia Western Europeans had a view of the Slavs of Russia as religious apostates. From the fact of the adoption of Christianity in Rus from Byzantium conclusions and opinions "Asian" and even paganism of the Eastern Slavs.
In an environment of enlightened Westerners in Russia spiritual connection between Rus and Byzantium was considered the cause of "mental immaturity" Russian.
Historian NI Ulyanov wrote in exile: "It has long been buffed look at the dubiousness of Russian Christianity, on his blasphemous and barbarous rites in the Russian defection, meanness of their nature, their servility and despotism, Tatarism, Asiatic, and the last place that takes in the human race Muscovites despicable people. "
But recall the fate of Byzantium. The intensity of hatred for the West, it is now difficult to understand. In the XI that "World History" on which today are learning in the West, given this explanation: "At the sight of the wealth of the Greeks Latin world feels admiration, envy, hatred and oppression. The inferiority complex, which will be satisfied in 1204, feeds his aggression toward Byzantium. "
Let's read in XIII that "world history" than ended in 1204 IV Crusade against the Byzantine Empire. He is described in the chronicles themselves abbots. Here is what was once the storm was taken and burned Constantinople: "Finally knights and soldiers wreaked traditional hatred Latin world to the Greeks. Robbery, murder and rape swept the city. TRANSIENCE were lost art treasures accumulated in the walls of the Byzantine Empire for its almost thousand-year history. Completely burned the library of the church items were broken out precious stones, melted into ingots gold and silver, and the broken marble.
The soldiers, who began his campaign as the Crusaders without respecting religion: the nuns were raped in the monasteries, in the cathedral of St. Sophia drunken soldiers smashed with hammers and axes silver iconostasis and altar; prostitute sat on the throne of the patriarch and sang French songs, drinking wine from the sacred vessels. "
In a separate chronicle describes how the abbot Martin of Alsace, the rector of the church of Pantocrator threatened with death, forced him to open a cache of relics and "filled the pockets of his robes" treasures. He took out 52 precious relics, the list of which is attached. The Venetians took the bronze quadriga that Emperor Constantine established in his new capital. Today, it marks the entrance to the Cathedral of St. Mark in Venice. The Chronicles of note that in 1187 when the Saracens captured Jerusalem, they did not touch the Christian churches and Christians were allowed to leave the city with all their possessions.
All this is well known Alexander Nevsky (many Orthodox monks, witnesses Affairs Crusaders went to Russia). In 90 years in Russia denounced it for what it was at war with the Teutons. With what is going to Russia Teutons? In the Bull of 24 November 1232, Pope Gregory IX called Livonian Knights of the Sword to go to Finland to "defend the Christian faith against the imposition of Russian infidels." In the bull of December 9, 1237, after the unification of the Order of the Sword and the Teutonic Order, the same Pope calls to organize a "crusade." In the campaign were to participate Danish crusaders in Estonia, Teutons and Swedish knights. In this campaign, and there was a battle with the Swedes on the Neva in 1240, for which Alexander received his title. In the bull by July 6, 1241 Gregory IX and the Norwegian king asks to join the "crusade against the heathen."
In the Middle Ages, the main sign of civilization was a religion, and all these campaigns against the Orthodox Slavs should be considered just as civilizational war.
This attitude to the Orthodox Church and the Orthodox Slavs in principle has not changed in modern times, and so far — it is simply a thing of the subconscious. In the XIX century. Charlemagne, "clean" Central Europe from the Slavs, was named a major figure of Western history — over Caesar, Alexander the Great and the Christian saints. When Napoleon went to Russia, he was named "Charles resurrected." In 1942, the Nazis magnificently celebrated 1200 years since the birth of "Karl-European", and in the midst of Adenauer era, Cardinal Frings of Cologne called the Cold War, "the realization of the ideals of Charlemagne."
The hostile attitude of the Orthodox Church and the idea of the "Asian" Russian in the West intensified after the Mongol invasion of Russia. Russian were "barbarians at the threshold," the inhabitants of the eastern and mythological strange country. It seemed mysterious to Europeans liberation from the Mongol yoke and the rapid strengthening of Russia have intensified russophobia — the East suddenly appeared a huge state.
Then in Europe has emerged a sense of the eastern border of the West, for which there is a mysterious stranger. Russophobia began to take shape as a great ideological myth. In the first half of the XVI century. Renaissance writer Rabelais put in a series of "Muscovites, Indians, Persians, and troglodytes." Great cultural and ideological forces for decoration russophobia were collected from the outbreak of war between Russia and Europe, called the Livonia (1558-1583). It is believed that the war was finally designated for the Western man the eastern limits of Europe. Europe came to an end for the Narva River and Lake Pskov.
Livonia was declared a "bastion of eastern civilization", in alliance with the Livonian Order made by Lithuania, Poland, Denmark and Sweden, many mercenaries from all over Europe. Russian were presented diabolical forces crept from the East. We can say that at this stage of the ideologues russophobia already aware of the nature of the emerging Eurasian Russian Empire. During the Livonian War Tatar cavalry was an important part of the Russian troops, and at one time Kasimovskiy Chingizid Khan Shah Ali (Shigalev) even commanded the entire Russian army.
In the West, it was announced that the goal of Russia in the Livonian War — "the final destruction and devastation of the Christian world." Was the slogan of the "Holy War" Europe against Russia. Then established the first advanced technology is psychological warfare. It has been widely used typography and invented the genre of "flying sheets" (flyers). This is a short illustrated texts for the general reader. They were cheap, written in a simple figurative language and covered a significant part of the population. To create a black image of Russian leaflets were used all the artistic means of describing the evil found Renaissance. The main ones are.
Directly or indirectly represented the Russian through the images of the Old Testament. Salvation Livonia compared with the deliverance of Israel from Pharaoh. It was alleged that the Russian — this is the legendary biblical Mesech people, with the invasion of which contacted the Doomsday predictions. It was said that the Muscovites have distorted the word "Meshech": "Because Mesech or Moskvityanin means no more and no less, as a person who leads a terrible life, straining, stretching his bow and wants to shoot, and the same make and Muscovites". Or, from another author: "There is nothing to be surprised, because the people wild. After Mosca called from Meskhia, which means that people who bend the bow. "
Another theme — "Asian" Russian nature. When depicting the atrocities of the Muscovites used the same adjectives and metaphors, as well as in the description of the Turks, and they drew the same.
Special mention should be about the black myth of Ivan the Terrible, which was created from the XVI century. Figure of Ivan IV was supposed to symbolize the Russian state at all, at all times. Its stability is defined as a tyrant, so that the word "tyrant" has become a byword for the determination of all the rulers of Russia in principle. The scale of this myth and its ideology are such that, in the words of the German historian, he is from the XVI century. for today is "the nerve Russian history."
We only mention a few reasons this great myth. The first — a pathological cruelty, unprecedented in the West. The scale of executions in Grozny exaggerated by two orders (in the tens or hundreds of times). From the very beginning has been given and a qualitative assessment — the king of Muscovite power "greater than the cruelty of Nero, Caligula … and, finally, all the tyrants who described and oslavleny historians and poets."
Great literature is devoted to the colorful detail zverstr king. In the first biography of Ivan the Terrible, published in the West (1585), said that he liked to play chess, and the loser cut off the ears, nose and lips. Those who refused to play, and killed immediately. In Livonia king "burned and killed everything that had life and could burn, cattle, dogs and cats, fish deprived of water in the ponds, and all that had the breath, had to die and cease to exist."
Special genre revelations "Tirana Vasilyevich" is called "tyranny over women." Here the stories of rape and abduction of women. When they are bored king, they were returned to their husbands, hung over the dining table, and made a poor husband to eat at this table. Noble women in the street when passing the king had to turn up the hem and a stand so as not pass the entire retinue.
The third main section — the anti-Christian and "Asian" character of Grozny. He is usually depicted in the West in the Turkish sultan costume, often with a spear in his hand, on which is seated a severed head. Wrote about his harem of 50 wives, and he killed the annoying most sophisticated ways.
Of course, the cruelties and atrocities enough, these were the costumes. Ivan the Terrible himself in this repented. But it was different in Russia from the West? Not only western people for the most part, but many in Russia believe that in comparison with Europe, Russia Ivan the Terrible was almost cannibalistic country where blood flowed in the river. And this belief has become a symbol of faith, it does not shake the reasonable arguments. If such a person to say that in 37 years of the reign of Ivan the Terrible had been executed about 4.3 million people — far less than one only St. Bartholomew's Day in Paris the same year, he did not argue, but his conviction was not at all moved. He does not hesitate, if we recall that in the same period in the Netherlands were executed about 100 thousand people. In England, then just held the "fencing" — eviction of peasants from their land and the "privatization" of the land landlords (landlords). Many farmers were driven from the land went wandering. Under Henry VIII without trial were executed around 72 thousand of these strollers. All this is well known, but many people can not give up the image of Russia as the "Evil Empire." Such is the power of black myths.
In the West, the image of the Terrible was used, in contrast to the praise of their states. Out, for example, a book about the political system — and then "balanced" book "On the Russian State" (1583). The author writes that the purpose — to show the opposite mode: "Genuine and a strange face of the tyrannical state, so unlike our own, without a true knowledge of God, without the written legislation, without social justice."
Note that just used the image of the Terrible and we have a makeover.
In the West, the presentation of the "myth of Grozny" is often concluded with plans for military intervention in Muscovy — to "liberate the people, a victim of the tyrant." These plans are great and sometimes witty. One of them provides such a syllogism: everywhere in occupied Russia should be built of stone German churches, and for Muscovites — only wood. They will rot quickly, Muscovites have to walk in the German stone, and so they unconsciously change religions.
After the Livonian War russophobia century and a half ate Legacy cliches and myths. Most popular in the West, the description of Russia in the XVII century. was Olearius who traveled in search of a trade route to Persia. His report was published in German in 1647 and then reprinted without ceasing almost all Western languages. Oleary, said: "Following the spirit, customs and way of life of Russian, you will certainly rank them to the barbarians." Then he criticized Russian template for lack of "good manners" — for the fact that "these people are loud burp and let the winds of", "carnal lust and adultery," as well as "disgusting depravity, which we call sodomy", performed even with horses. He also warned potential investors that the Russian "fit only for slavery" and they must "drive to work with whips and clubs."
Voltaire, shown from 1745 great interest to Peter the Great, and who wanted to write the story of his reign, received this order from Elizabeth. Work began in 1757, brought from Russia to Voltaire historical materials. Lomonosov wrote critical comments on the text of Voltaire and preparing of the material is sent to Voltaire. Corrections concerning the facts of the case, Voltaire tried, but Lomonosov complained to the total bias. In a gentle way Voltaire followed the attitude that was expressed earlier in his "History of Charles XII, King of Sweden."
There, he wrote: "Muscovy, or Russia … has remained almost unknown in Europe, while it was not the king of the throne of Peter. The Muscovites were less civilized than the inhabitants of Mexico, with the opening of its Cortez. Natural-born slaves of the same barbaric as they themselves are the rulers, they eked out of ignorance, not knowing any arts or crafts, and being ignorant of the use thereof. The ancient sacred law forbade them under pain of death, to leave the country without the permission of the patriarch, that they had no opportunity voschuvstvovat yoke of their oppressors. This law is quite consistent to the spirit of this nation, which is in the depths of ignorance and wretchedness neglected kinds of intercourse with foreign powers. "
Diplomats, famous travelers and writers have reported the most absurd Russian information. In "Notes on Russia" (1754), stored in the archives of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Russian diplomat says: "Because they are by nature, thieves and murderers, do not hesitate to make one or the other of these crimes if the occasion presented itself, and it is in that time when they fast and even deprive yourself of vodka. It was at this time feigned piety is especially dangerous to be outside in the two cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, a great risk that robbed and even killed. In the Russian custom of killing those who rob, in the explanation they say that the dead do not talk. "
Adventurer Casanova in his memoirs describes the fantastic spectacle of the Feast of the Epiphany on the ice of the river in front of the Winter Palace built in Jordan, where a drunken priest baptizes children, dipping them into the hole. Accidentally dropping the baby into the water, he tells parents: "Another!"
Even the dignity of Russian explained their reprehensible differences from the civilized Western man. Diderot wrote a great book for the Abbe Raynal, "A Tale of Two Indias" (1780) a section on Russia. It thus explains why Russian soldiers so brave, "Slavery, instilled in him a contempt for life, coupled with superstition, instill in him a contempt for death." Amazingly, this formula XVIII century. almost no variations acted two years.
However, the figures of the Enlightenment some time before the French Revolution showed increased interest in the Russian monarchy as "enlightened despotism", from which the expected radical Europeanization of the country. A. Besancon wrote: "When Catherine Russian government managed to teach about hundreds of thousands of families in European clothes, morals and manners, the Europeans had to deal only with those Russian, taste the fruits of civilization (the diplomats and officers), and therefore recognized for the Russian nobility, the right to be an integral part of the European nobility, though lagging behind the more advanced his troops … Catherine has extended the academies and the university, inviting scientists Germans. Diderot, D'Alembert, and even the wise Blackstone taken seriously legislative proposals Catherine and praise in her face North Babylon. These delights are explained not familiarity with the real Russia, as a protest against the unreasonable device western states under the old order. "
Catherine herself depart from the figures of the Enlightenment as the aging French Revolution. Since the mid 60-ies of the XVIII century. she did not recognize Rousseau, in 1785 broke with Diderot, at the news of the storming of the Bastille ordered to remove a bust of Voltaire in his office. Bastille revealed a split between the Russian monarchy with a westernized elite. The French Ambassador de Segur wrote about the reaction to the news: "In the court it caused great excitement and a general displeasure. The city has the experience was quite the opposite, and although the Bastille did not threaten any of the residents of St. Petersburg, I can not tell you the enthusiasm caused among merchants, merchants, burghers and several young people from the higher class of the fall of the state prison, this first triumph violent freedom. Russian and foreigners enthusiastically embraced each other on the streets of the capital, congratulating with the storming of the Bastille. "
The second brief period of favor to the Russian monarchy was associated with imperial ambitions of Napoleon. In the words of Besançon, "the whole of Europe is truly losing his mind from the love of the Russian czar and declares it an ideal representative of the human race. After all, he saved Europe from a tyrant Bonaparte, he granted Poland a constitution. Bentham admires Alexander, Jefferson adorns his office his bust, Ms. de Stael is sent to Russia to breathe there, "the air of freedom."
But soon after the War of 1812 russophobia fundamentally refreshed. It would seem that Russian army liberated conquered and humiliated by Napoleon Europe. Moreover, the Russian army immediately left occupied France and liberated territories of Germany, which was unusual. But here in the capital began to whisper that Russia plans to create a worldwide monarchy and the king is more dangerous than Napoleon. Steel remember that Napoleon before going to Russia said that after "Europe will become either the Republican or Cossack."
A. Besancon wrote: "Doubting the legitimacy of the Russian political system, the Europeans suddenly realized that Russia belongs to a different civilization. In Europe, the liberal view is almost universally prevails, being accomplished revolution in France in 1830, in England, is the reform of the electoral system, and Russia at that time the most ruthless manner suppress the uprising in Poland. In comparison to the XVIII century Europeans strongly change their attitude to Russia. Custine, Michelet, Urquhart, Marx draw Russia in the blackest colors. More deep thoughts to share with the reading public Gizo, he argues that history — a process that, by building and strengthening the middle class, leading to the establishment of constitutional liberty and the name of the process — a civilization. It follows that Russia — a country that is alien to this civilizing process. In Russia there is even enough independent thinker who dares to confirm this diagnosis — Peter Y. Chaadaev. "
After the 1815 Russo-phobia was to unwind and reactionaries, and the revolutionary forces in Europe. If the XVIII century. talked about Russia as a country of enlightened despotism, but now it is considered the country of "Oriental despotism." Russian revolutionaries cursed for what it does little to help the monarchs, which they were trying to overthrow. Monarchs — for being in no hurry to help them suppress the revolution. In 1849 the king by the insistent requests of Austria sent, according to the contract, the troops to suppress the revolution in Hungary. This action has not solved anything, but outrage was universal. According to A. Besancon, "after 1848 Europe begins to treat Russia with particular ferocity."
Right frightened reactionary philosopher Donoso Cortes: "If Europe is no more love for the country, since the socialist revolution and destroy her, it means that the hour of Russia. Then the Russian can safely roam our land with a rifle under his arm. " Left frightened Engels: "Do you want to be free or be under the thumb of Russia?" On the Russian democrats attempt to appeal to the common sense raced abuse and threats. It was not about ideology — were equally hateful and Russian monarchists and the Russian democrats, and later Russian Bolsheviks. About this period writes L. Lux.
The key idea russophobia this period is the concept that Russia seeks to conquer Europe and perpetuate their "Mongol rule over modern society." In the development of this concept, a significant contribution was made by Marx. His unfinished work "Revelations of the Diplomatic History of the XVIII century" (it is written in 1856-1857.), He concludes thus: "Muscovy was raised and grew up in a horrible and infamous School of the Mongolian slavery. It is only intensified by the fact that it has become virtuoso in the art of bondage. Even after his release, Muscovy continued to play its traditional role of a servant, who became lord. Subsequently, Peter the Great Mongolian political art combined with the proud servant of the aspirations of the Mongol ruler, Genghis Khan who bequeathed to carry out his plan to conquer the world … Just as she did with the Golden Horde, Russia is now the case with the West. To become a master of the Mongols, Muscovy hadtatarizovatsya.To become a master of the West, it mustcivilize …while remaining a slave, that is, giving the Russian one veneer of civilization that would prepare them to accept equipment Western nations, without infecting their ideas of the past. "
Ten years have passed, but the anti-Russian stamp used by Marx unchanged. At a rally in London, he said, pathetic speech: "I ask you, what has changed? Decreased if the danger from Russia? No. Only the mental blindness of the ruling classes of Europe came to the extreme … Guiding Star of the policy — world domination, remains unchanged. Only quirky government domination over the masses of barbarians, can currently contemplate such plans … So, for Europe there is only one alternative: either led Muscovites Asiatic barbarism come crashing down like an avalanche on her head, or she must restore Poland to fend for themselves in this way twenty millions of Asian Heroes ".
Representation of Russia as an Asian empire, which seeks to conquer Europe — a primitive historical myth, folded under the ideology of Eurocentrism in the XVIII century.
Surprisingly, he was busy at the end of the XIX century. unchanged. Rousseau wrote in "The Social Contract": "Russian people will never be truly civilized … Russian empire wants to conquer Europe and will be very subdued. The Tartars, its subjects or neighbors will be for her and for our masters. "
This myth has been very stable. So, during the preparations for war with Napoleonic France, Russia appeared fake titled "The Will of Peter the Great." It was said that the French diplomat allegedly D'Eon has extracted the material in Russian archives in 1756 (the study of the text by historians revealed that he fabricated). We are interested in the meaning of "will", which sets out, inter alia, these 'plans and recommendations ":" Nothing can be neglected to give the Russian people of European forms of life and customs, and to that end to invite different people from Europe, especially the scientists, or for their benefit, or the principles of humane philosophy … Secretly prepare all the tools for the application of a nasty blow to act wisely, prudently and quickly, so as not to give Europe time to come to himself … Amid all the bitterness … send the Rhine and the seas "untold Asian hordes" . Ships suddenly appear for the landing of these nomadic, savage and greedy mining nations … one of the residents they shall devour, and the other will lead to bondage for the settlement of the Siberian deserts, and they shall take away all possibility of overthrowing the rest of the yoke. "
The image of Russia as a "barbarian at the threshold" again increased representation of Russian motif as the Asian nation. This brings the image of Russia with the image of another "barbarian at the threshold" — the Ottoman Empire. Some authors have argued that for Europe, "Russian worse than the Turks." Marx thought that acquired conceptual clarity, in his words, "Turkey was the dam of Austria against Russia and its Slavic suite."
In England, during the Russian-Turkish war of Marx's associates have been organizing a "national demonstration of sympathy and condemnation of Turkey's Russian policy." Marx himself, while on vacation, he wrote: "Please inform me of the progress that you have made in this direction." He wrote to Wilhelm Liebknecht (4 February 1878): "We have become the strongest to the Turks …".
About this unanimous anti-Russian position in Western society, wrote in 1879 NY Danilevsky. According to him, on the Turkish side has acted not only "bankirstvuyuschaya, stock, speculating Europe — what is generally understood as the name of the bourgeoisie", but also "Europe is democratic, revolutionary and socialist, from the People's Revolutionary Party … to the cosmopolitan internatsionalki."
Europeans rallied myth, though they had long been living side by side with the barbarian unpredictable train of thought which is not available for logical analysis. In the foreword to the book by L. Wolfe, "Inventing Eastern Europe" by A. Neuman writes about how Russia has changed this interpretation in different historical periods: "The uncertainty was her Christian status in the XVI and XVII centuries., Was uncertain of her ability to learn is what she learned from Europe, in the XVIII century., were uncertain of its military intentions in the XIX and military-political in the XX century. now looks uncertain again its potential as a student — is everywhere this constant uncertainty. "
Strikingly, both during the Second World War, the rulers of the warring nations sometimes expressed about Russia almost literally the same judgment. In January 1942, after a conversation with SS General Sepp Dietrich Goebbels made the following entry: "From the details that Sepp Dietrich tells me about the Russian people in the occupied areas, downright hair-raising. The greatest danger that threatens us in the east, is a stupid obstinacy of the mass. It is observed in both civilians and soldiers. Once in the environment, the soldiers did not give up, as it is fashionable to do in Western Europe, and fought until they were killed. Bolshevism has only strengthened this racial predisposition Russian people. So, here we are dealing with the enemy, which is necessary to hold the ear acute. What would have happened if this enemy overran Western Europe — that the human brain is generally not able to provide. "
And in England Churchill in October 1942, wrote: "All my thoughts are addressed primarily to Europe as the ancestor of the modern nation and civilization. There was a terrible accident, if Russian barbarism destroyed the culture and independence of the ancient European nations. While it is difficult to talk about it now, I believe that the European family of nations will be able to act with one voice as a unit under the guidance of the European Council. "
It should be noted that whenever Russia are involved in European or world war, even defensive, domestic, Western elite embraced the paranoid fear that the result will be a Russian invasion that will consume Europe.
So it was after World War II in 1812 in connection with the war, Marx and Engels reproached Russia, even those that are usually considered to be a noble cause — the liberation of the Russian forces the German territory occupied by Napoleon's army. They write about it this way: "Is Russia a shedder of blood for us Germans? It is enough to reward yourself later robbery and looting of their so-called help … If Napoleon was the victor in Germany … French law and management would provide a sound basis for German unity … A few of the Napoleonic decrees would be completely wiped out the entire medieval rubbish, all of serfdom and the tithes of all exemptions and privileges of all the feudal economy and the whole patriarchy that still gravitate over us in all corners of our many domestic. "
So it was during the First World War. Besancon wrote: "Imagine only Russia that won World War II, which won half of Europe, which received as promised her allies in the undivided possession of the whole of Poland, the Balkans and Constantinople: as a result we may have had to deal with that mixture of nihilism, extreme nationalism, racism and anti-Semitism, which subsequently gave rise to Nazi Germany — and this whole nightmare across the whole continent, but in addition sanctified religion! "
These plants were so well-known that even Kerensky, a Freemason and a Westerner, because of emigration began in 1942 in a manuscript of his "History of Russia", "From Russia considered a measure of its strength or weakness. But never a full member of the European nations in terms of the highest civilization is not included … Our music, literature, art addicted, infected, but they were miraculously brought up exotic flowers among the weeds Asian steppes. "
Based on all this, it is reasonable to accept that for many centuries, the ruling elite of the West evolved and improved stable view of Russia as different, alien and fraught threat civilization. There are no signs that this view has been subjected to revision, is not observed.
Recognized in the U.S. war of civilizations ideologue Huntington wrote that after the Cold War, the question of the eastern border of Europe was open. "Whom should think like the Europeans, and therefore as potential members of the EU and NATO?" — That is, according to Huntington, the meaning of this question. Responding to him, Huntington holds a "cultural boundary of Europe, which in Europe after the Cold War is also the political and economic boundary of Europe and the West," the line "for centuries separated the peoples of the Western Christian Orthodox and Muslims."
This line runs along the border between Russia and Finland and the Baltic republics, cuts the territory of modern Belarus, Ukraine, Romania and Bosnia, resting in the Adriatic Sea on the coast of Montenegro.
As you can see, the current Russian cultural space in Europe (the West) is not included.
Russia and the West: Paradigms of Civilizations 2011.