Undetermined background check to ensure MoD combat features of the new tank
The decision to adopt the tank «Armata» adopted must comply with municipal positive results of tests (GI). These tests are carried out to verify and prove compliance combat, technical and operational features of the new tank requirements of tactical and technical jobs (TTP) for the criterion of proximity wars. Tests organizes customer who is responsible for their conduct.
The main feature of contactless wars — the defeat of our tanks on the distant approaches. With all this blows will be applied to different ammunition less secure armored roof. Immediately the enemy will use microwave instrument that allows to apply electronic strikes in the decommissioning of on-board information and control systems and other electronics tank «Armata», which dramatically reduce its fighting capacity. These features contactless wars should be reflected in the TTZ to develop a new tank, and the GOP in the program must contain appropriate sections of the test. Old methodology GI Russian time (see «IEE» № 13, 2008; № 10, 2012) is not applicable to test features of the new tank combat «Armata» as applied to non-contact wars.
Creator has brought addition to the assembly version of the tank «Armata», presented in «IEE» № 14 in 2012.
Fig. 1. Alleged tank assembly «Armata»: 1, 2 — upper and lower front part of the housing; 3 — gun — launcher; 4 — the roof of the housing; 5 — Integrated dynamic protection; 6 — Suspension dynamic protection; 7 — zone transporting ammunition autoloader; 8 — capsule separating management from the commander and driver; 9 — power pack compartment. Source: beyond military review
According to the model of modern warfare
In the near future in the media paid much attention to the dilemma of development of Russian armored vehicles. It is understood that last year approved technical specifications for creating a family of combat vehicles on a single platform, «Armata». General Staff also approved the program from its proper development of the new tank, infantry fighting vehicles and other weapons for tank and motorized infantry brigades of the Ground Forces. New Tank «Armata» is planned to adopt in 2015.
Coupled with the fact the statements in the articles warlords and scientific professionals and production company «Uralvagonzavod» also control of «VNIITransmash» no binding features new armored vehicles to the conditions contactless wars. Lasts manipulation technical features (body armor, firepower, mobility), which do not include conditions contactless wars.
You can predict that contactless wars armored brigade will operate in the following criteria. Zabugornye of cosmic radar reconnaissance satellites will detect tanks «Armata» even in the dark and dense clouds in the criteria. Their coordinates will be sent ground and air weapons. Use of fire weapons will be preceded by electronic strikes based on the use of microwave radio emissions with a view to the decommissioning of the main parts of the onboard information and control systems (CICS), active protection systems (KAZ) mounted on tanks «Armata» as electronics army air defense systems, accompanied on the march and in combat criteria these machines.
Right behind electronic strikes follow shot tactical missiles and rockets Land Forces ATACMS (MLRS MLRS) with cluster warhead equipped with homing (SPBE) and homing (SNBE) submunitions. Immediately will involve long-range anti-tank aircraft, artillery, and requests that the availability of high-performance mobile air defense systems act close and short range. Some of the tanks will be destroyed before the approach to the band of contact. Broken through the remains will be subjected to fire using the ATGM and RPG BTS.
These conditions must be taken into account in the program GI. Since existing methods of GI fully tests do not allow the tank «Armata» that requires the creation of new techniques.
New techniques for state tests
The program and methods are developed based on GI TTZ and design documentation. If taken into account in the program GI conditions contactless wars, the following techniques are required.
First must be «Inspection Procedure in typical combat situations visibility (detection probability) tanks» Armata «radar reconnaissance satellites and other means of detection.» Now that we have still to this dilemma? Until now, the role remains a mystery «Wraps» made SRI began with the introduction of radar absorbing and heat-insulating materials, if found our tanks zabugornom satellite radar reconnaissance aircraft and distant radar detection (AWACS). Vsepolnotsennyh test «Cape» has been carried out, because you need to establish the fact of detection of radar satellites Russian intelligence brigade our tanks filled with «cape».
It is clear that the «Cape» was sold outside, because we can assume that zabugornye organizations conducted extensive tests «Wraps» by satellite reconnaissance and AWACS aircraft.
In addition to passive funds with the introduction of radar and thermal insulation materials necessary to make active locking devices functioning zabugornyh intelligence satellites. In this case, the procedure should be Section respective tests.
President, Director of the Research Institute of Science Academician Valery steel Grigoryan noted: «In real time it is necessary to apply large-scale efforts to visibility because it makes coming to ignore the content of tank parks stupid because of their inability to conduct much-fighting or harsh.» Since then, 10 years have passed, and WHO and is now there.
Verification of resistance CICS
By the second includes «Inspection Procedure resistance CICS, KAZ and other electronic means of the tank» Armata «from exposure to microwave gun opponents.» Microwave weapon capable of exerting a disastrous impact on the electronics of the tank «Armata», damaging and destroying electrical circuits (see «IEE» № 13, 2001). It is capable of striking electronics, even when it is off. Defeat microwave instrument, for example, a basic element KAZ — radar detection and tracking of flying up to the tank ammunition «Armata» ensures its reliable defeat ATGM homing and homing submunitions aerial and artillery ammunition and hand-held antitank grenade launcher rounds.
Coupled with the fact checking improving electronics installed on the tank «Armata» regarding the protection of electronic strikes, requires technique and microwave gun simulator with features appropriate promising zabugornye vivid. Troubling introduction of electric tank internals «Armata» and in military defense (guarding «Armata») brought from other parts of the country that will allow not increase the resistance of these systems from electronic shock.
Very principled «Methods of assessing the security of the tank» Armata «under the influence of anti-tank weapons.» It can be assumed that if the mass of the tank «Armata» 50 m (see Fig. 1)’s armor bottom (1) and upper (2) the frontal parts of the frontal armor of the tower also will not exceed the reference to armor-piercing projectiles (BPS) 600 mm and for the cumulative ammunition — 700 mm. 600 mm armor protection barriers for BPS means that this shell with 600 mm armor piercing does not penetrate this barrier. Together, it is obvious that armor zabugornyh BPS DM43 (Germany), M829A2 (United States) and other at a distance of 2 km superior armor protection «Almaty was.» Because we can expect that the strengthening of security zones front hull and turret «Armata» will be achieved at the expense of installation of DZ «Relic» (5) which, according to the developers, working against modern tandem cumulative ammunition and BPS.
To a certain metropolitan newspaper reported that the base complex «Relic» is a new element of explosive reactive armor (EDZ) 4C23 with the new BB. But the effectiveness of RS depends also on its design, and not just from the EDZ. Overcoming DZ «Relic» can be accomplished by shoot the precharge having 400-450 mm armor and providing 2-detonation explosive layers (see «IEE» № 45, 2011). Zabugornye spetsy have precharge shooting tandem warhead ATGM. So, in a rocket NOT2T (FRG), entered service in 1992, was provided precharge shooting, indicating bolshennom potential foreign experts to establish a reliable tandem warhead for overcoming DZ «Relic».
When the mass of the tank «Armata» 50 t hard to wait growth booking roof (4), sides and bottom. Of course, the thickness of the armor plate of the roof does not exceed 50 mm, and the boards — 70 mm. In general, passive reservations roof and sides coupled with DZ «Relic» will not provide reliable protection of the tank «Armata». For this reason, requires the highest level of reliability and efficiency of actions KAZ and army air defense in the reflection of the long-range attack aircraft and artillery antitank weapons.
Increased attention should be paid to long-range aviation zabugornye antitank weapons, acting on the tank «Armata» from the upper hemisphere, which include air guided missile system of the third generation («fire and forget») AGM-114L «Hellfire» (USA), «Brimstone» ( England) and PARS 3LR (FRG). Penetration of the main charge tandem warheads of these missiles is 1200 mm. Most firing range «Hellfire» and PARS 3LR — 8 km, and «Brimstone» — 10 km. Adopted the U.S. Army Aviation in 2016 should reach ATGM JAGM, which has the largest range of shooting from a helicopter is 16 km and from the aircraft — 28 km. ATGM JAGM must change consisting armed missiles AGM-65 «Maverick», AGM-114 «Hellfire» and BGM-71 «Thaw.»
In the past 2-10-s years in various publications was conducted advertising complexes enhance the safety of Russian tanks. These complexes should prevent sighting hit the armored vehicle anti-tank missiles of the second generation (complex optoelectronic oppression «Blind», the actual cycle is long since ended in connection with the adoption by the third generation zabugornyh missiles with radar and thermal GOS). Complexes must hit flying up, including the top, anti-tank weapons (active protection «Arena» does not provide interception BPS and percussion cores). In the end, dramatically reduce the armor-piercing ammunition and cumulative action of BPS. Complexes DZ pendant — «Contact» integrated — «Contact-V», universal — «Relict» had shortened relevant cycles. They were completed in connection with the adoption by ammunition can overcome these complexes.
Seemingly age-old problem of «shell — armor» has found a new shape. Active struggle against anti-tank weapons begins at the approach to the armored vehicle and lasts right up to the beginning of a specific interaction with the armor of the tank. But, unfortunately, the emergence of new anti-tank weapons now operezhdaet ongoing efforts to protect tanks.
10 years to reverse Valery Grigoryan, summarizing the activities mentioned below SRI steel article, said: «At the present day in the institute has developed a universal protection of the frontal projection of the tank» Relic «owns protivotandemnymi qualities and superior protective efficacy of BPS serial DPU type» Contact V »five or six times. Also provided protection boards and tank top from monoblock and tandem anti-tank grenades and light anti-tank in the shelling normal. Worked so called electrical protection from mines and anti-tank warhead with magnetometric fuzes and collective, local and personal protection of the crew from the secondary fragments. «But of these devices into service only adopted dynamic defense» Relic «in 2006.
Valery Grigoryan message for the Protection of the roof and sides of the tank and one-piece tandem RPG rounds and light anti-tank in the shelling of the normal can be taken as a very outdated. In service with the German Army Aviation PARS 3 LR guided missile system is 2008. This missile can be programmed to strike at the tank «Armata» top angle of the meeting close to 90 degrees. When the firing range of 8 km and armor piercing warhead tandem 1200mm roof tank «Armata» (4) is broken, even if it is installed RS «Relic». With all this action zapregradnoe cumulative jet breaks the armor plates can be measured width of 200-300 mm. In this case, the protective capsule (8) does not rescue the crew and equipment from defeat.
Need protection roof tanks at the Research Institute began to feel long, but so far our tanks remain virtually unprotected power pack compartment and roof of the tower, which blocks are located outboard DZ, do not provide protection against modern zabugornyh antitank weapons. Such a policy is saved since 1983, when there was a danger of the top aviation cluster cumulative elements with 200 mm armor penetration.
In 1983, the Institute organized a security check steel roof promising zabugornogo tank using the simulator, the design of which is shown in Fig. 2. During tests used aerial cluster elements 2.5 cumulative CO, which were installed at the next meeting of the values of the angle of the normal to the top surface of the simulator: 0, 30, 45, 60 degrees. To determine the actions for zabronevogo simulator installed package thin armor plates. The depth of penetration of cumulative jets in these armor plates zabronevoe determined action. For angles 0 and 30 degrees depth of penetration of cumulative jets were respectively 32 and 17 mm. At angles of 45 and 60 degrees zapregradnoe action was missing. Only such zapregradnoe action can save the crew of «Almaty was» situated in spetskapsule.
Fig. 2.Imitator protection roof tank zabugornogo promising introduction SRI Steel (1983): 1 — 50 mm anti-radiation knocked out; 2 — 40 mm of armor steel plate of medium hardness; 3 — of the box 2 mm steel with dimensions 260h130h100 mm; 4 — polymer block width 80 mm; 5 — iron clamps; 6 — 10 mm of steel armor plate of the highest hardness, under which laid element DZ 4S20; 7 — simulator with DZ assembly; 8 — the result of undermining aviation cassette element 2.5 KO (armor — 200 mm) on the surface of the simulator, Curb DMZ.
By the time the true results of research SRI steel armor and dynamic protection of our tanks were obtained using analogues zabugornyh ammunition, which were accepted as more Russian ATGM, RPG shots with 700 mm armor also BPS 3BM22 (armor — 170 mm/60 degrees. ) and 3BM42 (armor — 220 mm/60 deg.). Now these properties zabugornyh ammunition has increased significantly. So, armor zabugornyh tandem warhead anti-tank AGM-114L «Hellfire», «Brimstone» and other is 1200 mm and armor BPS DM43 (core material — from folframovogo alloy) is 350 mm/60 degrees. As modern analogues zabugornyh funds may be taken tandem warhead ATGM «Kornet» and «Chrysanthemum» who purposefully use under static explosions piecemeal frontal protection tank «Armata». But with peers zabugornyh BPS fared quite poorly. To assess the new tank’s armor BPS 3BM42 (armor — 220 mm/60 deg.) And 3BM48 (300 mm/60 deg.) Are not applicable. In other words, to test body armor tank «Armata» analog zabugornogo BTS is not available.
Missile and artillery armament
One of the principal is «Methods of assessing the effectiveness of missile and artillery Armata tank.» We can expect that the tank «Armata» will be installed 135-mm smoothbore gun — launcher (3) associated with weight problems. One of them is to create a tank gun barrel with spatial curvature and low vitality. These defects are increasing twice the speed drop on the BPS range 2 km compared with zabugornom standards. Curvature of the trunk is also increasing dissipation and reduces the possibility of BPS to enter to defeat. So Makar, create high trunks tank guns remains unresolved problem for our defense industry.
The decision to install 135-mm gun on a tank «Armata» can only be considered an attempt to reach the level of armor penetration BPS, suitable for zabugornyh 120mm artillery systems of Germany, USA, France. Back in the late 80’s — early 90’s, these countries have conducted R & D on 140-mm cannon and BPS. Conducted demo Accuracy assured increase armor penetration 140 mm BPS 40% compared with 120 mm armor piercing BPS. But since zabugornye tank 120mm gun still have sufficient capacity to destroy Russian tanks, their actual cycle lasts.
Application of the tank «Armata» ATGM, shoots out of the barrel, as it increases the range of defeats the purpose. But, according to the views of employees 38 Defense Research Institute, Doctor of Technical Sciences Gregory Golovocheva Colonel Cand.Tech.Sci Alexei Shevchenko, Colonel, PhD Vladimir Shirobokova, deterrent effectiveness of implementing anti-tank is that in a real fight the possibility of direct visibility at ranges exceeding 2500 m very insignificance («Military Thought», № 1, 2012). Apart from this, our size simply can not do third-generation ATGM.
In relation to anti-tank weapons, this technique within the GOP anticipates receiving the experimental method and features armor-piercing zabronevogo act. After that — using the «systems of initial data on vulnerability traits typical simple ground armored targets and damaging acts anti-tank weapons» (LED) and simulation — is determined by the possibility of defeat model zabugornogo tank. But said Russian LED does not contain features typical vulnerability zabugornogo tank, and informed of a certain number of tanks M1A2 SEP, «Leopard-2A6″, «Leclerc-2» M1A3 (see «IEE» № 28, 2011) and promising zabugornoy armored vehicles. With all of this experimental method to obtain features and armor-piercing zabronevogo actions previously produced using the simulators front (more secure) zones zabugornyh tanks, which were made in accordance with the governing document (RD 401.1.6-454-85) «Composition of the complex to assess prepyadstvy armor-piercing actions anti-tank weapons. » In this outdated RD not reflect the latest achievements in the protection zabugornom tank building. Lack of modern LED and RD, taking into account the development of tank zabugornogo not give a reliable estimate will allow missiles and artillery tank «Armata».
Information for consideration
Tank «Armata» is created between the level of development of advanced technologies zabugornyh intelligence, guidance and delivery of new compact with low radar signature guided anti-tank means acting on the far outskirts of less secure side of the upper hemisphere of armored vehicles. In the criteria of the sixth generation wars armored brigade can suffer huge loss even on distant approaches. In contactless wars seen brand new strategy to combat armored vehicles on the far outskirts of shelling by less protected armored roof. In a combat zone tanks «Armata» will not be attacked by an old zabugornom tactical aircraft F-15, F-16 and A-10; missiles «Maverick» planners aerial bombs like «Walleye» (see «IEE» № 44, 2007). Their speed will vary compact anti ammunition. In this situation, KAZ type «Arena» is not fully ensure the protection of the tank «Armata», for example, from SPBE with CU on the principle of shock core. Together with those in Germany for the tank «Leopard-2A6» created KAZ, which should provide protection from SNBE, SPBE artillery and aviation ordnance systems by jamming their guidance and liquidation approaching the armored vehicles at a range of 20-150 m, and in the upper hemisphere — 25-250 m
Lag in Russian KAZ parameters should increase the effectiveness of actions to fill an army air defense short-range and close-in fighting acts of promising anti-tank weapons. Unfortunately, this dilemma is not paid tribute attention.
The article does not reflect the entire scope of work that you want to spend to ensure GI tank «Armata» correct procedures, logistics and metrology software testing. Much work must be carried out to substantiate the protection and production of simulators model zabugornogo tank, also choosing typical peers zabugornyh ammunition designed to defeat tank «Armata». The main thing — do not repeat the basic mistake of the past: to evaluate the tank protection «Armata» old Russian ammunition.
Misha M. Rastopshin — Ph.D.