First, in November 1906 the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire, a draft decree "On some additions to the provisions of the law relating to agricultural land use and management." Its approved by the decree of Emperor Nicholas II 9 November 1906. The law was the basis of land laws head of government.
June 27, 1910 on the basis of the Act III Municipal Council and the State Council approved the law, which recognize personal land owners farmers who were members of the communities where excavation process stages were not conducted in the past 24 years. For the rural communities where there were redistributions, private property owners have to pay for the excesses of the average purchase price for 1861. In fact, farmers can get land on the cheap. In the process of implementation of the land reform came the division of the community. Farmers who want to get independence, it is possible to obtain land to build their area and get a huge profit. In the Russian village began to establish capitalist relations.
Stolypin's attempt to save the Empire
Russian Empire in the early 20 century, was seriously ill. This fact is confirmed one hundred percent Russian-Japanese War and the Revolution of 1905-1907. Our home was a civilizational catastrophe. Pyotr Stolypin almost made a heroic effort to keep the empire on the edge of a precipice.
Russian village stuck in the past, lived a large part out of the market, it inhibited the development of the country. Land was the property of the community, its often shared by slicing portions of each family workers. With all this community was not a "collective farm" — any family farmed their own land without the help of others. Taking care of the earth and fertility level of technical equipment were the lowest. Plus, the natural conditions — Our home is a zone of risky agriculture. As a result, the yield was very low. In addition, after the reform of 1861, to "liberate" the farmers, the peasants had to pay more than four decades of indemnity payments. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the problem of the shortage of land in the Central Russian Federation is constantly growing (with the increase in population). Because farmers have looked longingly at the country's land, the royal family and the nobility. Although in reality these earthen foundations were comparably small and not able to solve their problems in fundamental ways. But specifically aristocratic estates (the forerunner of the collective farms of the USSR almost) and allowed a huge part of the empire of commodity grain and other agricultural products. The exception was Siberia. But there the farmers did not know what a land shortage.
The community was comfortable for the country. The community did not allow its members to become beggars, holding back the process of social differentiation. Taxes were taken with the whole community, it would meet in court for the atrocities of their own members, etc. Peasant did not even have its own documents. But such a situation has a negative impact on the development of agriculture and industry. In other countries, this dilemma is solved very tough. For example, in the UK had known the "fencing", which almost killed the peasantry as a class. In Germany, all the land of peasant families only the eldest son inherited, others had to find employment for themselves in the town, industry, go to America, etc.
Stolypin decided to damage the rural community. The reform did not destroy commercial landlord economy, once permitted peasants to take their land to private property (the principle of "cut" — a piece of land, "chop off" from the land of the community). With all of this Peasant Land Bank of the country redeemed through the nobility of land, which are then sold on preferential terms peasants. In August 1906, in order Farmers Bank were transferred unit of land (the land of the royal family) and part of the state-owned (municipal) land to farmers following their implementation. Since 1908, land from the funds of the bank could sell only individual peasants (before the revolution of 1905-1907. Bank favored working with customers collective). Immediately given to the resettlement of farmers loans from the European part of the empire to the new lands in Siberia, the Far East and Central Asia. In the end, it was a question with the development of large land beyond the Urals and the overcrowding of the land of the Center of. The peasants also have allowed to obtain a passport without the consent of the community by facilitating care in the town.
Stolypin made a strong bid for the peasant, to oust the feeble from the ground. Increasing industry needed manpower. The Prime Minister sought to make so that the poorest farmers fell to the prepared place in the industry or go explore the virgin expanse beyond the Urals. The problem was that these reforms were too late. In Stolypin did not have time. And he is well aware. Our home was a great civilization, and everywhere the destruction of the community has been a boon. Stolypin because of the shortcomings of time did not have time to take into account local circumstances. As a result, digging foundations communities declined, many of the settlers were obliged to turn back, increased internal tension among the peasantry — growing hatred of the rich owners.
Events Stolypin was not limited to land reform and resettlement policy. Stolypin was able to knock down the revolutionary wave of terrorist raised by external and internal enemies of the Russian Federation (the "Law on courts martial"). The order was restored in the country, the attacks ended up wearing a massive temper. Was reduced autonomy majestically Duchy of Finland, strengthened the role of the central government in this particular region of the empire, who almost became the seat of the revolutionaries. There had been a series of reforms aimed at the harmonization of social peace in the country, the creation of the necessary guarantees for the rights of people, including the right accessories. Protect the freedom of worship, there was a process for removing all kinds of restrictions on religious grounds.
Stolypin was able to put the correct diagnosis Empire: "The opponents of statehood would like to choose the path of radicalism, the path of liberation from the historical past of, exemption from cultural traditions. They need majestic upheaval. We need the majestic Russia. " The Prime Minister is very clear and clearly led by the Russian civilization. This is her cultural tradition, stately historical past. The problem was how to move the civilizational (cultural) the
"Holy Russia" in the realm of politics, economics and everyday life. So, if you take the foreign policy of Russian empire almost always decided not national puzzles, played in another huge game. Returning to the Russian cultural traditions was (and is) the main link in order to save Russia from disaster. Because such a tremendous attention was paid to the peasant question. Russian village could either support the development of the empire, or to kill her. Stolypin tried to make farmers of the land owners. The need to return to work as a creative, not a heavy burden (where all the fruits of labor will take away or the weather, or the hosts). Without a radical revolution in the countryside, the base of the whole Russian society, it was impossible to make a breakthrough in the future return of the Russian Federation of its civilizational sense.
From the perspective of domestic politics, Stolypin proved to be a real Russian statesman, the highest level of geopolitics. He was an opponent entirely true rapprochement with France and especially Britain, davneshnim opponent Russia. France has moved closer to Russia only out of a sense of self-preservation, fearing the power of Germany. Love and respect for the Russian French are not experienced. Britain could not tolerate Russia more than any other state. A more sensible he considered an alliance with the German Empire. In developing the Union of Russia and Germany, a major war in Europe, the possibility of which was becoming every year more and more feasible, was impracticable. But at the Union Petersburg to Paris and London, the collapse of Europe into two hostile camps, and the future of the bloody conflict became inevitable. Pyotr Stolypin was a tough position to avoid being drawn into the war, buying time for the internal development and the destruction of the revolutionary movement in the country. Our homeland, in his view, was to hold the fort in the West and go to the East, where the products of the Russian industry to be competitive. RF was necessary to move to China, Mongolia, Korea, Persia. Premier went down in history as a supporter really Russian state policy in the international arena.
Stolypin was a disaster that he had tried to save the company, which has not actually lusted escape. The revolutionaries of all stripes pulled the empire into the abyss, and conservatives do not understand that the country needs an overhaul. The inertia of the decay and destruction was stronger. Because his death was entirely natural. This strong and distinguished man suffered a defeat in the struggle with processes that prevailed in several centuries.