Synergy and the Jewish bourgeoisie in the struggle against the traditional Russian society


Peter E. Astafev (1846-1893)

… We think that in a society which still alive the Christian culture, religious ideals are still alive, state, national, etc., and not pushed back in the end only utilitarian, cosmopolitan social objectives of life, began to struggle against positivism and utilitarianism and inevitable and necessary. This struggle against the principles and objectives of both, of course, goes to the fight against the representatives of these principles and the holders of the tasks.

But who in our time is such a representative and support? One if the Jews, as in Christian Europe almost to the beginning of the XVII century, when Jews did not have a shadow of the importance of world power, what it takes now? Far from it: in our time representatives of those principles that characterize Judaism — positivism and utilitarianism, exactly the same as members of the new and only in recent times generated and is alien to classical and Christian world and ideas, social ideas. This idea of the society that produces and distributes between individuals of good things of life, displacing today in the west of life is decisive and the task of the political state, and the ideals of spiritual identity and nationality, is essentially utilitarian, only positive and cosmopolitan. It is essentially a denial, and classical, purely political ideal of statehood and the Christian ideal of the highest recovery and development of the spiritual personality.

Representative of this new idea of our time, the idea of cosmopolitan-social, and a new force, worked out and finding a new time for yourself in Judaism only natural, powerful and richly endowed ally. This force, unknown to any classical or Christian world, purely social, but taking our eyes have the upper hand over the forces of political, public-natsionalnymi — is the power of the bourgeoisie. The natural spiritual neighborhood with her Jewishness, natural carrier of the same principles, and as a natural alliance with him by a new conqueror of the entire modern world, and now the Jews give the value of world power, what it has never had.

The struggle against Jewry, therefore, is, above all, the struggle against the bourgeoisie and its current domination.

We have seen that the features that characterize the Jews and giving it a modern life is of great importance and power of the essence, at the same time, and the basic principles of the created over the past two centuries and gradually conquering all of the bourgeoisie. Let us now see what position gives these traits Jews in our modern reality.

From the facts of this fact the biggest in this case is the most profound, fundamental and overarching difference in the whole spiritual structure, the nature of the Jews and of our people. The difference this makes is always utilitarian, formal, relentlessly pursued without the passionate impulses, entirely utilitarian tasks Jew — in front of us all the benefits of the exploitation of existing forces of life. It also makes it to the same extent utilitarian fruitless in the field of spiritual creativity in the field is quite real, (for directing our will), although intangible, incorporeal and infinite ideals. These areas foreign to Judaism, directed all the best strength and ability of our national spirit, as I have tried to show earlier in the brochure "Nationality and human tasks" (Wiley 1890), and in the article "On the dispute with Vl.Soloveva" ( Russian Journal 1890, October). To all formally defined, but only the positive and useful — part of the indifferent and careless, as part of this hostile people's spirit. My companion rightly gave this description of what I had said: "The full aversion to formal and positive. The growth of higher moral principle. Lack of will and perseverance for utilitarian purposes, and great emotion. I would argue that this people struggle with Jewry is absolutely impossible … other peoples, such as the French, the Germans, the British — are inherent part of Jewish properties: formal reason, will, utilitarianism, the word "moderation and accuracy." Our national character is almost contempt for all that.

Hence, we can not oppose any Jewish unity, Jewish sobriety, moderation, practicality, family, etc. Top We respect the Jews — a race the most defenseless. "

All of this — indeed my words and thoughts. Only conclusion to which I am, I come, I have actually, and somewhat stronger, and has inoysmysl than that attributed to me. Do not come to the conclusion that I do, that "Jew, if it does not deter the most artificial and strong measures will beat us in every field of practical life"-is considered other-but concluded: "A Jew will beat us in every field of practical life (meaning by the latest commercial and industrial life, the area of utilitarian tasks, operation, etc.), though it and held back by the artificial and strong measures. " I generally poorly believe real strength and durability action too "strong artificial and measures" on one side. I do not think, on the other hand, in order that "practical" life, which is always a Jew, by their nature, no matter what measures will beat us, as the strongest in its objectives, had all of our lives and in the public and People's sense — that our powerlessness in the first region, and it was our state and the people's powerlessness at all.

Any artificial, albeit a very strong measures to restrict the scope of the natural utilitarian vocation Jewry may be only temporary palliatives, very limited and in force, and in the duration of the action, and did not fundamentally altering. After all, in the life of the society are the same law as the power of the mechanical nature of the law, according to which "the action of equal and opposite reaction", and the latter is not possible without any display of force, nor its concentration and growth. Development solely in the direction of least resistance, and in organic and social life characterizes himself always decay, death. And almost two thousand years of the history of the Jews in Christian societies, not only to maintain but also dovedshy for that time prior to the development of their typical features of the struggle against all artificial barriers and restrictions would have to be sufficient proof of this.

Concentrating power of Jewry in closer circle of action, more closely rallying the forces and organizing them, all these obstacles and constraints can not replace any of these other forces in the Jewish character of the missing or give them a new, unnatural for them direction. Positive, utilitarian, umirenny and not creative, but only rationally exploit the surroundings, the Jew becomes more positive than just utilitarian, more reserved, and the like-but even more Jewish. The absence of other internal constraints began, but positive forms and laws, in distress, it only sharpens the invention of new ways, being coordinated with their exact letter, get their meaning, with a clear conscience to violate their principle.

Without loss, but only focusing and sharpening exploiting the forces of the Jewish nature of such restrictions in the real domain of exploitation, trade, industrial, stock etc.-and in ourselves does not develop these missing our forces, and we did not make more utilitarian and less emotional. Without these properties, we in this area, where they give the advantage, always one way or another, we shall overcome. And in the struggle of economic interests between the Christians — umirenny, accurate, positive and pure utilitarian Christian always prevail over the emotional and unselfish Christian idealist, bourgeois — over knight. The only difference is that here the people of our race can never be the same extent as wholly and exclusively alien selfless idealism and emotion, so unqualified and utilitarian as-Semitic Jew. We followed him, can not keep up. In this — his strength is in the field of purely utilitarian and economic challenges — the power, the values of which no artificial measures can not change until there is a Jew, so always on the same field in the struggle between Christians and utilitarians idealists victory will be on the side of the latter, while there are utilitarians and "moderate and tidy" positivists.

But natural, and — we think — no disposable Jewish celebration on this particular field of life would be complete only his triumph in such a state and society, all the forces and interests, all of the tasks and hope that in this field would be concentrated in the life-saving which it would have taken if not exclusive, the overwhelming, all the leading position.

Do all modern states and societies are? all they were mostly commercial and industrial? Everywhere there exclusively economic, social forces and needs were to the fore, pushing back the forces, challenges and needs of the state and the people with their non-utilitarian ideals? Everywhere whether members of a purely social objectives and principles, — the bourgeoisie, the petty bourgeoisie, the middle class commoners, slovomgorodskoe population — and are numerically dominant and has reached the guideline, the most influential element of the provisions of the population? Everywhere there descend from the historical stage nation-state and the political classes of the people, giving way to a clean living and economic life, cosmopolitan interests, society?

These questions for us quite ravnoznachaschie with the question whether Jews everywhere, of course, assured of victory, and the fight against it has become impossible, because the natural task forces and Jews have become tasks and power of humanity and non-Jewish?

The state of the modern West are we just such a situation: the gradual abolition and restriction of the state society, the interest of the political — social, economic, political disappearance of pure class and pure-national forms and ideals, a huge numerical increase in the urban population at the expense of agriculture and strongly dominant influence on the first all the general course of affairs-that its characteristic features. Here — wider and more convenient to develop career goals for the pursuit of natural Jews and for the manifestation and celebration of its natural strength and aspirations of becoming common, normal and for Westerners in general. Here the struggle against Jewry and the impossible becomes and increasingly unnecessary, passing in a simple, pure economic competition, devoid of all political, tribal or home — in short ideological coloration. Jew himself is already much assimilated to the surrounding, which has become more closely akin to the spirit medium: in France, for example, or in England, especially in the larger cities, it is almost impossible to meet the typical, distinguished among others Jews, like our Polish or Galician Jew . Jew here oevropeilsya as European society oevreilos, obeyed the Jewish ideals. The less everywhere and became the state. the people, the more the bourgeoisie — the more grew stronger throughout and triumphed Jewry! It is an undoubted fact.

The Jewish community in the Middle Ages and was enterprising and thrifty and richer Christian, without, however, and the shadow of the importance of world power, which she undoubtedly acquired a XIX century — the century of growth and triumph of the bourgeoisie …


Quite a different picture presents us in a completely different attitude towards the Jews put Russia. Russia — a country not of commerce and industry, but an agricultural. Russian state, "not infected vice representation," according to P. Leroy Beaulieu, and parliamentarism, has never been an instrument of social control parties, did not get their private property and not receded into the background with its principles and objectives before things gradually subjugate society in the West. It — the state still strong, even religious, political and national rather than cosmopolitan social. While Russia will remain true to yourself — and this we rely firmly and passionately — that is left of nation-state, rather than utilitarian-social, agricultural and nationalities, not mercantile-industrial, bourgeois and cosmopolitan — until it field, of course, beneficial for the triumph of Judaism and its task forces will be relatively very limited.

While remaining faithful to Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality, and Russia has the power to make this task your self, standing outside encroachments Jewish life.

These representatives of the utilitarian and social, not national or political aspirations and forces, that is, the urban population, the bourgeoisie and the commoners — in the general population are Russian-relatively small minority (about 15%), whereas in France and England, for example, This is not a state and not as quite popular and is now, apparently, it is clear, anti-state and cosmopolitan element of the vast majority (about 70% and more). And its importance and influence in the overall economy of life is purely social, responsible tasks and powers of Jewry, and which constitutes the open for his undoubted victories public arena element — we still comparatively — is negligible. Artificial his nomination forward, artificial encourage the growth of this state and not national, bourgeois elements and the strengthening of its influence on the general course of life, we are still very recent epoch of the last reign. This era also coincides with the well of the past, well-meaning and sincere perfectly conceived, but completely alien natsionalno historical samouprazdneniya began attempts, self-limitation of state power for the autonomy of bourgeois society, and it coincides with the increasing influence in our lives and with the triumph of the Jews! This is clearly the day. Fortunately for the future of the national, state and Orthodox Russia, the bourgeoisie, the most pure spirit akin to European social class — not matured and become more strongly dominant influence on the entire course of our lives (as in Western Europe) for this short period of its artificial creation from us. We still remain — and remain in the vast majority — no classes socio-utilitarian, but the state-national, with their separate objectives and ideals: zemledelchesky people and landowners, not the commercial and industrial aristocracy. Areas of interest and influence of these objectives and ideals of the nation-state classes that make up the identity, strength Russian soil — very different than the areas of interest, influence, goals and ideals alien to us and artificially inflated at us, as if created by ad hoc, devoid of ideals and every faith bourgeoisie, with its natural and inevitable, Mr. overall cost of our life one of these areas — equivalent to alleviate and control the other. Every measure, leading to increased agricultural and landowning — Nobility (not a bourgeois, commercial and industrial) classes — equivalent — in the overall economy — reduce the influence and restriction of the field of purely social, bourgeois classes. It is equivalent to the limit and always inevitably triumphant on the field of Jewry. Do not feel special Jewry needed here for the state and national Russian — is only palliatives — but the general barriers impending wide and devastating spill across the country the bourgeoisie and the flow of money hungry, predatory, all for the sake of the ruble ready raznochinstva. Where are negligible growth and strength of the bourgeoisie — are negligible and all sorts, to the same unavoidable by virtue of our spiritual features of our virtues and vices, economic victory of Jewry. How long shall not triumph over all anti-state and cosmopolitan bourgeoisie, not triumph over all the Jews and with his undoubted in their field is a natural and legitimate aspirations and forces and back. And from this inverse God let him deliver Russia, retaining its stronghold of Christian culture against the new social paganism, which began in Judaism are "his" utter and complete expression.

It is important that these aspirations and forces invaded in an alien and hostile to them, not bourgeois, not the commercial and industrial area. Where the latter is in the West, has captivated almost all my life and all the forces of society and the state, to deal with Judaism and there are no excuses and available forces in society are unlimited and unconditional triumph of the Jews — only a matter of time. But where, as here, the interests of the artificially nurtured social, commercial and industrial class is not balance the interests and forces of historical class of state-national, agricultural and landowning — there is victory of Jewry, and in a limited area of mercantile and social interests are not afraid. There, at the same time, and the reason for the most implacable struggle against Jewry should be any kind of even the slightest encroachment on its "peaceful conquest" in the world of agriculture and land tenure in the area of statehood and nationality. Not in the cities * 1) field of the struggle in Russia, such a struggle, there will not be any nation-wide or national character and over, no matter what measures, economic victory of Jewry and its assimilation to the private part of the same oevreivtemusya of Commerce and Industry class — but in the villages of ours. Here, if the fight will be, will be a struggle for the very principles of life.

Here, the "hands off" — definitely a must for the Jews themselves, if they are well understood and their interests, and their strength. Here — we win, for the spiritual power is on our side …

The Jews in Russia (the letter) is permitted to censor, Moscow, 13 April 1891

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